Features the work of PMCs and their activities in Africa
Material posted: Valetskiy OlegPublication date: 18-03-2013
On private military companies is now quite a lot written,but oddly enough in Russian Federation this topic is not well known,which leaves room for different pseudosclerotia publishing his opus based on the fact that in the Russian Federation this activity is not legal because you can write whatever came into our head.

In this case, there is no point in repeating the story of the emergence of PMCs in the world,especially as it is described by the author in the article "Private military companies, their creation and development-experience in Iraq, Afghanistan, Africa and other regions of the world."

Should still be in General terms will relate the main stages in their development.

In its present form the market themselves PMCs created in the wars in Afghanistan (since 2001) and Iraq (since 2003) where private military companies have received contracts directly from the ministries and departments of the governments of the USA and the UK (Department of State, U. S. Agency for International Development,Department of Defence) and various departments of the army U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, Logistics Civil Augmentation Program, U.S. Army Contracting Agency) and UN (UNICEF, UNHCR, UNDP), the world health organization (World Health Organization) and from the new governments of Afghanistan and Iraq,as well as from various Western companies udavshihsya issues of oil production, transport, energy and water, are also attracted to the protection of his PMCs.

To the actual conduct of combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have a small number of companies involved in either the preparation of the armies and police of Iraq and Afghanistan or transportation including air or guard of some military bases.

It should be noted that the Anglo-Saxon model of the United States army is deeply different from the model adopted by the army in Europe, and the us army in fact represents a large Corporation, which traditionally takes advantage of how roughly speaking contractors other corporations-both private and public.

Vsilu that those spheres of activities of the armed forces which in Europe traditionally were in charge of different military departments and the armed forces in the United States army now assigned to the jurisdiction of private companies.

So for example the logistic support of the us army in some regions of the world since 1992 carried out privately by painting tender U.S. engineering corps-"United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)".

With regard to the main activities of PMCs in vedeniyu security activities, we should distinguish between two essentially different spheres of activity,one primarily working for private companies or public agencies for support as "customers", called "Personal Security Detail"(although in the US army this activity is called a Protective Services Detail) and in support of convoys and the other consisting in the protection of objects in the interests of the American army called "Static guard".

The US army is part of the objectives for the protection of its own military bases handed over to private companies and accordingly, if in the case of the security clients and the escort workers of the PMC are part of the commercial sector in the case of the security bases of the U.S. army,employees of PMCs are part of the U.S. army with rights and duties.

As for the commercial sector in this case PMCs leading the work protection of objects under contracts with commercial entities or with the U.S. army,first U.S. corps of engineers-"United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)",or finally getting contracts from agencies of the United Nations or other international organizations in the framework of the reconstruction of Afghanistan.

 

In this case, it should be remembered that the activity data of PMC is divided into several areas,fairly distant from each other and the companies specializing on one of them properly or deep enough this differ from companies specializing in the other direction,which again does not deny the possibility that one company may operate several such areas.

So the company "EOD Technology" beginning in demining projects in Africa,then engaged in Iraq protecting convoys and customers and since 2006 together with the company "Triple Canopy, "SOC-SMG" and "Sabre" was performed before the withdrawal of US army from Iraq in December 2011 protection of almost all us military bases in Iraq and a significant number of such bases in Afghanistan.

Important role in the protection of objects of infrastructure and diplomatic missions also play company "G4S","Armor Group" and "Global Strategies Group" which thereby to some extent also act in the interests of the U.S. army.

In the past few years, a new type of PMCs-the fight against improvised explosive devices-IEDs, or in American terminology-IED(Improvised Explosive Device).The very emergence of a market for combating Counter IEDs, or Improvised Explosive Device (CIED) due to the growing scale of data application of IEDs in the wars in Iraq,Afghanistan and Somalia while after Otavsky conventions and decommissioning of anti-personnel mines and the termination of the management training .With the war in Iraq was the creation of the organization in the U.S. army responsible for programmes to develop means of struggle against IEDs, and the lofs which is called Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) at Fort Irwin, led by General Montgomery MiGs.

