The concept of "the military-political situation" (VPO) is one of the most used in the study of military-political processes. In addition to the General staff, as well as scientific researchers, they actively operate such military publications as "Military thought", "Red star", "Foreign military review" and many others. However, the common understanding of the nature, structure and content of this phenomenon among military scientists still did not work.
In the military doctrine in p. 10 VPO referred to as the totality of interstate relations, and article 19 of the military-political situation at the global and regional levels was considered as a phenomenon subject to analysis along with the "state of interstate relations in the military-political sphere"1.
Military encyclopedia (1994) on the basis of the number of articles published in the period from 1980 to 19892, under VPO understands the totality of the characteristic features of military-political relations among States and other actors, including the armed forces3. Military encyclopedic dictionary, published in 2007, defines professional education as well as Military encyclopedia4.
Doctor of military Sciences V. M. Barynkin in 1999 identified professional education as a historically specific set of conditions and factors associated with the arrangement of military-political forces, the nature of their actions and the state of relations between them, the use of military force in the political order5. In his opinion, University is just a "slice of the inner political situation in the state (or part thereof) and the external international environment in some region or the world as a whole"6.
The evaluation of the doctor of military Sciences, Professor N. Markova (2005), VPO — a set of military-political relations of the subjects of politics and their military organizations, which is characterized by the level of threat of use and actual use of means of armed violence7.
Noteworthy that the Military encyclopedia, understanding in the totality of the characteristic features of military-political relations, others close to this concept the military situation and military situation, already interprets as a combination of factors and conditions in which the activities of troops (forces)8. That is the wording close to concepts like "the military-political situation", "military", "combat situation", have no common features.
As factors and conditions (without specifying which is which) shall include: the existence and content of laws, charters and other legal acts; the state of the troops — the composition, equipment and staffing, morale and fighting quality; and locations or basing their economic status, distance from the border, conditions for quartering of troops; the presence of polygons, etc.
Moreover, the article notes that "these and other objective factors and conditions are assessed and taken into account in daily life of troops,"9. This means that even in peacetime, the army in daily activities are in a state of "war". What then are different from each other military and non-military situation?
The factors and conditions of warfare related, the presence of the enemy and position of his troops, the nature of their actions, the composition of the groups and their combat capabilities, and the nature of the terrain, weather conditions, etc.
In fact, the definition of military and combat conditions laid down (in the form of factors and conditions), on the one hand, relatively stable and for a long time without changing circumstances (laws and statutes, composition and deployment of troops, their distance from the border, etc.), on the other — things change quickly (nature of warfare — the defense or the offensive use of WMD, etc.). This combination is heterogeneous in nature, the spatial and temporal characteristics of concepts does not allow to give a scientific definition of the phenomenon, the content of which has all these factors and conditions.
Thus, researchers of military and military-political processes while there is no single understanding of the political and military situation. Moreover, none of the reviewed definitions of VPO does not contain the necessary and sufficient number of essential features of this phenomenon that required by the rules of formation of concepts in formal logic, which constitutes the basis of rational knowledge. Moreover, the authors did not explain why a University they understand this definition and no other. In addition, even close to the VPO concepts have common characteristics with the situation at all.
This is because that the terms formed by the use of the researchers only sensual and not rational forms of knowledge, which is clearly insufficient for the formation of scientific concepts. In any case, the authors tried to establish a General, generic meaning of the term "the military-political situation" — namely, "environment", to identify its characteristics, and only then, by a logical operation of the limitation of concepts to establish a kind of "environment", which include IDPs.
That is why the definition of military and combat conditions require clarification, in which it is advisable to divide and be seen as independent, on the one hand, relatively stable, with the other rapidly changing phenomena.
As shown by our review of the situation with wording such thing as "the military-political situation" that every researcher in their own way considering that part of the situation that he is presented as political and military. And when different structural organization, even within a single Department report to the management papers professional education in a particular country or region, it may be that in reality, these papers cover different phenomena.
In this regard, it is evident the need of a common understanding at least within one Agency, of the nature and content of the phenomenon.
