Political terrorism in the middle East: historical roots and current status
Material posted: Publication date: 15-11-2017
Events that occur in recent years in the vast region of the Middle East, are considered not only through the prism of social and economic processes taking place in the world in terms of globalization, but in the context of geopolitical confrontation between different forces seeking to increase its influence in the region. In this article, the author reveals and analyzes the reasons for the historical nature of terrorism. It outlines the main reasons for the formation and growth of political terrorism in the Middle East region. Identifies ways to address existing threats to national, regional and global security.

Political terrorism in one of the most dangerous forms of "international terrorism" – today, of course, is a major threat to security at national, regional and global level. Numerous publications of recent years, no doubt, help to better understand the essence of this phenomenon, to identify the causes of the revitalization of terrorist groups of various kinds, to identify ways of combating this negative phenomenon. However, to date there is no universally accepted definition of "international terrorism" at the international level, and the definition of terrorism in national legislation allows only one degree or another qualified individual terrorist acts as criminal offence. A serious obstacle to the creation of intergovernmental consensus on the understanding of the essence of international terrorism is continuing and, until recently, in the plane of practical geopolitics is a system of double standards.

Today international terrorism is a global phenomenon. Terrorist acts take place on all continents, practically in all countries. Therefore, international terrorism is global, and the fight against it must also be global. In this regard, theoretical and methodological foundations of this struggle must be developed within the research paradigm of a scientific theory reflects a contemporary vision of world political processes and global development. As such, the author proposes a geopolitical paradigm, which is based on the principle that analysis of specific events on global and regional scales through the lens of assessment spatial power relations in a particular region of the world at a certain stage of historical development.

Used in this study, the geopolitical paradigm is the development of Russian school of geopolitics, bright representative of which is the outstanding Russian and Soviet scientist, orientalist, specialist in the field of military geography Andrey E. Snesarev. A man of wide erudition, and a polyglot, who received an excellent education, A. E. Snesarev has made an enormous contribution to Russian Oriental studies. Although the scope of his professional research activities mainly included the Middle East region, its recommendations regarding the necessity of studying of the East "from the inside", in a practical way, but without ignoring the theoretical knowledge, its approaches, methods of research the military-political situation in the countries and the region East and is now applicable in the practice of military Orientalists.

As mentioned above, international terrorism covers in recent years the entire planet. However, the most common terrorist acts occur in the region of the Middle East, in Western Europe, some countries of Asia. It is not a coincidence. In the article the author tries to demonstrate that the vast majority of terrorist acts regardless of where they occur, have their roots in the middle East region. But before you go to the support of the stated position, it is necessary to clarify individual concepts and categories, which will be discussed below.

As you know, at the moment there is no one totally accepted definition of terrorism. However, it is established that etymologically the word "terror" (and its derivative "terrorism") comes from the Latin "terror" means "fear", "violence". There is a point of view on the relationship between the concepts of "terror" and "terrorism", as expressed, in particular, doctor of philosophical Sciences, Professor I. M. Ilyinsky, in which "terror" is a repressive, violent activities of state authorities against their political opponents, and "terrorism" – a response to terror. Without questioning the validity of this approach, the author believes that it is more logical to believe that terror is a set of methods of violence used to intimidate, regardless of the subject of violence and terrorism is already a system of violent actions, organized in axiological, political, economic and institualization respect. In other words, terrorism is characterized by some organization that has political goals, the achievement of which sees only through violence and acts outside the legal framework. Actually, it confirms itself by I. M. Ilinskiy, when leads the definition of terrorism. He argues that "...terrorism is publicly committed publicly dangerous acts or threats that cause fear in the object of exposure and prompted him to act in the interests of terrorists pursuing certain goals".[11, p. 39]

The proposed definition expresses the essential characteristics of the phenomenon, allows to speak about its versatility. However, with regard to the topic it is important to clarify the concept of "political terrorism". The author shares the opinion of the authors of the monograph "Political terrorism: history and modern realities", which lead to the following definition of political terrorism: "Political terrorism is the achievement of a state (States), a separate political organizations, personalities, illegitimate, ideologically justified political goals (usually narrow) with the use of extreme odds and the means of violence, intimidation, total disregard of the accepted norms and universal values." [13, p. 25] From the proposed definition implies that not every act of political violence is terrorism and not any political violence, even with his extreme odds, is terrorism. So, fighting in the criminal environment, the intimidation of competitors, armed robbery does not have a political goals and cannot be considered as political terrorism. On the other hand, the violence used by the state under the law granted him powers, also can not be considered political terrorism.

