The division of culture in the West and East lies in the characteristics of the methods and ways of understanding the world, value orientations, basic worldviews, socio-economic and political structures.
When considering the peculiarities of the East and West must be based on such a concept as political culture. Under this concept refers to a set of semantic schemas normative attitude towards the policy, whose task essentially boils down to giving the actors in political roles and orientations, respectively, prevailing in this community subjective views. Culture finds in constant interaction with political institutions and can support the institutions and undermining their viability, provided that between culture and institutions in the political sphere, broken the logical and ideological conformity.
The basis of the political culture of the West has served as the Polis political organization that existed in Ancient Greece. This organization has included such elements as the active participation of citizens in solving common problems. You can also note the influence of Roman law, which reflects the dominance of individual values and the protection of private property. While the political culture of the East has its roots in the tenets of Buddhism, the Arab and the Muslim religion as well as Confucianism, Taoism. It is also associated with an increase in Asian production, community-based agriculture, agricultural labour and collectivism.
Due to the special historical path of development of each crop formed the two systems. For a long time the culture of the West and East were considered as polar to each other, that is absolutely the opposite. It is especially allocated on the basis of values of each of the cultures. However now it is impossible so unambiguously to oppose the West and the East, on closer examination, can also be highlighted similarities in some aspects.
To understand the problems of the dialogue of East and West, you must first carry out a comparative analysis of the political culture of the West and the East. This can be done based on the following aspects: worldview, attitudes, relationship to government, civil society, respect for the law.
Every nation has its own worldview, which in varying degrees can overlap with or be at odds with the worldview of other peoples. Undoubtedly, the Outlook has an impact on all spheres of human life, including the political sphere of life.
The Eastern worldview inherent traits such as a desire to isolation of a person from the outside world, leaving the human in the inner spiritual life. Man obeys the natural beginning, which in turn is connected with the sacred character of nature and its dominance over man. In Eastern culture valued the ability to know themselves, to experience their thoughts, which generally adds inertia to the nature of the world.
The Western world develops the human desire to know the external, surrounding world, the person has an active effect on him. Hence we see that in contrast to the contemplative attitude toward the world inherent in the Eastern culture, Western culture advocates the transformation of the external world to realize their own interests. Western society is more dynamic, it is more valued ability to understand and run other than himself.
From the point of view of attitudes, the political culture of the East are more conservative. It is prone to asceticism, regulatory redundancy, its basis is the tradition. In the East is still revered strict behavioral norms and indispensable elements. While to the West are characterized by liberalism, utilitarianism and he is prone to regulatory failure. The company is committed to overcoming any kind of ritual, since it is necessary to accelerate the pace of life. You may also notice ideologicamente the political consciousness of citizens.
The main featured of the East, when considering this aspect, it is the idea of community and unity of people when the West is characterized by individualism.
The following paragraph, which highlights the differences of East and West – civil society. Civil society – the totality in a certain way organized historically developed forms of joint life and universal values that guide people in all spheres of public life: economic, social, political and spiritual. The civil society Institute is present in the culture of the West and of the East, the West, however, it has received more development. In the East it is in the process of development, and is characterized by a kind of traditional Oriental features. Differences can be seen in the relationships existing in the East and the West in relation to politics. For Western cultural policy – is, above all, as a kind of conflictual social activities, which is based on the principles of equality of all before the law. The variety of forms of political life are highlighted in the following traits: pluralism, democracy, presence of different political parties. The main subject of politics is individual, he also acts as the source of the policy. The state, understanding Western society, perceived as an institution located in an interdependent relationship with civil society and carrying out functions of protection of the rights and freedoms of the individual.
In the view of Eastern society, politics is the activity not available to all associated with the ideas of the divine government. The main function of the policy, in their opinion, the statement of consensus, harmony and peace within the state. Politics devoid of individualism is collective, the preference for authoritarian types of government. A dominant role in politics belongs to the elite and the state, the people preferred the patronage of the state over the individual. It is also important to note that priority is given not to an individual, group of individuals, the community, the community.