Under this program, the market for PMCs and so in this field began their work At Solutions,Raytheon, MPRI,Roncо and Aktarius Technical Services

Absolutely the question of the training of the armed forces of foreign States in the sphere of activities of PMCs is a rare activity and, accordingly, experienced specialists in this field have more than a limited number and the number of companies here are small and as one of the first of this kind we can mention an American company, "Vinnell Corp." owned by military-industrial concern "Northrop Grumman" which in 1974 received a contract to train the National guard of Saudi Arabia,in whose jurisdiction was the protection of petroleum development in Saudi Arabia.

However, more revealing experience of the South African company "Executive Outcomes" were in Angola in 1993 a contract worth $ 30 million,funded by total oil company "Oil Ranger" interested in the restoration of oil production on oil development in the region of Soyo in Angola,which was suspended due to the forces of UNITA to positions in the Angolan army.

In Angola,then after reaching agreement on a ceasefire and withdrawal from the country of Cuban troops was created by the UN mission (UNAVEM -United Nations Angola Verification Mission) and in may 1991, the mission was transformed into the UNAVEM-2. under her control in September 1992, elections were held, the results of which have been recognized by the UN but not recognized by the opposition UNITA. In October 1992, the fighting resumed, and the UNITA forces almost took Luanda.

As a result of military operations designed and carried out by the company "Executive Outcomes" and tributary forces of the Angolan army from November 1994 to January 1996, UNITA forces had inflicted a serious defeat and the leadership of UNITA agreed to talks.

Then in January 1995, the company "Executive Outcomes" was awarded a contract from the government of Sierra Leone for the preparation of the Sierra Leone army and for conducting combat operations against the rebels obyedinennogo revolutionary front(Revolutionary United Front),which at that time entered the capital of Sierra Leone-Freetown and took control of the mines titanium oxide Sierra Rutile and bauxite Sierramoco.In April-may 1995 from the rebels was purified Freetown,and in August of the same year by the rebel forces of the company were cleared and diamondiferous district Koibu,after which was organized by the company helicopter landing on the headquarters of obyedinennogo revolutionary front in which the headquarters was destroyed and as a result, in November 1996, was signed the peace agreement in Sierra Leone.

After the termination of the company "Executive Outcomes" Briton Tim Spicer using her tried and tested database creating the company "Sandline International" started to perform new tasks,for the island of Bougainville in the Pacific .There after a UN mandate and with the accession to Papua New Guinea in 70th years the political representatives of the local population demanded independence,which to a large extent was caused by and the presence on the island mines of gold and copper owned by the company "Bougainville Copper Limited",which is part of the company "Rio Tinto".

Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea, Julius Chan, appealed for help to the Spicer and the gathering staff of the company "Executive Outcomes",picked 44,who arrived in February in Port Moresby as army instructors Papua New Guinea but the Australian government and threatened it with sanctions demanded cancellation of the contract by the government of Papua New Guinea and eventually all employees "Sandline International" was arrested and then deportirovali from the country.

More successful in this regard have been the activities of the American company "Military Professional Resources Inc.",established in 1987 in the US and in fact, this company was private only conditionally,for they acted as separate management of the U.S. army differing from the rest of the army only by the fact that its employees were in the reserve or retired.

29 September 1994, the U.S. Secretary of defense William Perry and Minister of defence of Croatia, Gojko Susak signed at the Pentagon the agreement on cooperation in the military sphere and in the framework of this agreement was the first of these t company's participation in the MPRI training the Croatian armed forces and the participation of its specialists in the planning of the operation of the Croatian army,MPRI and,at the same time, a similar contract was signed with the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina.All of this has played a significant role in the unification efforts,before warring the armed forces of Croatia and the Croats of Herceg-Bosna on the one hand and the forces of the army of Bosnia and Herzegovina,which played an important role in the defeat of Serb forces in Western Slavonia (may 1-2, 1995),in Native Krajina (4-8 August 1995) and the Bosnian Krajina (July-October 1995).

