George Shore is the only one in the history of the twice Hero of the Soviet Union, which received a "Gold star" for military exploits, and the second for the conquest of space.
By the second decade of the twenty-first century space exploration were treated as a trivial phenomenon. Still the enthusiasm and admiration of the conquerors of space is not in sight, where more talk about space tourism Yes about regular failures of the Russian space industry.
In these realities the names of those who paved the way into space, gradually being erased from the memory of most.
From "pioneers of the Universe" remember Gagarin, Leonov, Tereshkova, Titov, can hardly be called a couple of names... Among them certainly not will be of Georgy beregovy.
This man was not among the first, but at a critical time for the history of the Soviet Astronautics the time it took, perhaps, the most difficult mission. He took the responsibility, being the most senior in the squad, the only one who came to him with the star of Hero of the Soviet Union on his chest, having military experience and experience as a test pilot.
The dream and the war
George Shore was born in Poltava, in the village of Fedorovka, in April 1921. Soon his parents moved to the Donbas, in the city of Enakievo, where passed the childhood of the astronaut.
However, in his youth Żory boys about space and never heard, but dreamed of becoming pilots. Dreamed of and George — started with modeling, being older, enrolled in the flying club. Received more mundane profession, working as an apprentice mechanic at a metallurgical plant.
Before the army George Shore completed her training at the flying club, so the recruit was a direct road to military pilots.
He graduated from Voroshilovgrad military school pilots name of the Proletariat of Donbas in 1941, when the war began.
Shore, like many of his comrades, was reassigned to reconnaissance aircraft. After severe losses in the beginning of the war pilots were more than serviceable machines. As a result of Coastal the time spent in queue waiting to sortie, exhausted from the fact that no can bring more benefits to the Motherland.
Graduates of flying schools, including Shore, was awarded the rank of Sergeant, officers ' epaulettes were given only after the beginning of combat missions. But on departure the pilot had to be in boots, not in the windings, which went Sergeant. Vicious circle — to boots, you need to become an officer and become an officer, you need to fly, and flying is impossible, if not boots.
Coast the problem was solved by sneaking out in the "AWOL" and stitching together a local master kind of boots from the boots and the remnants of torn tops. It looked awful, but the flights allowed it.
As the squadron commander of the Coast has put the Germans to a standstill
To the front, into the Inferno, George Shore came in August 1942 as a pilot of attack aircraft Il-2.
This plane is not for nothing he earned the nickname "Flying tank" is a reliable and formidable machine supported the attacks of Soviet troops, destroying Hitler's manpower and equipment.
But among the pilots of the gunships were the greatest losses during the war. The reason is simple — attacked Il-2 at low altitude, and fired at him from all possible weapons.
Not only damage the enemy, but to return alive yourself — that's the task faced by pilots of attack aircraft.
Georgy beregovy for the war was shot down three times. Once more he four days made their way to his, and when he came to the airport, pretty surprised the fellow by that time everyone was sure that he was dead.
But the Coastal pilot was able to squeeze the maximum out of the car, find a way out of most difficult situations.
Once a squadron of Il-2, commanded by Georgy Coast, when returning to the airfield was attacked by German fighters. In this battle the stormtroopers have little chance of success.
Coastal reacted instantly — he took his subordinates to a minimum height. Il-2 was carried over sunflower fields, literally in one and a half metres above the ground, jets of air cutting down the petals, which formed the whole cloud. To pursue Russian madmen, flying "against the rules", the German fighters could not. The squadron returned to base due to its commander.
From the bolt before the "corkscrew"
During the war years Georgy Beregovoy made 186 sorties on Il-2 for Sturmovik is a very high figure. For heroism, courage and bravery in aerial combats of the great Patriotic war on October 26, 1944 Georgy Timofeyevich Beregovoy was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
There came a time of peace, many heroes of the war dreamed of peace. Coastal peace but George never dreamed of, and dreamed of something quite different — the profession of test pilot.
In 1948, after completing the course the test pilot, he begins to learn a new technique. Career test-pilots have passed through his hands 60 different types of aircraft.
He was the first in USSR mastered flying in the face mask, the first have proven that getting a jet plane into a spin — not certain death, but the working time.
In October 1959 during the tests, high-altitude fighter-interceptor su-9 at Coastal jammed the handle of the control plane. Unmanaged machine needed to leave, but the pilot fought to the end, managing to regain control. When the fighter returned to the airfield, the engineers determined that the cause of PE was not some fundamental design flaw, and one bolt that interfered with the movement of the control stick. This defect is eliminated in the shortest possible time, and the plane continued testing. Shore and leave the car, question about what the reason, stirred the minds of designers weeks and months.
George Shore was able to take risks intelligently, pursuing an important goal, but never crossed over the fine line where smart risk turns into an empty boldness and gusatvo.
Engineers and designers sometimes frustrating vyedomosti the Coast, but they did admit that his professionalism was fully enabled to identify the pros and cons of the machine. Coastal always aimed to bring a new aircraft to such condition, marching to the pilots was easy to fly.
In 1961, Georgy Beregovoy was awarded the title "Honored test pilot of the USSR". In the Kremlin he was awarded a future Soviet leader, and then Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Leonid Brezhnev. And the politician himself, and others drew attention to the resemblance between Brezhnev and Coast. Eight years pass, and Brezhnev this similarity will save lives...
