Marine spatial planning as part of the new geopolitics
Material posted: Gornova Anna M.Publication date: 03-07-2018

March 1 address to the Federal Assembly, President Vladimir Putin announced the introduction of the Strategy of spatial development of the Russian Federation, which will be the basis for a comprehensive plan for the modernization and expansion of trunk infrastructure in the country. The implementation of this plan, the President named a priority for the next Government. It is expected that the Strategy by mid-year will prepare the economic development Ministry. The document will take into account the particularities of each site and include measures for its effective development. The adoption of a fundamentally new for Russia type of document that combines the approaches of strategic and territorial planning envisaged № 172-FZ of 28 June 2014 "On strategic planning in Russia".

The total length of the Maritime borders of Russia is almost 40 000 km Russia by sea involves 12 States. In the transport infrastructure of the waterway in the Russian Federation it is necessary about 100 thousand kilometers. Thus, marine spatial planning (WFP) is an integral part of the spatial development of Russia.

A practical tool

Marine spatial planning is a practical tool (procedure) of definition of ways the most effective distribution and use of marine space and establish the mechanism of interaction between the users of this space with the aim of achieving a balance between industrial, socio-economic development and nature conservation in the framework of a certain water area by an open discussion involving all stakeholders. The key here is the ecosystem approach.

Adjustable main WFP activities:

  • marine and multimodal transport, development of ports;
  • naval activity;
  • border security;
  • environmental protection activities, marine sanctuaries;
  • fishing and fish farming;
  • protection of historical and cultural heritage;
  • tourism and recreation;
  • scientific research;
  • exploration and production of minerals;
  • laying of engineering communications;
  • the construction of energy and other artificial structures.

WFP determines the development of the waters for many years, concentrating on resolving potential conflicts between economic use of the waters and the conservation of marine ecosystems (e.g., the conflict between dredging and preservation of benthic communities) and between different stakeholders competing for ocean space (e.g., coastal fisheries and aquaculture). Ie PP (spatial planning) aims at preventing emerging conflicts between departments, between sectors, between economic entities for the use of the territory (water area) by setting strategic priorities for the development of this space.

World experience in using MPP

Today some 40 countries are engaged in WFP. Each in their own way articulated the principles of governance of Maritime activities. Belgium, UK, Germany and Sweden have adopted legislation that enshrines the terminology and procedures of WFP. Most countries develop plans of WFP in the framework of environmental legislation. Norway and the Netherlands are engaged in WFP on the basis of interagency agreements. In Belgium, Germany, China, individual U.S. States and provinces of the UK marine plans mandatory, in other countries they are Advisory in nature, they are implemented by line ministries and agencies. Most countries Finance the development of a plan through the state budget. In the United States and Canada developing and implementing plans funded charities. In China, management costs for the implementation of the plans covered by charging fees for the use of marine resources. I stress that in China, WFP has become one of the elements of the creation of zones of advanced development, which became the locomotive of the Chinese economy.

In the EU at the end of 2014 the European Commission issued a special Directive 2014/89/EU, which obliges all member States of the EU to develop plans, WFP of their exclusive economic zones. The plans should reflect:

  • the ecosystem approach;
  • the interaction between shore and sea;
  • the interaction between States;
  • the public participation and all stakeholders.

The start date of the implementation of the plans no later than 2021.

In Russia currently, the management of marine spaces and resources by the Government. The Federal Ministry perform certain functions related to Maritime activities, while no one of them has Maritime activities is not the primary and, moreover, the only task. This aspect requires separate consideration in terms of raising the status of the management of marine activities.

Attempt planning areas in Russia were in the 90-ies and early 2000-ies, when Russia joined the MPP of the Baltic sea and began to actively participate in the working group HELLOMBEAN for marine spatial planning. The application of the principles of WFP in Russia can be seen in the development of the port of Ust-Luga. The individual elements of spatial planning can be traced with the introduction of Thor in the far East.

In world practice there are two approaches to the development of WFP plans – North American and Western European. The first is characterized by the allocation of large-scale ecoregions and their boundaries do not match administrative boundaries of the States, because the ecoregions selected on the basis of physico-geographical zoning of natural. Marine ecoregions of the planning is done at the Federal level. On the contrary, for the Western approach, the allocation of ecoregions is not typical, WFP plans are developed in administrative Maritime boundaries of States.

What is the difference between the European and Russian approaches to the WFP? According to the EU Directive, WFP is planning in the border area. The Russian approach sees WFP as part of spatial planning i.e. the sea and the coast – one ecosystem. The analysis provides a basis for proposals for the establishment of the Centre MPP in Russia and the development of an appropriate regulatory framework, in particular, projects of the following documents:

  • the draft law "On the offshore marine (spatial) planning in the Russian Federation", which aimed at the organization of WFP and provides the inclusion of this activity in the system of strategic and territorial planning of the country;
  • amendments to existing Federal laws relating to Maritime activities, water and mineral resources, as well as amendments to the Urban planning, Land and Water codes and other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation.

Examples of the relevance of WFP for Russia

The Northern sea route. The North coast today mainly available through the Maritime industry. Here you can use air transportation, however, the local polar aviation after the collapse of the USSR, now we have no major airports little. The restoration of this infrastructure, the import of all necessary for the construction and arrangement of territories is also only possible through shipping. Together with the issues of natural resource development in the Arctic raises questions of transport support mastering of its enterprises.