A relatively new form of political terrorism in recent decades has become "international terrorism" is a global threat and the object of the confrontation of the international community. This phenomenon still requires its own understanding, despite the abundance of actual material associated with its manifestation. You can refer to a detailed working definition of international terrorism all the same I. M. Il'inskogo: "... international terrorism is motivated by illegal retaliatory acts of violence (their organization or assistance to them, including by funding or staff support), carried out by representatives of one or more States against another or other States, having a first end, the intimidation of individuals, groups of people or the entire population in order to achieve certain ideological, religious, national, economic, political or social results in their favor." [11, p. 40-41] Be sure to mention that the actions of international terrorist organizations are not always only reply, and they do not necessarily reflect any state or unions of States. In any case, the evidence of international terrorism are the transnational nature of the organization itself, its activities on the territory of several States and the threat to existing systems of regional and global security.

From the point of view of the modern theory of geopolitics, international terrorism is a special subject of geopolitical confrontation or, in other words, a new type of geopolitical entity. It first was said in the article of the doctor of political Sciences V. Ya. Volkov, "the subjective attitude of international terrorism in the modern geopolitical confrontation". [6, pp. 64-78] Y. V. Volkov believes that the main reason for the transformation of previous forms of political terrorism, turning it into an international and a special geopolitical entity are the geopolitical processes of globalization. According to the scientist, the essence of the process of subjective and substantive perspectives of international terrorism in modern conditions is that today it has acquired a number of characteristics that were not peculiar to him in the previous stages of human development. Modern terrorism in its international form today different from what took place in the recent past, the number of quality characteristics, which allow to speak about its transformation into an independent entity of geopolitical confrontation.

First, modern terrorism, in contrast to the previously known forms in which terrorist activities were only an auxiliary means of realization of political goals, increasingly acts as a direct means of achieving the goal, which is usually known only to a narrow circle of the organizers. Secondly, a growing number of terrorist organizations increases the level of their organization, strengthening the interaction between terrorist groups, combining their efforts during large-scale terrorist operations. Thirdly, today significantly increased financial and technical capabilities of terrorists. Some terrorist organizations have the potential, comparable in size with the capacity to solve tasks of ensuring military security of individual States. Fourthly, modern terrorism begins to take increasingly diverse forms. A special danger of terrorism in the information space, computer and telecommunication networks. Trespassing with terrorist intent to databases, computer networks, managers of large technological systems could lead to large-scale man-made disasters, and hacking into banking networks can cause paralysis of the financial system the large States and lead to the global economic crisis. Fifth, the merging of international terrorism and international criminal groups, recent, leads to strengthen of threats of a transnational nature. Sixthly, one of the most dangerous signs of subjective and substantive perspectives of international terrorism in the modern geopolitical conditions, is its direct involvement in the civilizational component of a global geopolitical confrontation. And the organizers of terrorist activities and some opponents, citing the fact that the majority of terrorist acts in recent years were committed by representatives of the Islamic extremist organizations are trying to interpret recent events on the world stage as a "clash of civilizations", first of all, the clash between Islamic and Western-Christian civilizations local.

And finally, the most important feature of international terrorism, the subject of geopolitical confrontation under the impact of globalization, is the network principle of organisation. This principle of the organization of control systems in General, characteristic of the era of globalization. Just look how the "Internet" how to operate a multinational Corporation how to apply network marketing. As evidenced by Yu. Gorbunov, until the early 1970-ies from terrorist organizations prevailed hierarchical (linear-hierarchical) or the classic form of building organizations with a clear Central conspiratorial control system: headquarters – district – region – area – operational cells, consisting usually of five or seven people. When the failure of one of the members of this chain was easy to take down the whole organization. The change of this structure came a different type of build, which has many names: shaft, structure, star, a bunch of grapes. A classic example of the network of the terrorist organization "al – Qaeda". [7, pp. 112-113]

However, in some cases forming a kind of "terrorist international", guide their efforts to create a kind of "terrorist enclaves" in the States where for one reason or another there was a vacuum of legitimate political power (Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Yemen, earlier Lebanon and Chechnya). Most major terrorist organizations have in their ranks a few thousand activists to create centers of training militants and is able to deploy a fairly large armed groups. Sometimes under the influence of terrorists fall of the government of entire countries. A characteristic example here is the rise to power in Afghanistan of terrorists from the Taliban.