A war hero, a brilliant test pilot by the beginning of 1960-ies George Shore accomplished the feat, which was enough for five lives, full of adventure.
But Shore of peace is not a dream — in 1963 he becomes one of those who enlisted in the detachment of Soviet cosmonauts in the so-called "group of air force 2".
In the "space force" Georgy Coast looked like this "black sheep". He's thirteen years older than the first cosmonaut of the Earth Yury Gagarin. Among young drivers compared to experienced colleague woke up the jealousy. Sounds funny, but the Hero of the Soviet Union and honored test pilot believed that faculty. The fact that the commander of the first detachment of cosmonauts Nikolai Kamanin during the war he commanded a division, which consisted of a squadron and the Coast. On this basis, many believed that the commander was dragged to the astronauts of their pet.
Legend has it that Yuri Gagarin in the heat of the moment once said, "as long as I live Coastal in space will not fly". By the will of fate that is exactly what happened — Georgy Coast went into space after the death of the first cosmonaut of the Earth.
Training in the cosmonaut corps was given Shore difficult. He used to control the aircraft, and the first spacecraft pilot largely remained an observer. Coastal accustomed to fight for a car to end, don't loved parachute jumping, which was a mandatory part of cosmonaut training.
But he was not accustomed to retreat, continuing to work hard on yourself, catching up with younger fellow competitors.
Flight entire life
Meanwhile, the Soviet space started "black stripe". In 1966, Sergei Korolev died. Work on the new Soyuz spacecraft were tight competitors-the Americans promptly went forward.
The government get a move constructors, who had no authority, which was used by Queens. They started to hurry, which led to all new and new errors. The first three unmanned Soyuz spacecraft completed a flight emergency. It was obvious that "raw" ship to fly not ready, however, in April 1967, flight "Union-1" began Vladimir Komarov. The result of the haste was the death of astronaut and actually suspending manned space program of the USSR.
In the spring of 1968 to all misfortunes was added the loss in the crash of Yuri Gagarin.
Engineers continued to work with the Union, but on the Ground, "learn to fly" the spacecraft was impossible. Needed a new flight, a "good" to which no one dared to give.
Failures have crippled the resolve and confidence that prevailed in the domestic space in the early 1960s.
But fear of infinity was impossible. In October 1968 in the space should go unmanned "Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-3" with a pilot on Board, which was supposed to dock ships in space.
The pilot of "Soyuz-3" was assigned to George Shore is the oldest, most experienced, the one who had the experience of a test pilot.
"Soyuz-3" was launched from Baikonur on 26 October 1968. 47-year-old waterfront at the time was the oldest conqueror of space. Moreover, Coast was born before all people who have ever been in orbit, April 15, 1921, and this achievement will absolutely remain with him forever.
The launch was successful, but on orbit, everything went wrong. At the beginning of the Coastal flight was to dock with the "Soyuz-2", and go she must have been in the shadow of the Earth, in the absence of communication. Convergence was normal, but then the "Soyuz-2" has deviated from the parameters of the dock. Coast made several attempts, having spent almost all allocated to operation fuel, but without success.
The reason became clear later — as it turned out, wound up cosmonaut of "Soyuz-3" at dock in "upside down". In fact, it was a mistake not Coastal, and physicians, who had by that time sufficient information on the effects of weightlessness. On the first daily orbits of the astronauts is addictive vestibular system to microgravity, because the docking in manual mode is extremely difficult. Shore, a brilliant pilot, in the presence of earth's gravity could not face with the problem that occurred to him in orbit.
But even this failure turned out to be useful — doctors and engineers took into account this factor, identified Onshore in the future.
October 30, 1968 "Union-3" with Georgi Beregovoy landed safely in the Kazakh steppe.
Test pilot managed to pacify the temper of the "Union", which some have hastened to put an end. To this day many times a modified version of a Soyuz takes astronauts to ISS.
1 November 1968 George Shore became a twice Hero of the Soviet Union is the only one who received the first "Gold Star" for Great Domestic and the second for a trip into space.
22 January 1969, Coastal once again risked his life, but this time not by choice. On this day in the Kremlin honored the crews of "Soyuz-4" and "Soyuz-5", successfully docked in orbit and safely returned to Earth. Space heroes, according to tradition, was driven around the streets of Moscow, where they were welcomed by the people, and then carried to the celebration in the Kremlin.
In addition to the participants of the last flight in the motorcade was followed by other astronauts, as well as the leaders of the Soviet state.
At the entrance to the Kremlin cortege was met by terrorist Viktor Ilyin, who wanted to kill Leonid Brezhnev. Seeing the Secretary in the front seat of one of the machines, Ilyin opened fire.
But the terrorist was wrong. In the car sat not Brezhnev, and they are rather similar Georgy Coast.
The Coast shards of glass cut the face, but he kept his head here. Catching the wheel at the mortally wounded driver, he managed to safely stop the car.
About this story in the Soviet Union didn't say two decades, keeping it under a signature stamp "confidentially".
Word and deed
In 1972 George Shore became head of the cosmonaut training Center and headed it for 15 years, perhaps the most successful years in the history of Soviet cosmonautics.
He left behind many scientific works in the field of applied space science, several books of memories and good memories that keep friends, colleagues, and students.
War hero, test pilot, astronaut, scientist, writer, public figure — George Shore lived a bright life, without chasing after fame and popularity. In his life the word has always supported.
Tags: Russia , armed forces