The contract between the Croatian government and MPRI company was subsequently in 2011, the basis for the fact that the two lawyers ' office in the United States led by American Serbs in the power of attorney of a number of Serbs from the former Republic of Serbian Krajina in Federal court in Chicago began parnica against the company, demanding financial damages in the amount of $ 10 billion.

In 1998, the same company from the Pentagon has awarded a contract to train the armed forces of Equatorial Guinea,and in 2000, the company MPRI received a contract to conduct the reform of the army of Nigeria.

After entering the us invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003, MPRI was awarded contracts to create new armies of Afghanistan and Iraq,and subsequently, the company MPRI received a number of similar contracts,including the preparation of the military contingent of Georgia to participate in operations in Iraq and Afghanistan as well as for the preparation of the armed forces of South Korea,Taiwan,Costa Rica,Macedonia and Colombia.

In Colombia, in addition to MPRI training the security forces of Colombia were also a number of PMCs from the UK-in particular, the company "DSL(Defence Systems Limited)" later became the company "Armor Group" received from the oil company's contract for the protection of oil fields and pipelines a Colombian company Ocensa whose main shareholder was British > > the British Petroleum company.Vsilu Columbia specifics the DSL company effectively controlled the actions of a number of parts of Colombia's army,received the task of protection of objects and infrastructure of the company Ocensa at what these tasks share with DSL and the company Silver Shadow from Israel.Another company from Israel Hod He hanitin(Spearhead Ltd.) participated in the preparation of the Colombian armed forces to fight against the guerrillas.

Private military companies also took an active part in the work of international police missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina (IPTF-International Police Task Force 1996-2004) and in Kosovo and Metohija (UNMIK from 1999 to 2005) and so a greater role in these regions played an American company "DynCorp, Inc." was carrying out recruitment of personnel for the American contingent of international police missions and also participated in the inspection of work of the personnel of these missions and the training of local bodies of internal Affairs. The same company later in Iraq and Afghanistan has also received contracts for police training in Iraq and Afghanistan.

The British company "TASK International" opened its own office in Florida and concluded with the governmental structures of the USA contracts for the training of police Jamaica and Malaysia , the Presidential guard of Nigeria and the special forces of the UAE.

Finally the operation of the Georgian army in 2008 in South Ossetia was prepared by PMC, the Israeli "Defensive Shield" had a contract to train the armed forces of Georgia.

In 2011 the American company "Reflex Responses" received a contract for 529 million dollars from the crown Prince of Abu Dhabi Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed al Mahayana,the establishment and training of the battalion to conduct security and counter-terrorism activities, while the British company "Ferocitas Global" received the contract for the training of the security forces of Kuwait in 2011.

Now the situation on the market PMC,changed and already Africa after Iraq has become the new center of effort(and money investment) from the United States,after coming to power of new administration of President Barack Obama.

Now the situation on the market PMC,changed and already Africa after Iraq has become the new center of effort(and money investment) from the United States,after coming to power of new administration of President Barack Obama.

The U.S. army created them in 2008, the military command for Africa-AFRICOM,launched its activities in many African States,like Ethiopia,Sudan(Darfur), Uganda,Rwanda, Congo, Seychelles,Mali,Niger, Senegal,Nigeria,Liberia,Cameroon, Gabon, Kenya,South Africa,Tanzania.

Program was launched AFRICAP (Africa Peacekeeping) in which provided logistical support, training and preparation of the armed forces,construction,protection of marine navigation, security equipment, operational command and aviation observation(encompasses logistics support, construction, military training and advising, maritime security capacity building, equipment procurement,operational deployment for peacekeeping troops, aerial surveillance and conference facilitation ) with the priority directions aimed at the armed forces of South Sudan,the peacekeeping forces of the African Union(African Union -AU) in Somalia,as are the armed forces of the government of Somalia,the armed forces of the Congo(Zaire),Liberia and Sierra Leone.as the peacekeeping forces of the Economic community of West Africa(Economic Community of West African States -ECOWAS).

