The closer fit of Nazi Germany by the time of its crash, the more its leadership relied on "wonder weapons" - wunderwaffe. But the defeat of the Third Reich threw the miracle weapons to the dustbin of history, making the development of German scientists among the countries of the winners.
It is worth to mention that the issue was not just about the creation of the newest samples of arms, the Nazi engineers sought to achieve complete technological superiority over the enemy. And Germany managed to achieve a lot along the way.
Perhaps the biggest success of the German designers have achieved in the field of aviation. Namely, in terms of jet aircraft. Of course, the first of them were not without drawbacks, but the pros were there. In the first place, it is more than screw aircraft speed and more powerful weapons.
None of the belligerents is not used in combat jet cars as much as Germany. You can remember and the first production jet fighter me 262, and "people's fighter" Not 162, and the world's first jet bomber 234 Blitz AG. Was the Germans and a rocket fighter-interceptor IU 163 Komet, which had a liquid rocket engine and is able to stay airborne for no more than eight minutes.
All of these airplanes were built in series and participated in the war. For comparison, from all countries of anti-Hitler coalition, only Britain in the war was armed with the combat jet fighter Gloster Meteor. But the British used it only to intercept German cruise missiles "V-1" and not sent into battle against fighters.
If we talk about German jet aircraft, some of them were used more often, others less often. IU 163 rocket made just a few sorties, but the IU 262 was widely used on the Western front and was able to chalk up 150 enemy aircraft. General problem with the German jet fighters was their nedorabotannost. This led to a huge number of accidents and disasters. In them was lost the lion's share of new machines of the Luftwaffe. Systematic attacks by American and British aircraft led to the fact that the Germans by the end of the war even was not able to overcome the "childhood diseases" Me 262 (and in fact the Nazis had pinned great hopes on this fighter).
The aircraft that we said were widely known, but a number of aircraft projects of Germany and remained unnoticed. And here we can recall experimental combat aircraft Horten Ho IX is the world's first jet plane, built by aerodynamic configuration "flying wing". It was created in the framework of the program 1000*1000*1000 - this means that the speed must reach 1000 km/h, range - 1000 km, a bomb load - 1000 kg. Horten Ho IX made several test flights in the years 1944-1945, but fighting did not participate.
Even less lucky are the brainchild of the famous German aircraft designer Kurt Tank (Kurt Tank) - a turbojet fighter Focke-Wulf Ta 183. This fighter is actually not destined to rise into the sky, but he had a huge influence on the development of aviation. The aircraft design was revolutionary: had the Ta 183 swept wing and the characteristic arrangement of the air inlet. Later, these technological solutions were used in the design of the Soviet MiG-15 and American F-86 Sabre - classic cars after a military era.
Throughout the Second world war main weapon of air combat remained guns of different caliber. But the Germans were among the leaders in the field of missiles "air-air". One of them is the Ruhrstahl X-4 - had a liquid rocket engine and could reach speeds of up to 900 km/h. Management after the launch was carried out through two thin copper wires. The missile could be a good weapon against large and slow bombers B-17 and B-24. However, reliable data on the military use of this X-4 no. The pilot was hard to simultaneously manage the missile and the aircraft, so required the second pilot.
Created the Nazis and guided weapons class "air-surface". It is worthwhile to recall radio-controlled gliding bomb FX-1400 Fritz X, which was used in the second half of the war against allied ships. But the effectiveness of these weapons was ambiguous, but as the allies winning air superiority, air attacks on ground targets for the Luftwaffe retreated to the background.
All these developments, of course, was ahead of its time, but they did not go to any comparison with the Silbervogel. "Silver bird" was the most ambitious military project of the Third Reich in all the years of its existence. The project was an partially-orbital bomber-spaceship, designed to strike at the Soviet Union and the United States. The concept suggested by the Austrian scientist Eugen, singer (Eugen Sanger). The bomber could carry up to 30 thousand kg bomb loads, if it was about attacks on U.S. territory - the load was reduced to 6 thousand kg. the weight of the aircraft was 10 tons, and its length reached 28 m In the rear fuselage housed a liquid propulsion rocket engine thrust up to 100 tons !!!!, on the sides there were two auxiliary rocket engine.