The following parameter comparison of two political cultures is the attitude toward authority.
For the West, power is the superiority of one person over another on the basis of physical and spiritual traits. This society recognizes the ability of the individual to implement powers. With the concept of the power of the tests related to the concept of law, which in Western society is perceived as the strengthening of property rights. Individual freedom is inviolable in the view of Western society, the existence of the ruling elite and political leaders is considered as a necessity for the existence of the state.
Residents of the East believe that power is divine. From this it becomes clear their ideas of deification of rulers and their management activities.
Last point – the mapping of relations to the law.
In the West there is the primacy of state law over private norms, customs and traditions, while in the East the situation is somewhat different. Priority to local rules and customs on national customs is a characteristic feature of Oriental society.
Thus, we see that East and West has a number of differences in their Outlook and attitude to such concepts as politics, state, power.
Russia can not be assigned with certainty neither to the East nor to the West. Its unique position was said by P. Y. Chaadaev. He talked about the fact that Russia lies between the East and the West, and find themselves under the influence of both Western and Eastern culture, Russia had to combine traits of both. That is why we can talk about the clear position of Russia in the dialogue of East and West. Since it embodies features of both cultures and is part of each of them, you can say that Russia is able to bring the relations of East and West to a new level, promoting the dialogue of cultures.
Consider the Eurasian integration as an example of dialogue of two cultures.
Contemporary international system is characterized by parallel processes of globalization and regionalization. The pursuit of regionalization due to the desire of the less economically developed countries to create better conditions for further development in the domestic competition.
Foreign policy interests of the Russian Federation include the further development of relations with CIS countries.
For further development of relations in this field on 1 January 2015 the Eurasian economic Union. This was an important step to consolidate Russia as a regional power, and also to preserve influence in the post-Soviet countries. It is also important to note that the establishment of the Eurasian integration is beyond the interests of not only Russia, but also partners. This is due to the fact that the origins of integration is mutual understanding that in modern conditions the growth of the economy, and, consequently, improve the welfare of citizens, cannot occur without expansion of markets, the liberalization of customs borders and the improvement of conditions for free movement of capital.
The need for an internationalist driven by the following assumptions:
- Economic preconditions. Before the Eurasian countries face the challenge of timely modernization of the economy and enhancing competitiveness.
- Military-political conditions. Primarily expressed desire of preservation of their sovereignty.
- Socio-cultural background. Communication cultural space is an important factor that is taken into account the factor of a common linguistic space.
Of course, because the greatest potential and impact of the leading role the Association plays Russia. While Russia has its own capabilities with the establishment of the Eurasian integration. First, this integration will contribute to the strengthening and development of the economy, which in turn maim the country's GDP. The territory of the EEU will serve as a market for Russian goods and services.
One of the plans for the development of cooperation is the creation of a financial center in Russia with the assignment of the ruble the status of regional reserve currency. You can select the following conditions that can contribute to this project:
- Transport corridors "East-West" and "South-North", based on the use of railway, road, river and air transport;
- The complex of technologies for addressing water-energy problems of Siberia and Central Asia region;
- Production facilities for the storage and disposal of nuclear facilities;
- The creation of a modern timber industry complex (LPK);
- Production capacity for energy-intensive storage (batteries) electrical energy and electromotive transport systems.
Thus, we see that the integration of the countries of East and West is an important component for further development of the global arena. For example, the Eurasian integration can be seen as a similar kind of enterprises can contribute to stress and strengthen States. For the participants of the EEU this integration would allow to solve a number of geopolitical problems, including would strengthen the countries participating in its position on the world stage. However, it is important to note that such integration is possible only in the presence of a strong state, capable of becoming the economic and political center, as well as to act as a mediator in the dialogue of cultures of East and West, such as Russia, speaking of the leaders of the EEU.
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Soloviev A. A.
Tags: assessment , A.Snesariev's competition , Eurasia