The article "Scouts" of the authors I. D. Chapygina Horikawa and link to results of actions of reconnaissance units of the red army during the Second World war.
In combat practice, quite often the need arises with utmost secrecy to specify information about the enemy, especially on the division (part), located in the depth of his defense.
Conventional exploration methods applicable. Problems of this nature easier to just perform a few small groups of scouts or even select single men. Secretly infiltrating deep behind enemy lines, they gather intelligence surveillance and under favorable conditions can capture control of prisoners.
Such units perform tasks for the reconnaissance of enemy rear, we are called infiltrators. Their experience and we want to highlight in this article. Preliminary training spies was the main concern of the 2nd Department of the headquarters of the division. Head of Department personally, based on the task of exploration, conducted this training on the ground.
The spies were assigned the following tasks. The first group composed of 5 persons, commanded by a Sergeant zayakin, had within four days to scout FROM the enemy at the forefront of its defense and in the near the rear (on a certain site). The second group (three people) headed by the translator, second Lieutenant Nicenum, was to penetrate into the depth of enemy defense and capture control of a prisoner there. The validity of the second group of three days, beginning its work immediately after the end of the first group. The third group immediately after completion of work the second group followed, acting the same route, to establish if there has been a change in the disposition and actions of the enemy; the term of its operation - two days.
After careful study of the terrain and the location of the enemy, within sight, was chosen as a place of transition in the enemy's location all three groups - the gully at the junction of two enemy units in the area of location of the destroyed tank. Then the path of movement of the scouts walked up the gully. A detailed plan was developed for the transition and the nature of the movement and actions behind enemy lines. The exact route after crossing the front line (at the enemy) was not installed.
Scouts armed with assault rifles, grenades and bayonets from self-loading rifles SVT. They were given cards without markings and a compass. In addition to conventional clothing, each of them had an overcoat and camouflage. For power was given crackers, butter, sugar, sausage. The 2nd Department of the headquarters of the division have established the surveillance groups and places of their crossing of the front lines of return, and provided for the manner of their meeting. The first transition group, the front line was made at the appointed place (in the tank) in exactly the specified time. The scouts moved one at a time.
While one fighter was moving, the rest were lying, then moved the second, etc. Fighters have not been detected by the enemy, that confirms the absolute correctness of the chosen way of transportation. In the future, the spies traveled the slopes of the heights along the beam. This was ensured and the secrecy of action, and the possibility of careful monitoring. Intelligence accurately detected the location of many enemy structures, location of firepower: machine guns, cannons, mortars, batteries, location and actions of the bodies of health, posts, patrols, secrets. The group was forced several times to change the routes, because she had to go around firing positions and organs of health. Afternoon scouts, lying still, watched, and under the cover of darkness moved to a new vantage point, trying to avoid collision with the enemy. At the end of the period of exploration the first group returned, bringing the necessary information. It was a dedicated Explorer, who spent the second group into enemy locations.
The group then broke into the rear of the Germans, also avoiding their firing positions and protected items. The scouts gathered information about the location and actions of the enemy in the rear and took the "language" - watch, standing at six-barreled mortar (on the flank near the battery). Spies secretly approached him from behind, knocked him down, closed her mouth and dragged along. Alarm about the disappearance time the Germans somehow not picked up (by the way, the next occurrence of all four six-barreled mortar were captured at firing positions). Head of group (translator) immediately interrogated the prisoner, and received from him the necessary information (basically the part number and the connection number, their order of battle). To bring a fascist is not possible, as in the rear arrangement of his troops he tried to escape and was destroyed without noise. The group returned without losses, having got the necessary information within the specified period.
On her route was immediately sent to the third group, that, returning, confirmed the previously obtained information, and was told that at the time of its action any changes in the enemy's rear did not happen. Obtained from spies information helped the commander and staff to set in detail the location of the enemy and the weaknesses in his defense and to determine the direction of the main and auxiliary strikes, immediate and subsequent tasks when begun soon after the attack, which was crowned with complete success.
Examples of the actions of the spies, and our subsequent practice allow to draw some conclusions. A number of challenges associated with the exploration of the front edge and the rear of the enemy, can be solved by sending a small group, composed of refined, daring and determined people who understand the task and initiative and acting independently.
Training scouts to transition into the enemy position, and the choice of the place of their transition are of paramount importance and should be performed with care on the ground, preferably by the head of the 2nd Department of the headquarters. The route of action spies after crossing the front line can be identified only in General terms. It is therefore particularly important to establish exactly what items you need to maintain the most careful observation and what information you want to collect as a result of work.
Do send in intelligence spies with weapons, equipment, uniforms and footwear must be thoroughly planned. A very important issue, especially when you have to operate in adverse conditions (cold nights, wet places, swamps, river borders, etc.) When the action in the open countryside should provide spies periscopes. The absence of groups, whose actions are described above, it is very retarded observation when I had to lead him out of the trenches and craters.
It is highly advisable to supply spies portable radio operating on shortwave. This gives you the opportunity to get the most important information (of course encrypted) immediately. The detection of spies by their direction finding radio unlikely.