In the modern military-scientific literature to describe the different types of environment uses concepts such10as the domestic political situation, the military situation, the military-political situation, the military-strategic environment, international situation , etc. All share the term environment11, which according to the rules and laws of logic is generic with respect to all the above mentioned concepts. The transition from the phrases to the more General term "environment" in logic is called a generalization. In this case we moved on to a new concept, which has a greater scope (the set of objects that is conceived in this concept) and less content (a set of essential features that are included in the scope of the concept). What are the characteristics of the concept of "atmosphere"?
First of all you must specify that in all cases under the situation, we understand something that is constantly changing. Not coincidentally, this noun always used the verb "changed", "changed", "complicated", "normalized", etc. can be Changed in the first place relations as a philosophical category, linking the various actors. But the relationship may be in the form of contradictions (the relationship between the opposites/ entities), without which there is no development. The dialectic indicates that the contradiction in its evolution goes through several stages: the origin, development, resolution. Each of them represents a certain state of relations.
Thus, the dialectical method allowed us to establish the essential features of the concept of "environment". These include, first, the presence of actors shaping the situation. Second, the relationship between the actors. Thirdly, a specific state of relations, which is formed as a result of certain actions of the agents.
The entities forming the environment, there may be individuals, including the family, the community; groups, teams, organizations of persons United by a community of various interests, including labor, economic, financial, cultural, ethnic, religious, social, political; state and inter-state unions (European Union, CIS); international intergovernmental organizations (UN, OSCE, the AU, LAS, OIC, ASEAN, etc.); illegal armed groups and formations, which are available to the political opposition in a particular state; criminal groups including armed state armed groups (units, parts, connections, militia, police, gendarmerie, national guard, armed forces), joint forces of the various States, coalitions of States or military blocs (unions).
The relationship between the subjects and developing in these contradictory relations can be of family, labour, political, economic, religious, ethnic, criminal, military, etc., as well as core and non-core, major and other, inner and outer, antagonistic and nonantagonistic.
The contradiction does not come from nowhere. They grow out of conditions — such circumstances, which are necessary for the emergence of a new phenomena, including, for example, war, contribute to the appearance, but they call him can't. It is an objective for a long time (historically) the circumstances are political, financial-economic, military, geographical (territorial), demographic, ethnic, national, religious nature, which are States, peoples, religious or ethnic community.
For example, superiority in military power of one state over another — military objective condition of possible exacerbation of the VPO or even the beginning of the war, but by itself it does not necessarily mean a change in the situation. Accommodation in the same area of different peoples is also an objective condition of possible exacerbation of relations between them or even armed clashes. Objective condition can be the presence of territorial claims of one state to another. Inside the country, perhaps the existence of a large gap between the rich and the poor, and it serves as an objective, but not always sufficient condition for anti-government protests.
The relations have a large range between peace and war. In a state of peace actors develop relationships of cooperation, mutual assistance, partnership, and in the war used every means at their disposal means of violence.
Thus, a key factor in understanding the process of formation of a particular state of relations is the nature of the tools that actors use in relations with their allies or adversaries.
Means types can be classified as political, diplomatic, economic, financial. On character — power and soft power, military and non-military, armed and unarmed. In the case when we are talking about the state as a political organization, money can be power and non-military and non-military. Range of military means in this case is quite wide — from supplying weapons and providing other military assistance to allies, the threat of use of armed forces against the enemy, and even the use of the armed forces (in a military conflict or war).
Thus, a combination of three identified essential features constitutes the meaning of "furnished". However, for a deeper understanding of the subject we need in accordance with the rules and laws of formal logic to carry out the operation of division concepts (a kind of classification). This division is carried out on the modification of the attribute and dichotomous way.
The basis for division according to the modification of the characteristic is the characteristic upon which are formed the notion of species included in the amount of the dividend (generic) concepts.