Foreign countries not once advocated the "internationalization" of SMP. Arctic waters not yet divided, and such a major thoroughfare would thou can not be controlled by one country. Similar claims of the United States to Canada actually block the use of the North-West passage - an alternative to SMP in the Arctic of North America.

The Northern sea route - transport communication of our country, which determines the need for intensive, WFP and the development of the Northern areas of Russia. WFP our Arctic waters and adjacent areas should be based on the paradigm of the existence of the historical rights of Russia to exclusive possession of SMP.

Shipping. The main problems of this sector rests on mezhvedomstvennoi. In 2017, the opposition of the railway and pipeline monopolies in the European part of Russia hit hard by a cargo base of river transport. At issue was the building of 60 tankers tanker fleet of sea-river. There was a question of the transport balance. In the context of spatial development needs a strategic priority for regions where we have the river navigation is developed and a possible gradual transfer of cargo base at the river. Need fixing and regulation of the priority in the regulatory framework. Support strategic priority can be achieved through including tax and tariff regulation.

Fishing. First, here we are several years observed different approaches between Rosrybolovstvo and Ministry to the concept of distribution investovat. Second, there are claims of the indigenous population of Kamchatka, and now the process extends to the whole DFO in implementing the local communities of their right to catch UBD and the development of their coastal businesses. The basis of traditional residence of indigenous peoples are plant and animal resources. Local residents are waiting for state jobs on shore bases and enterprises for the extraction and production of FBG, livestock, wild plants and marine animals. They are ready to organize such companies, who supply finished products to the domestic market. It is our outlying areas, our national security. WFP has an obligation to consider the interests of the indigenous population, is one of his basic principles.

We have to admit that in the last few years in the fishing industry has experienced system and design approaches. On the one hand there is the established system of sectoral legislation, which was established in 2004 with the historical principle. On the other is a project-based approach, when companies are building the fleet and shore enterprises under investuoti. A number of proposed legislative innovations were not applicable in some regions. This happened with a step-up ratio for the coastal fisheries regime, as well as registration of fishing companies, fishing FBG in the Baltic. What's good for Kamchatka was not acceptable for the Kaliningrad fishermen. In the end the courts instead of developing industries. What we're dealing with. A systematic approach is more East, including a powerful Chinese civilization, that's what happened in Russia, in the USSR – the system of education, medicine, fisheries, etc. The project approach is to build a specific ship, to raise a specific professional with a specific set of functions, to achieve a certain target. The project approach is English law, London, Europe, America. Therefore stated in the past year, the projects will not dock with the system, break it. And since Russia is in the middle of a confrontation is inevitable. Tool MPP in this case is the binder is an essential tool.

Specialization of ports. Here are a well-known example, when fishing ports in 90-e years have lost their focus, and now her return. In some regions, the country needs fishing ports. In other regions – this is a container, Neftepererabotka etc. ports. In Kaliningrad, it was decided to build a cruise terminal. And somewhere in the country a priority is the development of resort areas, yachting. All of this initially requires the selection of appropriate special measures for the development of a specific territory. In this regard, the problem of zoning of the ports, sea and river. Zoning ports must come primarily from the implementation of the plans of the WFP regions.

Then there are the issues related to improving the system of ensuring safety of navigation, particularly in pilotage provision. Today in our country there is no unified state pilotage organizations, as it is in developed Maritime countries. IMO resolution A. 960 (23) is essentially a recommendation on the organization of pilot activities in any country. The first thing to do is to come up with the competent pilotage authority and to create in Russia a unified state pilotage Association.

A pilot component also plays a significant role in ensuring our national interests in the Arctic, in the waters and ports of the NSR. Russian sovereignty over the NSR can be provided, including the introduction of mandatory state of the ice pilotage including to prevent unauthorized navigation of any vessel throughout the time-varying alignment of SMP. In this case, it is necessary to consider that in the near future, the navigation time will increase due to the ongoing process of ice melting.

There are predictions for the development countries in the future floating cities, artificial Islands in the open part of the ocean, which will require the definition of their jurisdiction, status. This process will also be developed in the framework of the WFP.

One more direction. The potential of the ocean contains a lot of unrealized potential that could become a strategic priority in any region for many years to come. Here is an example. In 2011-2013 in Japan discovered high concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in ocean silt on the bottom of the Pacific ocean near the island of Minamitori (In particular, yttrium, europium, terbium and dysprosium). Resources of silt in the ocean is almost endless. Scientists estimate that the Deposit contains more than 16 million tons of REE. These items will be enough for the world's industry for many centuries. Scientists from Waseda University and Tokyo University not only made a map with the content of REE in the oceanic silt, but also has developed cost-effective technology of extraction of silt and the discharge from it of valuable materials. REE are critical to many advanced technologies are applied in promising industries, including LEDs, compact fluorescent lamps, panel displays, many medical and military technologies.

In conclusion, when with the introduction of the MPP will be formally outlines the priorities areas and regions in the long term, it will increase the activity and investor confidence, clearly reglementary the implementation of investment projects. This will reduce corruption, will help in the beginning to resolve disputes between agencies and conflicts within the industry that can take years. To resolve these disputes in favor of the designated strategic priority. And most importantly, will increase the economic return from the use of water areas and territories of the country.

Emphasize the highest priority on environmental well-being of the sea. It is necessary to combine the efforts of countries in this direction. The main the main mission of both marine and spatial planning in the modern world is the harmonization of industrial development of regions with their natural environment in the long term.

Anna Gornova

Tags: Russia , Sea policy , Anna Gornova