Of course, the modern political terrorism is intentional and has an object of its activities the global geopolitical space. However, regardless of the venue of a terrorist act, and sometimes the authors of the crime the roots of international terrorism in the vast majority you need to look for in the middle East. The reasons for this are several, but the most important are the peculiarities of the middle East in conjunction with its geopolitical, geoeconomic and geohistorical settings and continuing for more than 70 years the middle East conflict in the center of which is still not solved the problem of the Arab peoples of Palestine.

It is well known that the middle East is a key geopolitical region of the world in which the interests of key actors in international relations. In domestic scientific literature to the countries of the Middle East include Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Yemen, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Arab Republic of Egypt, Sudan. In foreign, mainly English, the literature of these countries, together with Cyprus, Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan included in the concept of the Middle East. [5, p. 279] the Geopolitical significance of the region due to the strategic position of the Middle East at the crossroads of sea and air communications, and the availability of huge reserves of natural resources. The region covers the South-Western part of Asia and northeast Africa, it is located close to Europe. From the Persian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz and the Red sea to the Mediterranean through the Suez canal are the main ways of transportation of oil.

The Arab-Israeli conflict in the middle East remains one of the most prolonged and intractable regional conflicts. However, because of the strategic importance of the middle East region, a significant influence in the emerging military-political situation on security and stability in the world the question of the peaceful settlement of this regional conflict is becoming increasingly important. The practical solution involves the active participation of not only direct participants of the conflict and other stakeholders, the entire world community.

Central to the middle East conflict is the Palestinian problem – a set of contradictions territorial, political, economic and humanitarian nature, caused by the Israeli occupation of Palestinian lands, the lack of the Palestinian people a national state, the presence of a significant number of Palestinian refugees and the Arab-Israeli confrontation. From the solution of this problem depends largely on the security and stability in the Middle East, and therefore in all the world.

According to some, the middle East is the birthplace of system of opposition of terror. For the first time approached by the sicarii – the radical wing of the religious-political sect of the zealots in the Roman province of Judea (southern Palestine) in the first century B. C. Its name comes from the Latin word "sica", which means one of the types of short dagger, used to murder political opponents as among the Romans, and representatives of Jewish nobility who collaborated with the conquerors. Allegedly, it was terrorist acts that had a clear political motivation, focus and targeting. [7, p. 27]

In the middle ages in the region of the most prominent representatives of the political terrorist organizations were the Assassins, or rather the order of neoamerican-naturistov formed by Hasan Ibn Sabbah at the end of the XI century with its centre in the castle of Alamut, in the North of modern Iran. Assassins have carried out assassinations and were willing to die for their faith. However, in addition to religious dogma as a means of unity and encouragement were used drugs, in particular cannabis. Victims of the Assassins became the most powerful and protected person from among the Muslims and the crusaders. An end to the existence of this organization put the Mongol army of Hulagu Khan, who took Alamut in 1256. [7, pp. 28-29]

The roots of modern political terrorism in the middle East were laid in the early twentieth century, during the implementation of the British-Zionist project of colonizing Palestine. In the late nineteenth century Palestine was a country close to the national-ethnic and cultural-linguistic relations to the neighboring Arab countries of Syria and Lebanon. Its population spoke the Syro-Lebanese dialect of Arabic, and most of them practiced Islam. In the socio-economic life was a gradual process of the decay of feudalism and formation of the capitalist system. In cultural life was the "Arab revival", consisting in the rise of Arabic culture, increasing the number of secular schools and universities, the emergence of a national intelligentsia. At the core of Arab nationalism was the idea of restoring national independence was lost during the years of Turkish occupation, and the establishment of a national Arab state. However, this process was complicated by the intervention of Western European powers and the Jewish colonization of Palestine.

The Jewish colonization of Palestine intensified after the institutionalization of the Zionist movement. It took place at the first Foundation of the international Zionist Congress, held in the Swiss city of Basel, 29-31 August 1897 it was also announced the creation of the world Zionist organization (WZO). The Congress adopted the programme of Zionism, went down in history under the name "Basel program." She identified the main goals and objectives of the Zionist movement. The main ones were:

  • the all-round promotion of the resettlement of Jews to Palestine and the expansion of her Jewish colonization;
  • the Union of Jewish communities in different countries and in the Zionist organization, managed from a single center;
  • the development of a sense of national identity of the Jews; the adoption of measures aimed at harmonization of the plans of Jewish colonization of Palestine with the governments of the leading Western powers.