Conducting division at the first symptom (subjects and environment), we find the following types of situation:
between individuals, including the family, the community (family, vnutrioblastnaya);
between the groups, collectives, organizations of persons United by a community of various interests, including labor, economic, financial, cultural, ethnic, religious, social, political (enterprise, organization, locality, in some parts of the country, in the country);
between criminal groups (in the village or its part);
between illegal armed groups and militias (in the village, part of the country, in the country, on the border with another state);
between States and intergovernmental organizations (regional or subregional);
between States and international intergovernmental organizations (global, regional, subregional);
between illegal armed groups, on the one hand, and government armed groups (departments, units, formations of the police or of the police, gendarmerie, national guard, armed forces) (in the village, part of the country, in the country, on the border with another state);
between the armed forces of different States, coalitions of States or military blocs/alliances (global, regional, subregional).
The division for the modification of the second sign (the contradictions in the relations between the subjects) allows to isolate the following types of environment as political, economic, social, ethnic, religious, criminal, military, military-political, etc.
Dichotomy (two contradicting concepts) in the third sign (the state of relations) allows you to detect the opposite state of relations between the subjects — war and peace.
Thus, the situation represents an extremely broad concept encompassing the diversity of the state of relations at all levels from individuals to international organizations. Installed features allow to define the situation as a certain state of relations between different actors.
The military-political situation is a kind of environment that carries elements of political means and means of armed violence. A rough analogy can be drawn with the well-known formula JI. Trotsky — "neither war, nor peace". VPO — this is not the complete state of the world, but not yet the war. Even the phrase "military-political", it follows that this kind of situation "grown" from a political (peaceful) and moves in the direction of the military.
In the system of categories the logic of the military-political situation is a narrower species concept relative to the situation as a generic concept. The ratio of the generic and species concepts revealed through the law of inverse relationship between the volume and content of the concept-ment. The essence of the law is that the increase in the content of the concept leads to the formation of the concept with smaller volume, and reduction of sodium to the formation of concepts with high volume. Increasing the concept of "situation" by adding a new sign of "military-political", we come to the concept of "the military-political situation" that has less volume, and have their own specific characteristics.
The main species characteristic of the concept of "the military-political situation" is the presence of military-political subjects, which form the military-political relations, certain state which is regarded as a VPO.
Military-political actors — these are political organizations that have at their disposal the armed forces or armed groups (even illegal) and defend their interests, including with the use of these forces/groups. These include States with their own armed forces; unification of States, including military coalitions, blocs and unions; domestic opposition organizations, movements, groups, including the anti-colonial and national liberation, with armed groups and make political demands (change of government, national self-determination within a given state, achieving independence and the formation of an independent state, etc.).
The second specific symptom of VPO is the presence of military-political relations — such relations, which are formed by the interaction of political and military forces. Doctor of philosophical Sciences, Professor A. P. Dmitriev military-political relations rightly defines as relations between actors (both within the state and internationally) in the field of creation, development and use (actual and planned) military force12.
The third species a symptom of professional education is the totality of such States in ways that are intermediate between peace and war. In such States, the subjects of military-political relations are prepared to use armed violence for political purposes or have already started to use it in some particular district of country, region or the world and to a limited extent.
The presence of the species allows us to give a definition of VPO. The military-political situation is a state of relations in the interaction of various political forces.
Other varieties of situation, form their own entities. The international environment formed by the interaction of the most influential and powerful political, economic and military terms of international actors, primarily States and their associations. It is influenced by the use of force in foreign policy. But as soon as international relations are complicated due to the activities of the military-political actors, there is reason to speak about the complication of VPO on a global scale.
The military-strategic situation shows the ratio of military forces on a strategic scale. It is formed by the interaction of strategic military forces (Federal military strategy) military units (unions) as well as States with the greatest military power. In the mid 1970-ies, for example, it was characterized by military-strategic parity between the USSR and the USA. In the initial period of the Second world war, the military-strategic environment was determined by the dominant position of Germany and its allies on the war fronts, and in a final stage of dominance of the anti-Hitler coalition.
The military situation is characterized by the interaction of military forces (Federal military policy). It develops in conditions of war or military conflict in the country or region. Although military force is used for political interests, in terms of the military situation in the first place out by armed forces or groups.
If we are talking about the military situation, then we should talk at least about the actions of operational or operational-strategic formations (armies and fronts), which determine the atmosphere in the course of the war (the adjective "military" in the phrase "the military situation" comes from a root word "war"). During the great Patriotic war, the nature of the military situation determined the actions of the fronts.
