Courses about the origins of Usovershenstvovanija Officers
Material posted: Valetskiy OlegPublication date: 03-06-2013

In early January 1975, I arrived in the suburban town of Balashikha, where I had to undergo training for 7-month Special courses of the KGB of the USSR. These Courses were an Autonomous educational unit, which functioned as the faculty of the red banner Higher school of KGB at SM of the USSR of F. E. Dzerzhinsky (hereinafter - ESC KGB).

They have been given the task of preparing commanders of the special operations group (GOS) for operations deep behind enemy lines in wartime. During the training period, students had their special physical, fire, airborne, mountain, light-weight diving training, mastered the radio, special tactics, mine-explosive case, the topography, the geography, improving skills intelligence, studied the experience of guerrilla warfare and more. Every year on this learning as part of curriculum of national and regional Department of the KGB sent one operational employees.

From the large staff of the KGB in Leningrad and Leningrad region I was the only representative in this set. The employee Courses were preceded by selection and training in offices. On this account there was a special Directive that defines who can be a candidate for study. In each local authority there was a provision for such training. We were proud to be a part of spectraserv and tried to get on the course. I have to say that the vast majority of management staff were not aware of the existence of such structures in the security apparatus.

In those days, knew how to keep secrets. Valentin Dressing and Eugene Ivanov, trained on the Courses earlier, addressing me before leaving for studies, said: - You know, Volodya, if, God forbid, have to fight, it is better prepared to fight. Life has confirmed the rightness of their words. Losses among the graduates of special Courses during hostilities in Afghanistan were minimal, although our boys had to be constantly ahead, including the storming of Amin's Palace Taj-Bek.

The educational work of the Courses was placed on the ECS KGB. It functionally provided the Department of special disciplines that were included in the structure of the Courses, as well as a range of auxiliary support services. The most specific of their unit was a platoon individual training components, completed with conscripts. Their task included steps for the enemy in exercises, providing training, mediation in the exercise, maintenance of vehicles, etc. operationally Courses at that time was subordinated to 8th division Directorate "s" of the First chief Directorate of the KGB, that is Intelligence.

Courses in the functional activity of the organs of state security did not arise out of the blue. They were preceded by the experience... So, on the 3rd day of the great Patriotic war was created a unique special forces of the NKVD, which had no similar structures in the intelligence services of other countries, - Separate motor-shooting brigade of special function (OMSBON) who were in the Fourth (partisan) office headed by the famous scout, Lieutenant-General P. A. Sudoplatov security. Pavel Anatolievich Sudoplatov since the mid 80-ies repeatedly met with students and teachers of Courses. These meetings were warm and memorable.

He spoke on a wide range of problems of special forces in the huge actual material. About his speech, you can say that it was the speech of Professor vysokoerudirovanny. He seemed to merge with the audience. While never said a word that offended. In that period there has not been rehabilitated. But his authority among the KGB personnel was unusually high. It was obvious from the way veterans and current employees of PSU treated him at the meetings. His memoir - anthology of a broad range chekist problems. In the book "Exploration and Kremlin" (note the unwanted witness) he leads documented a number of facts important for the history of that set of barriers to various kinds of falsifiers. Approx. ed.)

Chekist guerrilla groups from omsbon had high combat readiness, discipline, well-organized intelligence, counter-intelligence and sabotage work behind enemy lines. The Supreme command, commanders of fronts appreciated the importance of information received from scouts of Omsbon. 24 scout Brigade were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, 5172 fighters were awarded orders and medals, many of the soldiers were awarded the States of Eastern Europe. The Fourth successor of the NKVD was created in 1955 13th when the special Department of the KGB. Then this Department was transformed into the Department "In". Did it originally: attached 1 to 3 - got "In".