Before the first world war, Jewish colonization of Palestine was carried out by VSO and the rate of immigration was low: the number of Jewish settlers has increased from 24 thousand in 1882 to 85 thousand in 1914, [16, p. 200]

The situation changed when the Zionist project was officially supported by England. November 2, 1917 the British government issued a letter to the Minister of foreign Affairs of England Lord A. Balfour to the Jewish banker Lord Rothschild, which said: "the Government of His Majesty graciously refers to the establishment in Palestine of a national home (national home) for the Jewish people, and will make every effort to facilitate the achievement of this objective". It was further stipulated that "...should not be harmed civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country". [16, p. 201]

"The Balfour Declaration" was incorporated into the text of the Palestine mandate, which the Supreme Council of the Entente gave England a conference in San Remo April 25, 1920 July 24, 1922 the conditions of the mandate was approved by the Council of the League of Nations on 29 September 1923. it officially entered into force. The mandate gave Britain wide powers of control in legislative and Executive power, judicial system, foreign policy, allowed to keep its troops in Palestine.

The UK government has opened the Zionists the way to mass emigration of Jews to Palestine. The main condition for this purpose was the purchase and occupation of land that were "Jewish national Fund" with the assistance of the British administration. In the end, from 1919 to 1939, the landed property possessed by the Jewish population and Jewish organizations increased from 65 to 150 thousand hectares. the land grab took place with the simultaneous displacement of Arab workers from Jewish enterprises and the boycott of goods produced by Arabs. [8, p. 26] and the Impressive results of Jewish immigration. So, if in 1914 the number of Jewish settlers amounted to about 85 thousand people, by the time of the adoption of the UN resolution on the partition of Palestine, the Jewish population there was already more than 600 thousand people.

During the second world war, Jewish colonization of Palestine proceeded at a rapid pace, which greatly contributed to the Nazis unleashed the genocide of the Jewish people in Europe. In addition, the growth of population and economic influence of the Jews in Palestine, the formation of armed units of the "Haganah", "Irgun zwei Leumi", LEHI led to greater autonomy there are Zionist organizations, and their gradual transition to a direct confrontation with the British authorities. A General weakening of the UK during the second world war prompted the Zionists to seek a new patron in the United States of America.

It is no coincidence that in new York at the Biltmore in may 1942 a conference was held of international Zionist organizations. The resulting "Biltmore program" openly called for the transfer of Palestine full control of the "Jewish Agency", the lifting of restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine, the abolition of the "White paper" and the actual establishment of a Jewish state in all of Palestine.

"Biltmore program" was backed by 68 us senators, representing the oil lobby, the United States and advocated the strengthening of American positions in the middle East. And, although US President Roosevelt refused direct support of the Zionist project in Palestine, because they do not want to aggravate relations with the Arab countries, the strategic us-Zionist Alliance began to take shape then. During the presidency of Harry Truman, this Alliance began to take more distinct frame.

After the adoption of the "Biltmore program", supported by a significant part of American business and government circles, the Zionists actively went to the rapprochement with the United States. Using the auspices of a new and influential ally, the Zionists launched a terror campaign against the British. In October 1945, he was committed raids on the Railways of Palestine and 2 November, riots broke out in tel Aviv. July 2, 1946, the militants of the terrorist organization "Irgun zwei Leumi" has arranged explosion in a Jerusalem hotel "King David", which at that time housed the headquarters of British troops and the General Secretariat of the high Commissioner of England. Killed more than 90 people. After this had blown up an IRS building and part of the Jerusalem station. [14, p. 41-42] In November 1946, Zionist militants have organized the explosion in the British Embassy in Rome. Thus, historical evidence suggests that the first organized began to use the methods of political terrorism are not the Arabs of Palestine, as is sometimes trying to prove researchers are "Palestinian terrorism" and paramilitary groups of right-wing Zionists.