Therefore, the subjects that form the military situation, are the fronts, armies, army. The basic steps that characterize it — the offense and defense. The situation depends on the General balance of forces of the warring parties, against losses in the fighting, using weapons of great destructive power, scale guerrilla or subversive-terrorist actions, and other factors. The military situation is the situation at the front, folding in the military actions of the opposing operational and strategic associations.
If we are talking about a combat situation, we must not forget that the adjective "martial" comes from the indigenous word "fight" and the battle is a form of tactical operations. Tactical actions are only units, units and formations13. So the combat situation is the result of the actions of tactical units. In this regard, we can talk about a combat situation only in the zone of combat actions of units, parts and connections. The combat situation is the situation in a particular sector of the front, folding in the area of the opposing tactical units (up to division inclusive).
Political situation (within one state) form of political power (political entities) — state authorities, parties, other political organizations, movements or groups, religious, religious, political, ethnic and other organizations dealing with non-military means to political goals. In the daily activities of the internal political situation develops in the result of interaction of all subjects of the policy.
The main difference of the political situation from all others is that it is shaped by actors that do not use against each other armed violence as means of resolving political differences. The police dispersed a demonstration is not sufficient grounds to qualify the situation as a military and political. It's just a complication of the political situation.
Considered considerations give the opportunity to find out the nature of the situation in the country as domestic political, military-political or military. If the country at the moment there are only political forces, and the situation is political. If there are opposing political and military forces, regardless of whether you use military force, or only potentially to be used, the decor is military-political. But if the struggle of opposing political and military forces have acquired the character of war, the situation is classified as military, at least in those areas where there are military operations.
If, for example, there is an anti-government group, which has set a political goal (the seizure of power, the rejection of part of the territory of the state, receiving the self-determination of any ethnic group until his separation and formation of an independent state, etc.) and in the possession of armed groups, there are all grounds to speak about the military-political or military situation in the country, or in some part thereof. In this case, perhaps the situation in the state as a whole to qualify as domestic policy and, in a separate area (where the government forces carried out an operation or operations against illegal armed formations) as a military-political or military.
Thus, within the state, the political situation is, under certain conditions, can develop into political and military, which, in turn, able to transform into the military. Such a sequence is required. The political situation can not immediately acquire the character of military, bypassing the stage of formation of military-political forces, or forces. This formation happens in cases where one or the other opposition political party/organization has exhausted, in her estimation, political opportunities meet their requirements and began the creation of illegal armed formations (buys or seizes weapons, draws on his side of the insurgents, etc.). Due to this, the transformation of the opposition political forces in the military-political.
Across the region or around the world, where the main actors are the state with their armed forces and alliances/coalitions, the situation can be described as a military-political in those cases where the preparation for war, armed conflict or of military operations by one state (military Alliance) against another, or in some region across multiple States armed clashes.
Thus, the military-political situation is the species concept in relation to the setting as generic. It carries the signs of patrimonial concept and has its own specific characteristics. The main feature and structural component of VPO are political and military entities are using various tools to meet their needs and defend their interests, act in the system of military-political relations and form a specific environment.
As the species concept in relation to the situation as a generic, VPO has similar characteristics with the other varieties of the situation — political situation, military situation, the military-strategic situation, the international situation. That is why one kind of situation under certain conditions can grow into another, and this escalation can occur in the direction from peace to war and back.
These are the main methodological approaches to the definition of the military-political situation as a relatively independent phenomenon. A more detailed study of the analysis of HPE at various levels requires separate consideration.
MAKHONIN V. A.
- Russian newspaper. 2010. 10 Feb.
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- In formal logic, the notion is a form of thinking that reflects the objects in their essential features.
- A term is a word or phrase denoting a strictly defined concept and is characterized by unambiguous at least within a given science or related group of Sciences.
- Dmitriev A. A. Methodological bases of the General theory security//General theory of security: a training manual. M.: VAGSH, 1994. C. 19.
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Source: "Military thought" . -2011.-№4.-C. 3-10.
Tags: war , armed forces , assessment