September 11th, 2009 State departartment USA( US Department of State) declared that the tender held in the framework of the AFRICAP (Africa Peacekeeping) which was allocated $ 1.5 billion contract is divided into equal parts,for 375 million dollars was awarded to four companies -PSI (Protection Strategies Inc), DynCorp International, AECOM, and PAE (Pacific Architects and Engineers).

By and large the main goal was to counter the threat to American interests from the forces of radical Islam linked to al-Qaeda,and from the expansion of China in Africa, and for this purpose was carried out by another program

ACOTA(Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance) under the control of the Pentagon.According to her before the end of 2010 forces command(it is about 3,500 instructors) should be prepared 75,000 troops of the African armies.Just in this area and made contracts with private military companies,as for example when the beginning of the operations of the African Union force in Somalia,private military company MPRI, PAE and received contracts for the preparation of military contingents from Uganda and Burundi formed the basis of the peacekeeping forces of the African Union - AMISOM.

In Africa vsilu instability PMCs is important enough to support the activities of the various public and private Western corporations.including for the protection of areas of residence of the experts of these companies.So for example in Kenya, widely represented in this region the company "G4S",and in Uganda the company "Saracen" that the hiring of local staff as well as hiring sub-contract a local security company are quite active.

In Nigeria especially in the Niger Delta a marked increase in the influence of those groups of Islamic fundamentalists (the most influential of them:Boko Haram, Hizb al-Sunnah Addition, Jamma, Muhammad Yusuf Movement) are in favor of maintaining the armed struggle against the "Christian" South and the Western oil companies the same kind of security activity are PMCs such as Control Risk,Erinys International, ArmorGroup,Triple Canopy.

Increasing efficiency in the actions of PMCs,which in Africa began to penetrate to places of armed conflicts even before the arrival of the us army,says that they become an independent factor in American politics.

In this case the American army, rather, the evolving political climate and with the growth of threats increases funding programs of training of the armies of African States.Without going into questions of how politics of the modern international community contributes to the pacification of Africa,that actually the example of Libya is more than obvious,it should be noted that for the PMCs in terms prodolzhaiushchikhsia wars is not the main condition of successful activities of PMCs,the presence of military units of NATO armies or their very limited number.

Thus, the situation kind of went out of control and the modern media exaggerated the degree of influence American policy and spending is the impact of PMCs on certain parties engaged in wars.

So in Libya in 2011, appearing from time to time reports of certain other types of PMCs'm just saying the examples are limited by the volume of tasks,because usually these companies are only involved in the set personall for the security of the Western diplomatic missions, in particular the U.S. Embassy in Tripoli or the various departments of the UN,first of all, "UNDP", "UNICEF" or "IOM" in Libya,as well as in consulting services in the field of demining.

The fact that direct deyatelnosti PMCs in Libya dangerous was confirmed in may 2011 when Benghazi was killed Marziali Pierre(Pierre Marziali),President of the French private military company "Secopex".

Thus the forces of the Libyan NTC, although he won the civil war thanks to the support of NATO,at the same time are outside the control of the NATO for adopted in Iraq and Afghanistan, the model for the creation of the new armed forces forces of the Western armies and PMCs in Libya is missing.

The war in Somalia,Sudan and Libya raised new questions for contemporary private military companies because in this case there is a completely different situation than in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan,where data of the company and has held such an important place.In this case, it requires a much higher level of staff training and organization of the PMCs than it did in Iraq and Afghanistan,where operational leadership of the PMC was possible in one call to the headquarters of the adjacent American part of the to solve all the problems in relations with the command of the local forces and attack enemy forces.In Africa such a challenge is far more than problematic, and therefore to the tenders for contracts in accordance with the rules "ACOTA Contract Procedure Guide" allowed companies such as MPRI and PAE whose management and staff have many years experience of military service and participation in training programmes but also in the operations of a special purpose .

As concerns Maritime piracy, it is a derivative of the war in Somalia and seizure of ships ply the militants "of the Islamic courts" and it is essentially the key organizations of the movement "al-Shabaab", and units of local warlords, is only formally subordinate to the Transitional government.