This was the same division "b", which in 1967-1968 was headed by General Viktor Vladimirov, who later became my resident in Finland. Among other things, the division was named "In" - as many thought, and in honor of the Empress. Later, when Victor fell into disgrace because of a past betrayal, division "B" was subjected to another reorganization. The letter "b" is a bit rounded out, and turned 8 the Department, but the control "C" PSU. So all the reforms we have often passed. But this, of course, largely a joke. Actually every renaming changed and the tasks that were set for this particular division based on the international situation. In 60-70-e years one of the main functions of the Department was the preparation of spectraserv KGB for action in time of war behind enemy lines.

In 1965, the public security organs, the task of the political leadership of the country started to restore the system of the personnel reserve training command personnel of partisans-scouts. By this time, as it turned out, educational, material and other basis for the deployment of such an educational process was practically absent. The beginning was the creation in 1966 freelance special course at one of the counter-intelligence faculty of the KGB ESC in the form of a five-month fees. This course gave an additional name - EMF (advanced Courses for officers). The educational function of the course was carried out by the Department of operational-tactical training (TNA). The overwhelming number of faculty members of the Department were the participants of the great Patriotic war, more than one-third were candidate of military Sciences.

The Department was led by Ivan Moskvichev, Deputy Anatoly Isaevich Flowers. Moskvichev, as a rule, read the installation lecture on the basics and kontrpartiya guerrilla struggle led mediation device is command-staff doctrines. To the great merit of Ivan Ivanovich include the fact that he is fully provided material-technical base of the Department at the disposal of the course. This allowed, albeit truncated, but still conduct field training of students. A. I. Tsvetkov was essentially the chief of staff. The course involved mainly in group activities and exercises. With the formation of special Courses, its role has increased considerably. Professor, doctor of military Sciences, head of the faculty and special Department, he participated in the development of training materials for new units, as well as in Department meetings and lectures. But the main achievement was that all post-graduate students and applicants of EMF found in him a kind and demanding teacher who helped everyone: from choosing the topic of the dissertation before the defense, often acting as official and unofficial strike.

Many graduate students gratefully remember his help in the publication of various materials, which was not easy in those days. Ivan and Anatoly Isaevich closer in my life to the remarkable date - the anniversary. Both in line, in demand, working in the FSB Academy of the Russian Federation in professorial positions. Honorary members of the Foundation "kuos-Vimpel". A special place among the faculty, the course was taken, of course, post-graduate student of Professor Starinov, doctor of historical Sciences, Professor Vladimir Nikolaevich Andrianov.

He led a specialized lecture course. Was an assistant to one of deputies Chairman of the KGB and had significant opportunities in addressing both organizational and educational issues. Already at that time he had the textbooks and manuals on the profile of their specialization. It makes on us, the audience, the impression is: not to learn "by ear", and in the textbooks. Largely through his efforts and concerns of the course have acquired the quality that has been a stepping stone for transformation into an independent academic unit. Andrianov is the authority in science and in General in the KGB, speaking at the 25th anniversary of the Courses, said he has always been proud of the high rank of "Kosova" and treasured them. Vladimir Nikolaevich was one of the most important carriers of information on the history of the establishment of special Courses. He developed basic documents for the formation of the unit, reported them to the authorities (the Central Committee of the CPSU), repeatedly suffered setbacks, failures.

After some time started all over again. Can only lament that this valuable in ideological and administrative information is irrevocably lost. To make up for that now does not - of Vladimir Nikolaevich no longer with us. The first and only head of the course was Bolotov Chariton Ignatievich. He did the 4th year students. Of the graduates, passed in 1968, instructor training and spetstarifov, were later taken from the periphery to specifiku. Among them were L. I. Korol'kov, D. A. Kulakov, S. M. may, A. Washington, P. I. Nishchev, B. A. Piskunov. October 10, 1999 Colonel H. I. Bolotov turned 80 years old. Honoring the grey-haired, but cheerful, fun and energetic veteran took place in an educational institution - the successor to the EMF. In his name received a welcome address from the FSB, the foreign intelligence service, border guards, veterans Club "Honour and dignity", and many other organizations.