Being unable to effectively control its mandated territory and at the same time seeking to maintain its dominance in the middle East, Britain decided to bring the question of Palestine for discussion of the UN. Consideration of the question of Palestine began in opened on 28 April 1947, a special session of the UN General Assembly. At the meeting of may 15, 1947, a decision was made to create a special Commission to study the Palestinian question. The Commission has representatives from 11 countries. The Commission's report was considered at the II session of the UN General Assembly. The session reviewed both the Commission's proposed plan, the state structure of Palestine after the abolition of the British mandate. One of them called for the partition of the country into Arab and Jewish States with the release of Jerusalem in a separate administrative unit with special status. Another plan involves the creation of a single federated Arab-Jewish state with its capital in Jerusalem.

The result of repeated discussions and debates of November 29, 1947 128 plenary meeting of the General Assembly adopted the resolution № 181/II, entitled "Future government of Palestine", which was planned ways of solution of the Palestinian problem. In the section of the resolution entitled "Plan for the partition of Palestine with economic Union", provided that: 1) the termination of the mandate of British Palestine "as soon as possible, but no later than 1 August 1948"; 2) conclusion by the same date the armed forces of the mandate; 3) establishment in Palestine "in two months after the evacuation of the armed forces of the mandatory power, but in any event not later than the 1st October 1948" two independent States – one Arab and one Jewish; for Jerusalem provided for its selection in the isolated unit using a special mode; "implementation on behalf of the UN administrative authorities" in Jerusalem was entrusted to the trusteeship Council.

The resolution does not fully accept neither the Arabs nor the Jews. The Arab countries voted against the resolution on the partition of Palestine, because they do not recognize the legitimacy of Jewish colonization of this territory, changing its demographic composition. The leaders of the Zionist resolution was not satisfied due to the fact that she had closed the way to the extension of Jewish colonization of Palestine, leaving in the neighborhood of densely populated Palestinian people, is still numerically superior Jewish population, demanded the establishment of the final borders of the Jewish state.

At the time of adoption of the resolution, the Palestinian Arabs were not sufficiently organized and in terms of ensuring its national interests mainly rely on the assistance of Arab countries had already gained independence. The Zionists also had almost all necessary elements of the future state, especially its military component.

At the initial stage of colonization in the framework of the development and construction of the system control settlers there were two basic concepts of security mechanism. Supporters of the first approach has advanced the idea that the function of security must be entrusted to a professional body, first of all, a professional army, loyal to the British mandate authorities. One of the authors of this idea was Vladimir Jabotinsky, the leader of the "revisionist" wing in the Zionist movement. Supporters of the other approach was led by Th.Trumpeldor, advocated close cooperation between political and military structures, the Union between them had become "the Foundation of the nation, society and state". [17, p. 10] This idea was later developed by D. Ben-Gurion, who was firmly convinced that in Israel, without exception, must be subordinated to security interests.

By early 1948, Jewish paramilitary units of the "Haganah", including the shock wing of the "Palms" consisted of 36 thousand fighters, able to immediately join the battle. If necessary, the Haganah was able to deploy the reserve of the first stage (about 40 thousand people), and then reserve the second phase, which included all the inhabitants of the settlements, able to bear arms. In addition, by the time of the adoption of the UN resolution on the partition of Palestine, the strength of the terrorist organization "Irgun zwei Leumi" and LEHI was 2 thousand and 400 militants respectively. [8, p. 29-34]

In these circumstances, the Zionist leaders immediately after the adoption of the resolution № 181/II headed to at any cost to prevent the emergence in Palestine of an Arab state. In December 1947, the Zionists launched an undeclared war for the expulsion of Palestinians from their native land. Only from December 1947 to February 1948 by the armed units of the "Haganah", "Irgun" and LEHI was committed more than two thousand attacks on Arab settlements with the aim of forcing their inhabitants to leave their homes.

In March-April 1948 the Zionists started to implement the strategic plan Dalet, which called for the gradual capture of the territory of Palestine and the gradual replacement of her Arab population. Followed by a new attack of the soldiers of the "Haganah" terrorist group "Irgun zwei Leumi" in the populated Arab quarter of the city of Haifa, Jerusalem, Lod, Akka, in Arabic villages in Galilee, as well as raids on the premises of the national Palestinian organizations and the assassination of Arab political and public figures. April 9, 1948 within hours of the Jewish fighters shredders 254 civilians of the Arab village of Deir Yasin near Jerusalem, which was the highest point of anti-Arab terror. Military operations of the Jewish armed groups led to the beginning of the Exodus of Palestinian Arabs from their lands.