It is obvious that the Transitional government of Somalia is unable to eliminate piracy, but it is also clear that the peacekeeping troops of the African Union, the problem will not solve.

 

According to the "Marine bulletina" company "Sovfracht" a day through the Strait of Aden is up to 250 civilian courts and defend each ship is impossible.It is also clear that the pirates have a wide network of informants in the countries of the Persian Gulf,without which it is unlikely they would so to act successfully.

With the expansion of the war in the horn of Africa, the navigable area will be under where a big threat,because the movement of al-Shabaab is unlikely to abandon the seizure of ships, especially if he will be able to expand its influence in Puntland and Somaliland, coming to the shores of the Gulf of Aden. Therefore, the problem can be addressed by either the armed forces of a "civilized" state (so the services of their Navy, suggested Canada) or any private military company that it will pay the money.

Therefore, there appeared on the market, private military companies,of course, the American and British-as already known by Iraq and Afghanistan, Blackwater(Xe company) and Aegis,and the company traditionally specializing in the field of Maritime security such as Drum Cussac,Trojan Securities International, Securewest International and Blue Mountain,and the newly -SeaMarshall,Naval Guards Ltd,Solace Global Maritime,Nautilus International,Aspida Maritime Security-Shield Risk Consulting,Trident Group,Halliday Finc.

Typically, the payment here was variavles 500-700 dollars to one specialist for one day on Board and two to three times less when in port

As some of these companies to work to protect ships experts in Bosnia and Herzegovina,Croatia,Ukraine and Russia,at prices four to five times less vysheukazannoe by the number of contracts the company received from the former USSR,particularly the Russian Moran group and RSB and registered in Malta, company Muse Pro Group-Muse group,offering contracted out to veterans of the Ukrainian special forces to guard the ships.

As for the findings are applicable in the post-Soviet space,we should note first of all the efficiency in the organization of the PMC,allowing efficient use of available personnel.This was not usual for Russian Federation- "military farm",in which subordinates often believe that they can determine for themselves as to what direction to lead the company policy and whom she can accept as members.In addition, the activities of such PMCs are strictly regulated rules as to security clearance(security clearance) and the quality and quantity of equipment,equipment and weapons what is the guarantee that a minimum level during the resulting contract will be implemented.The organization gives PMC the ability to carry out short-term and, if necessary, and long-term planning of operations,that is significant in Africa, where PMCs are organically linked with plans and activities of the command of AFRICOM.So training programs-POI(Program of instruction) prepared by the PAE and MPRI companies undergo a process of verification in command of AFRICOM under the requirements of the rules of operations in support of peace - PSO(Peace Support Operations).In addition, programs in engineering data preparation operations are coordinated in mine action centres –MAC (Mine Action Centre), created at the initiative of the UN in several African countries.

The selection of the staff of PMCs for the program ACOTA is carried out by management companies on the basis of the requirements of the AFRICOM command, and the lessons learned activities of the companies themselves.

The use of PMCs allows the command of AFRICOM to act more quickly,because the sending of military units for training foreign armies requires complicated procedures in the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Department of state.

This practice looks much more professional than the practice of a number of post-socialist armies.which during the "cold war" kept the market training African armies but with its end virtually the whole market is lost.Without denying the important role of the political factor in this fact,yet it should be noted that these post-socialist army was unprepared for the changing conditions of activity.

Meanwhile, after the collapse of the USSR Africa was by no means closed to the Russian army.So according to the article "the Cash part" Orhan Jemal ( "Russian Newsweek".30.11.2009) in 2004, instructors from the special forces of the GRU of the General staff of the Russian army participated in the preparation of the Ethiopian army,later took part in operations in Somalia,including in the assault on Mogadishu in December 2006 and therefore funded by the US.

In this case, the nature of the work of the Russian instructors differed little from the actions of instructors of American PMCs,with the exception that the lower prices paid by the customer.In fact, this program could serve as the basis for the creation of the Russian PMC which would implement plans for the training of the armies of Third world countries.

