The history of the Mongol invasions originates in 1211 with the invasion of Genghis Khan on the territory of the Qin China, and ends the year 1242. Then the grandson of Genghis Khan Batu (Batu), who won the Kievan Rus, unexpectedly gave up trying to capture the "country of the sunset, Western Europe, and returned to the steppe of Russia's future.
Most historians attribute this to political reasons: after the death of Khagan Ogedei, son of Genghis Khan, the Mongol Empire, a struggle for power.
However, researchers from the Federal research Institute in Switzerland Birmensdorf and Princeton University in the US suggested that the sudden retreat of the Mongols can be explained not by political reasons, and climate.
According to them, they managed to find the solution to this mystery by studying the structure of rings of logs of the Church, built in the Romanian part of the Carpathians in the distant past from the trunks of trees, protractus in Eastern Europe in the early and mid-13th century.
Trees sensitive to the slightest changes in climatic conditions - increase or decrease in temperature, sunlight, etc. All of these factors affect the shape and thickness of annual rings of tree trunks. It is believed that the dark rings correspond to adverse environmental conditions, and light are favorable, RIA Novosti reported.
Rings in the logs of the Carpathian Church pointed out that in 1242 the climate of Eastern Europe suddenly became colder and rainy, although some years prevailed very warm summer weather.
The result of these changes was the fact that the Hungarian steppe, located in the lowlands, turned into bogs, greatly affected the mobility of the Mongol armies. In addition, due to the rains and cold weather bad grown grass needed to feed the horses, which further hampers movement of the Mongol invaders.
Indirectly this version is confirmed by the fact that the army of Batu chose to retreat to the East through the South, along the spurs of the Carpathians, where it was then quite dry and where the grass is, apparently, growing in sufficient quantities.
According to researchers, all this suggests that the Mongols abandoned the conquest of the regions "countries in the sunset" in view of the fact that those were not suitable for their permanent residence. So, to retreat forced their climate, not political or military factors.
With the conclusions of the authors of the study agreed political analyst Rostislav Ishchenko, President, Center for systemic analysis and forecasting. According to him, of course, climate change can influence the story, but hardly one hundred thousand army, before that held tens of thousands of kilometers through a variety of climatic zones, could fold to such weather shifts. "In such conflicts won specific politico-military system, not the climate", - said the expert.
Tags: Central Asia