By the end of the period of the British mandate (15 may 1948), more than a quarter of a million Palestinians were driven from their homes, mainly from the most fertile areas in the Western part of the country, the UN earmarked for the Jewish state. They became refugees and settled in the Jordan valley (in the Eastern part of Palestine), Transjordan, Lebanon, Syria and the countries of the Arabian Peninsula. [14, p. 48]

The tragedy of the Palestinian people has been exacerbated during and following the first Arab-Israeli war of 1948-1949 since may 15, 1948, in response to the announcement of the creation of the state of Israel unilaterally in Palestine joined the regular forces of Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon. The Israel declared war on Saudi Arabia and Yemen, in the fighting participated the divisions created by the League of Arab States volunteer Army for the liberation of Palestine. Despite the numerical superiority of the Arabs during this war, Israel was able not only to maintain their independence, but also to acquire additional 6.7 thousand sq. km of the territory allocated for an Arab state. For its part, Jordan had occupied the West Bank of the Jordan river and East Jerusalem, and Egypt extended its sovereignty to the Gaza strip. An Arab state in Palestine was never created.

According to some reports, by mid-1949 from their homes in Palestine were expelled more than 900 thousand Arabs [10, p. 42] two – thirds of the Palestinian people. The complication of the problem of Palestinian refugees was facilitated by the policies of the Israeli authorities, directed against Arabs living in the occupied territories. So, on June 30, 1948 was published in the "Ordinance on abandoned areas", which included "the expropriation and confiscation of movable and immovable property in all occupied areas of Palestine. In November-December 1948 "emergency regulations" introduced the principle of attribution of ownership of "missing" persons. In March 1953, a law was passed for acquisition of lands confiscated from the Arabs. In April 1958 – a law on the Statute of limitations, which confiscated the land of any Palestinian, who went outside his residence, even temporarily. [10, p. 42] we Must recognize that the Arab countries contributed to the exacerbation of the problem of the Palestinian refugees, denying them the possibility of naturalization in their countries.

The consolidation of the Palestinians began in 1964, when the Arab initiative was established the Palestine liberation Organization (PLO). It happened at the First Congress of the Palestinian national Congress, held from may 28 to June 2, 1964 in East Jerusalem (then part of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan). The Congress was adopted the Palestinian national Charter and elected governing bodies of the Congress. At the highest leadership position of the PLO was elected by a majority of votes of the prominent Palestinian lawyer Ahmed Shukeiri. [3, pp. 20-21] this time include the formation of the first military-political factions of the Palestinian resistance movement (MPD). On 1 January 1965, the largest of them Fatah held its first armed operation against Israel.

Although the creation of the PLO took place on Jordanian territory, the most important role in its occurrence belongs to the President of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser. As a proponent of pan-Arab unity, Nasser believed that the geography of Israel is not permitting to establish a land bridge between the Arab countries on the Asian and African continents. The creation of a Palestinian state, the inclusion in its borders of the Negev desert (under "amendments Bernadotte") could solve the issue. Therefore, for this purpose, the creation of a single Palestinian organization were presented to the Egyptian leader needed. [18, p. 137]

However, if 1964-1967 PDS was on the stage of the organization and its activities were ineffective, that after the defeat of the Arab armies in the "six day war" of 1967 and the occupation remained under Arab control of Palestinian lands – the West Bank of the Jordan river, the Gaza strip and East Jerusalem – the armed resistance has taken a systematic and mass character. In 1969 the organization of the PDS, first of all, Fatah has dominated the PLO, expanding large-scale military-the political struggle for freedom and independence of the Palestinian Arab people, often openly using terrorist methods.

Thus, in the first decades after the partition of Palestine was only sporadic terrorist acts by Arabs against Israel, organized, as a rule, in the interests of the neighboring Arab States. A noticeable feature of the Palestinian terror began at the turn of the 60-ies – 70-ies of the last century as a consequence of the Arab-Israeli war of 1967 and the frustration of the Palestinians in connection with the failure to solve the Palestinian problem with the help of the armed forces of Arab States.

There are various estimates of the degree of involvement of the official leadership of the PLO, in particular, Chairman of the Executive Committee of Arafat in terrorist activities, but no doubt the fact that the activities of the combined political methods of dealing with combat operations against military and civilian facilities of Israel, which by its characteristics can qualify as a terrorist.