This evening he was surrounded by honor and warmed by the hearts of grateful to him, teachers, students and colleagues. And now back to the origins of the revival and development experience in the learning process on the course. After the first releases was accumulated positive experience, but it also revealed significant shortcomings. The main one was the fact that there were no conditions for conducting full-scale field exercises. It became clear that need specialized material base. Finally, and this is very important, faculty members are involved in activities with different departments, was not bound by the unity of the educational process.

Combat tested in crisis situations abroad helped expose shortcomings, primarily with the disagreement of the different types of training, the vulnerability of the used covers and legends, insufficient knowledge and application of communication tools, the pattern of the transfer, the lack of knowledge of local languages, etc. Lessons of Czechoslovakia, as well as other events of the late 60's-early 70-ies (the terrorist attacks in Israel, the Munich Olympics, etc.) has accelerated the development of proposals on creation of special Department on the basis of the ECS KGB, vazrojdenska the training of commanders of special forces of state security. In 1968, intensified the preparation for the conversion of the course into stand-alone organizational unit: Department-the Department of special disciplines. March 19, 1969, that goal was achieved.

By order of the Chairman of the KGB were formed SPECIAL COURSES of the KGB of the USSR (Courses). Lower level Courses had a signature stamp "Owls. secret", "of Special importance". In accordance with this fretboard while the Situation in full to work the head of the Educational institution (ESC KGB) and chief of Courses. All the others only in part, their concerning. The position of the Courses were prescribed to have three names: Special courses of the KGB of the USSR, the EMF (advanced courses for officers) and/h 93526. Name specific courses are used only in the KGB when it came to staffing and financial issues. It was therefore rare. The name of the EMF was borrowed from Later, of course.

It is well settled in the ECS KGB, and among listeners. During the whole period of functioning of special education units were used most frequently. This name, as already mentioned a few above, and given the right to be called graduates of "kosourami". Name in/h 93526 used for postal correspondence trainees, soldiers and even teachers. But the highest value it had when training students on the bases of the Soviet Army: airborne, mountain and Alpine, one.

All the three names, we must pay tribute to the "fathers-developers" that best fit into the educational process throughout its duration. And now many years later, if asked, for example, 50 graduates, they studied in, all 50 say, on the EMF. Two other names will cause trouble when you reply. In this regard, the concepts of specific courses and the EMF are completely identical, is equivalent in use. The courses have received permanent "residence" in the vicinity of the city of Balashikha of the Moscow region.

The object is famous because during the war there were trained scouts-partisans group P. A. Sudoplatov and I. G. starinova, including the legendary Nikolay Kuznetsov, whose heroic epic is well described in the book by D. N. Medvedev "It under was equal".

For awhile there SEAN - School special function of the intelligence, then 101-school of foreign intelligence, which was subsequently transferred to another place in the suburbs and transformed into the Institute, and then in the Academy of intelligence. Courses - EMF in its history functioned in the first phase when the ECS KGB (1969-1982.) and the second is the red banner Institute of the KGB named after Yuri Andropov (1982-1992).

Each of these institutions has left its mark on the destiny of the Courses. The problem of a possible transition from one educational institution to another was discussed and studied long enough. There were supporters and opponents of the transition. The main opponents of the transition were respected veterans of the special forces.

It was noted that ESC and Courses specifically very much the same, including the fact that both educational institutions - military formations. Institute of such a base had not, since most prepared scouts diplomats. Courses in the degree were was a burden on him.

Life has confirmed the misgivings of veterans, in particular I. G. starinova.

During the stay of the Courses at ESC has been a steady rise in everything. In the Institute relevant to the special Courses were warm, but the conditions for development were not. Hitpoints of Courses was large, but not unlimited.

Source: from the book of Vladimir Surdina "the special Forces of state Security"