The necessity of the existence of such PMCs for post-socialist armies quite himself confirmed in the course of the war in Libya.In this war, as we know from media reports(newspaper "Alo" from Belgrade ,the newspaper "Večerni list" from Zagreb,the website "Iraq war") on the side of the army of Colonel Gaddafi acted in several dozen military advisers from Ukraine, Belarus,Croatia and Serbia. Not referring to the usual accusations of various human rights organizations of the government of Moamer Gaddafi,which apparently are set in accordance with already familiar since the war in the former Yugoslavia in the price list.it should be noted that at that time, the Libyan government was priznati legitimate international representative of his country as a member of the UN and various international organizations.The Libyan government has provided public and private companies of Ukraine, Belarus, but especially Serbia, the opportunity to participate in various projects in Libya,with the possibility of obtaining large profits.Nominated by the International court in the Hague, the prosecution against Colonel Gaddafi committing war crimes,could not influence the legal legality of providing military aid to Libya,because of the fact precompile of innocence.In addition, the U.S. government found it possible to send the company MPRI for training and command of the army of Croatia,which according to the judgment of the International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, committed during operation Storm in August 1995, numerous war crimes on the basis of what the force commander of the army of Croatian General Ante Gotovina,was sentenced on 15 April 2008, the International criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague to 24 years in prison.

In addition, a report dated 1st June 2011, the British newspaper "daily Mirror" declared pictures of British military specialists in Libya made by the broadcaster "al-Jazeera" in Daphnia,to the West of Misrata.

Thus the same government of Serbia had every right to provide military assistance to the Libyan government,which for decades helped the governments of Yugoslavia and then Serbia.

In low training the Libyan rebels, and complete military superiority in military equipment of Libya,the Libyan several parts have to in composed of experienced military experts from Serbia was completely in a state before the start of the international isolation of the Libyan government to crush the oppositions and knock out its forces from Benghazi and Tobruk.

However, in reality, properly understood practice of "classifying" such military assistance, the organization hiring military advisers as planning of their activities was conducted in different, often not connected among themselves by persons who have not had the ability to command and control his advisers and especially the army units of Libya,with the result that conceived at the headquarters of Colonel Gaddafi the idea of recruiting large numbers of military experts from Serbia,Ukraine and Belarus turned out to be unfulfilled in Tripoli soon there were other military experts.including Egypt,Saudi Arabia and Afghanistan,and Colonel Gaddafi was publicly muchen and killed without trial.

If in this case in Serbia,Ukraine or Belarus there was the PMC that had the rights and responsibilities for the preparation and command of at least several parts of the Libyan army.the situation could have been completely different way.

Actually very appearance of Western PMCs in Africa was caused by similar problems,because UN peacekeepers have proven ineffective in Africa,devoid of the former colonial system of governance.

An example is the war in Rwanda in October 1990, a rebellion broke out, all Hutus, who constituted the majority of the population of Rwanda, against the incumbent Tutsi. Although with the coming to power of Hutu tribe in Rwanda began the genocide of Tutsis and eventually — a civil war,the UN mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR) in October 1993 by resolution No. 872 of the UN Security Council. Its numbers were 2548 persons, with a gradual increase up to 5820. By may 1994, he was set to relative safety, but only in the triangle Kibuye — Gikongoro — Cyangugu in the area of responsibility of French troops. However, peacekeepers were unable to prevent new massacre in April 1995 in the refugee camp of Tutsis in Kibeho and eventually intervened in the conflict, the Ugandan troops that entered the territory of Rwanda so the UN mission in Rwanda was closed. In neighbouring Burundi, where came to power, the Tutsi, while the Hutu, who shared in several groups, launched a guerrilla war with support from Zaire and Angola.since 1993 also began a civil war that killed 200,000 people and 1200 000 were refugees.