Among the terrorist acts, responsibility for which was carrying Palestinian organizations, most frequently met: the taking of hostages (including passengers), bombings in Israeli towns, an attack on kibbutzim and moshavim, the murder of senior Israeli officials. The most notorious act of terrorism can be considered as the seizure and subsequent murder of 5 September 1972 at the Olympic village in Munich the 12 members of the Israeli national team. Responsibility for this act was undertaken by the Palestinian terrorist organization Black September, headed by Ali Hassan Salameh.

In the period from 1967 to 2002 only the "popular front for the liberation of Palestine", "popular front for the liberation of Palestine – General command, democratic front for the liberation of Palestine", "Front for the liberation of Palestine and Fatah – Abu Musa" made 48 significant terrorist attacks. [2, pp. 308-312] in Addition, the terrorist acts have made the above mentioned organization "Black September" and "FATH – Revolutionary Council" led by Abu Nidal.

This time, the terrorists represented a secular nationalist Palestinian organizations. Terrorism was of a religious nature, and many of the Palestinian terrorists were Christians. The emergence in the middle East, and subsequently on the world stage of Islamic terrorism was associated in General with the increasing influence of the Islamic factor in the political process in the middle East.

During the evolution of the impact of political Islam on the middle East situation, decided to allocate several cycles or stages. As applied to modern conditions S. Ajib identifies four cycle. According to him, the first cycle accounts for 80 years of the twentieth century, when Syria was a large revolt under the leadership of the movement "Muslim brotherhood". After the defeat of the political Islam took the form of a variety, a small number of fundamentalist organizations and terrorist bias. The second cycle (late 80s – early 90s) was linked to the lack of significant results in domestic and foreign policy of Arab countries led by nationalist and socialist governments and the emergence of Islamist parties and movements who claimed to be a replacement of existing conditions. The third cycle was caused by the dominance of globalization (mid 90-ies of XX century – the beginning of XXI century). At this time, the Islamic factor was manifested in the actions of terrorist organizations created by network basis, such as "al-Qaeda". The fourth cycle is present. The impetus for the growth of the influence of the Islamic factor in the political process in the middle East was US military intervention in Iraq and Afghanistan and the events of the "Arab spring". It is characterized by the capture of the Islamist extremist extremely significant territories in which the influence of a legitimate government in the course of these events wason significantly weakenedabout (ISIS, Islamic state in southern Yemen, etc.). [1, p. 210]

In the late 80-ies of the last century in the Palestinian resistance movement in the Israeli-occupied territories appear Islamic organizations Islamic Jihad and Hamas to continue terrorist activity in spite of created during the peace process the Palestinian authority and the tendency of the prospective establishment of an independent Palestinian state. Moreover, as a result of the split in the ranks of the Palestinian national authority Hamas actually seized power in the Gaza strip, where from time to time commit armed provocations against Israel.

Organization "Islamic Jihad" emerged in 1979 – the year of the victory of the Islamic revolution in Iran. The ideological platform of the organization, founded by Palestinian Sheikh A. N. Dervish was formed under the influence of two major sources. The first was the concept of "revolutionary Islam" Ayatollah Khomeini, who proclaimed the liberation of Jerusalem one of the major goals of the "Islamic revolution". Another source of the ideology of the "Islamic Jihad" was the teaching of the famous theoretician of the Syrian "Muslim Brothers" said eve, speaking in the second half of the 60s with the idea of the necessity of the forcible overthrow of the "anti-Islamic" ruling regimes. In 1988, several radical Islamic groups United into the "Islamic resistance Movement" Hamas, headed by Sheikh Ahmed Yassin – one of the leaders of the international movement "Muslim brotherhood". Hamas, considering himself an alternative to the PLO, in favor of the establishment in Palestine of the Islamic state. [15, p. 115-116] the Convincing victory of Hamas in the parliamentary elections of 2006 allowed the Islamists to form a government of autonomy, but in doing so has led to relative isolation of the Palestinian authority by Israel, the United States, several European countries.