However, and in neighboring Zaire acted the Tutsi, who also became participants in the civil war in the Zaire(Congo) between the rebels of Laurent Kabila, supported by the Americans and the President of Zaire, Mobutu, who was supported by the French. When Mobutu, in spite of French assistance and the Serbian mercenaries lost the war in 1996,two years later, the fighting resumed again as the forces of the Tutsi in the North-East of the country came into conflict with the Kabila government, with the support of Uganda.

Following this, the groups Hutu, expelled from Rwanda, suffered fighting against the Tutsis on the territory of the Congo, attacking in 2000, the town of Uvira, which was under the control of the Tutsi.

In the Congo in 1998 and also fighting broke out between government troops of President Denis Sassou-Nguesso, on the one hand and the units of the "Ninja" of former President Pascal Lissouba and groups "the Zulus", the former Prime Minister Bernard Kolela on the other side.

In Angola, where by 1995, the number of UNITA reached 63 thousand people and the plans of its demobilization in accordance with the agreement in Lusaka on 20 November 1994, was not implemented,and although UNITA had suspended hostilities, but troops continued to hold the diamond regions in Angola.

Themselves the UN peacekeeping force in February 1995 was transformed into the UNAVEM-3, and since July 1997, MONUA (Missao de Observasao das Nacoes Unidas em Angola).

In June 1998, after the crash for unknown reasons, which killed several leaders of the UN mission in Angola, UNITA forces took the offensive and captured several settlements and from December 1998 in Angola began a full-scale war. The UN mission had considerable success, and in February 1999 at the request of the government of Angola it was closed. In autumn 1999, the government troops of Angola went on the offensive, inflicting a serious defeat of UNITA and capturing its supply base and centre in Andulo.

In August 1998, in Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) started a new rebellion Tutsi forces supported by Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi,whereas the Kabila government and its allied forces of the Hutu rebels received the support of Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe sent troops there. However later in Zaire, clashes between the troops of Uganda and Rwanda, and between their supporting groups, the Tutsis,while in the North-East Zaire armed clashes between the lendu and Hema tribes.

Rate of Americans to the army of Senegal and Nigeria in West Africa and the army of Uganda and Kenya in East Africa for their use in peacekeeping missions has not justified itself. A superficial approach in their training, based on short-term courses did not affect the essence of the African armies,so a large part of the funds allocated by the United States, just stolen. Africans in their psychology to conduct a full-scale military operations that require a high sense of duty and meticulous planning, in their wars was no different.To speak in such terms about their effective service under the UN flag is not necessary,for if the internecine wars was another incentive something to plunder, and to raise his prestige in his tribe, for the service of the UN mission chief was on time to get paid.

The failure of peacekeeping troops ECOMOG in Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone, the passive behavior of African Union peacekeepers in Somalia prove that the rate of Americans on the African continent — a lost cause.

In addition, the reduction of the number of French troops in Africa to five thousand people, has dealt a serious blow to the ability of US allies-France to conduct independent operations in Africa.

Created by the same "cross-regional forces" of the armies of the countries are former French colonies (Ghana, Namibia, Guinea, Cape Verde, côte d'ivoire, Mauritania, Mali, Senegal and the Lusophone Guinea-Bissau), in practice they were poor talent ,although they have carried out several exercises of these forces .

Another pillar of the UN in Africa — South Africa may not have key values in UN peacekeeping operations in Africa, due to the impact of policies of the UN in the struggle against apartheid, so South Africa already has the more efficient army, which it had in the 80-ies.

It is absolutely clear that the military security in Africa — fragile and ready to collapse at the first large-scale arrival of these Islamic fundamentalists from Sudan and Somalia, with large-scale support from the outside, and especially with the direct participation of military contingents in the countries of North Africa, the near and Middle East for other forces ready to upset the balance on the African continent, is not there.

NATO currently has enough troops for operations in Afghanistan. Regional command South headquarters in Naples now only has the ability to participate in a relatively small peacekeeping operations in the Mediterranean and the fight against illegal emigration.

The same applies to the created in the "Western European Union" "South euroserum". The only force at the moment in Africa is the United States that created a separate command "Africom(AFRICOM)," for actions on the African continent. This command has a limited contingent of Marines, and the emphasis on training of the allied armies. "AFRICOM" is able to solve problems in a particular country, however, with the escalation of internal wars, in the war between the States, "AFRICOM" will not be able to solve parastasie problems.

However what is happening in Africa quite possibly will eventually be a familiar sight for the rest of the world.As Clausewitz wrote,war is the continuation of conducting policy, and policy in turn depends on any economy that actually gives scope for PMCs.However, any policy depends on it national,racial and religious factors.Economy run by the British,Germans,Russians,Arabs, Tajiks,Americans, and Brazilians are working on different principles,so that plays a big role and who composes the bulk of the workforce.first of all, skilled.Volkswagen has arisen not on an empty place in the German national environment.France's economic rise was only due to French leadership,the fact that this rise was used for the settlement of millions of Africans,established of which management will drive France to the African level, Algeria,what an example of South Africa.

Of course in French the way it moves and the rest of the West,which will inevitably lead to the fragmentation of public bodies adopted in Africa and Asia scenario.Simply put, the Western world will take typical for the Third world, the evils of tribalism and corruption,because the migrant population of which recently Angela Merkel urged to recruit more civil servants,his psychology is a little different from the environment of their "national" States.In such circumstances, it will inevitably affect the armed forces of Western countries,which are degraded under political pressure from left-liberal circles.

Unlikely of course owners of modern transnational corporations are particularly concerned about such developments,because apparently they asked this course of these events.However, for more effective protection of the interests of their own companies, they obviously will increasingly attract the PMC,based on the latest current stimulus money.

This gives a space for similar activities and less influential forces in the world,in accordance with the assumptions of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Professor Martin van Crevald made in his book "Transformation of war" on the future of "fragmentation" of the war.Such "fragmentation" according to Martin van Creveld meant a fan of real action from terrorist to guerrilla and political extremism to economic sabotage.

In such circumstances, the PMCs become quite an important factor of the fighting why the statutes of the us army FM 3-90.119 dedicated to the conduct of operations against IED now considers the PMC part of the operations of the American army in a number of positions.

In fact it is a natural process when military strategy is not determined largely discredited policy,and the owners of transnational corporations.For the latter, a growing interest is now Africa and as to use of the us army vsilu the lack of a clearly defined enemy there is actually hard,modern PMCs play the role of a kind of operational mechanism for management of the local African armed forces.

Literature

  1. “Global Security “ http://www.globalsecurity.org
  2. The article "the Private military company:a legitimate international entity within modern conflict" By major's. Goddard, maj, ra inf, Australia B. A., University of New South Wales, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.2001
  3. The website of the company “KBR” http://www.kbr.com/
  4. The website "Private Security Company Association of Iraq" http://www.pscai.org/
  5. "The Caucasian Litmus Test: Consequences and Lessons of the Russian - Georgian War in August 2008".Robert Larsson,Eva Hagstrom Frisell. Swedish Defence Research Agency
  6. "Executive Outcomes-Against all Odds".Eeben Barlow.Galago Publishing.2010
  7. "LOGCAP 101:An Operational Planner''s Guide".Colonel Karen E. LeDoux."Army Logistic University" http://www.almc.army.mil/
  8. The website http://closeprotectionpsdjobs.blogspot.com/
  9. Britain's Secret War in Libya: British Special Forces uncovered on the ground by Chris Hughes, Daily Mirror 1/06/2011
  10. “Colombia, Israel and Rogue Mercenaries”.By John C. K. Daly.ISN Security Watch (09/03/07)
  11. "Modern problems of peacekeeping in Africa". Colonel Gavrilov, candidate of psychological Sciences,Colonel S. Tents. "Foreign military review"
  12. "Transformation of war". Martin van Creveld. Moscow. 2005 "Almina business books" — "Arisen" (The transformation of war "Martin von Creveld).

Oleg Valetsky

Source: http://conjuncture.ru/valecky_18-03-2013/

Tags: PMC , Special Forces