Radicalization of Palestinian Islamic groups contributes to the growth of terrorist activity against Israelis that is happening in the framework of global trends in terms of subjective and substantive perspectives of international terrorism in the modern geopolitical confrontation. As the authors of a study conducted by staff of the Institute for strategic assessments and analysis, the results of the parliamentary elections in Palestine and Israel, financial blockade formed Hamas government of the Palestinian authority by the US, Israel and EU, the uncompromising position of the leaders of Hamas unwilling to recognize Israel and to renounce armed struggle against him, the military action that commenced in Palestine and Lebanon by the Israeli army showed that in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, the Arab-Israeli conflict and the whole situation in the middle East has entered a new phase. Its characteristic feature is the increasing influence of Islamic radical and similar organizations, the process of their legitimization and entry into formal structures of power and even the conquest of power through democratic elections. At the same time was observed and the process of radicalization of the political spectrum in Israel, where intensified right-wing parties. [9, pp. 224-225]

Of the upsurge of Islamic terrorism in its modern form was facilitated by US policy in the "democratization" of the greater Middle East. The consequence of this policy was a direct armed intervention in Iraq to overthrow a relatively stable secular regime of Saddam Hussein, attempts the removal from power of Bashar al-Assad during the Syrian conflict, direct support of Islamist organizations in their anti-government protests in various Arab countries. In the framework of US policy in the middle East was triggered by the events of the "Arab spring" that led to the destabilization of the secular political regimes in some Arab countries and the exit to the forefront of Islamist political forces, often of an extremist. Due to the erosion of state sovereignty, Islamist terrorist organization managed to capture significant territory in Iraq and Syria, where he started to establish their own rules for example of a medieval Caliphate.

Assessing American middle East policy that led to chaos and increased terrorism in the middle East, the Syrian military analyst H. Iskander said: "the Events of the "Arab spring" led to the weakening of Arab States, chaos, split, dwindling resources, the growth of religious extremism. What is happening in the region is the establishment of freedom and democracy. It is implementation of plans to create a "New Middle East" by splitting its States into small ethnic and religious groups that only serve American and Israeli interests as the policy of these countries can not be implemented if the middle East will be stable." [12, p. 35] This statement underscores that the middle East policy of the United States aimed at comprehensive support of Israel, which, in turn, acts as a guarantor of American interests. This means that the growth of terrorism in the region, as one of the results of American policy is directly related to the unresolved Arab-Israeli conflict.

The two largest today, Islamic terrorist groups ISIS and al-Qaeda with its many branches, including those operating in Syria of the organization "Dzhabhat EN-Nusra" also was largely the product of American middle East policy. "In the 11 years since the U.S. invasion of Iraq, jihadist groups, having mastered a variety of techniques of warfare, proved his tenacity, ability to adapt to changing situations and the determination to continue the struggle," say the authors of volume work "the Islamic state: Army of terror." [4, p. 300]

The analysis of the origins of modern political terrorism in the middle East allows you to define ways to address existing threats to national, regional and global security. Of course, this needs to be a set of measures aimed at addressing the causes of the phenomenon of "international terrorism". As the threat of terrorism is global, and protection against it must be waged globally. On this basis, the proposed measures can be grouped into several groups.

The first group includes measures of political and international-legal nature. These include: reaching an international consensus on the advisability of streamlining the processes of globalization, maintaining the position of States as the main geopolitical actors, the introduction of geopolitical confrontation in a civilized framework of dialogue between the subjects, preventing the aggravation of confrontation between the local civilizations. The second group is measures of an economic nature, namely the suppression of the financing of terrorist organizations. The third group consists of measures of a military and technical nature: the physical elimination of terrorists, the destruction of their organizational structures, conducting large-scale counter-terrorism operations, a strengthening of the traditional measures of protecting citizens and facilities against possible terrorist attacks. The fourth group measures awareness-raising measures aimed at achieving a victory against the ideology of terrorism in the information space.

Finally, it is necessary to eliminate the source of international terrorism – to achieve a just settlement of the regional conflict in the middle East, Central to which is the Palestinian problem. It can be solved only in the context of General middle East settlement, subject to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state, its security and economic prosperity. While in the middle East should be established such a system of regional security, which would guarantee the security of every state in the region.

Thus, it can be noted that at the present stage of development of the military-political situation in the world, much active terrorist organization, which is a sustainable associations that pursue political goals of global or regional scale, the achievement of which involves not only the use of terrorist methods, but also information and psychological. All of this suggests that the specialists and analysts is a complex set of tasks for the collection, analysis and compilation of data for timely opening alarming trends, their focus and definition of military-political activity in the interests of ensuring national security of the Russian Federation and its allies [19, p. 387].


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Irina Belokopytov

Tags: assessment , Syria , A.Snesariev's competition , Near East , terrorism , winner work of a competition of A.E.Snesarev