To start I would singer proposed to create a railway track with a length of about 3 km the Aircraft was placed on a special sled, they could be fixed and additional accelerators. Due to this, the device was to accelerate on the track up to 500 m/s, and then to gain altitude with the aid of its own engines. "Ceiling", which could reach Silbervogel, was equal to 260 km, which actually made it a spacecraft.
There were some variants of combat use Silbervogel, but they were all involve a number of risks (loss of pilot and aircraft) and technical problems, which at the time was impossible to resolve. This was the reason that in 1941 the project was abandoned. By the time he was on stage paper drawings. At the end of the war, however, German leadership once again interested in the project, but then in its realisation, no one believed. After the war, scientists conducted calculations and found that Sengera designed machine would have crumbled immediately after entering the atmosphere. Thus it is impossible not to mention the audacity of German engineers, because the concept was ahead of its time by decades.
Fighter the Messerschmitt 262 IU carrying a truly formidable armament of four 30 mm cannons MK-108. One volley was enough to send a heavy bomber b-17 to the light But maneuverable screw heavy twin-engine fighters Me.262 to compete was problematic (played the role of a small rate of fire MK-108). By the way, one 262 was made by Soviet flying ACE Ivan Kozhedub.
Heinkel he 162 was nicknamed "people's fighter", because I had become widespread and available in the development of jet dishwasher. He was armed with two 20 mm MG 151 cannons and could reach the speed of 800 km/h Until the end of the war managed to build only fighters Not 116 162, in battle, they almost were not applied.
Everybody has definitely heard about the German rocket "FAU-1 and FAU-2". The first of these was a glider-bomb, and the second was the world's first ballistic missile. These missiles were used in war, but with military-strategic point of view the result of their use has been negligible. But missiles "FAU" were a major source of problems for residents of London, which has often been their target.
But there was a more original project "weapons of retaliation" - "V-3". Despite the similar names, the latter had little in common with "FAU-1 and FAU-2". It was a huge mnogogolosnoy gun, which was also called "high pressure Pump". The project was developed under the leadership of designer, Koenders (August Conders). The length of the gun was 130 m, it consisted of 32 sections - each of them had a side charging bolt. The gun was supposed to use a special arrow-shaped shells, a length of 3.2 m. the Maximum distance of fire was 165 km, but the weight of the explosive charge was not more than 25 kg. the gun can do up to 300 shots per hour.
Positions for these guns wanted to equip near the coast of the English channel. They were located just 95 miles from the British capital, and the destruction of London could be serious. Despite the fact that the gun was in a special protective tunnels, they were completely destroyed during an air RAID on 6 July 1944. In the end, the original "V-3" and did not participate in the war. But its reduced counterpart was more fortunate - LRK 15F58 twice were used to bombard Luxembourg in the winter of 1944-1945. Maximum range of fire for the cannons was 50 km, the weight of the projectile was equal to 97 kg.
Much more ambitious Nazi development was the A-9/A-10 Amerika-Rakete. As the name implies, the purpose of the rockets were the U.S., so A-9/A-10 could become the world's first Intercontinental missile. Reliable information about it, too, almost none. In addition, after the war the rocket was surrounded by the area of hoaxes. Some sources state that by the end of the war, the rocket was nearly ready. This could hardly be true. It is doubtful that such a missile could be used for military purposes, probably, the project Amerika-Rakete by the end of the war and remained on paper.
The first stage of the rocket was supposed to be starting the accelerator A-10, which provided vertical start and had to separate himself at the height of 24 km, and Then in the case entered the second stage which was fitted with wings And a rocket-9. She clocked Amerika-Rakete up to 10 thousand km/h and lift her to a height of 350 km In the case of A-9 the main problem could become sustainable aerodynamic supersonic flight, which was impossible in those years. Theoretically, the rocket can fly with German territory to the coast in around 35 minutes. The explosive charge was 1000 kg, and the guided missiles were to be installed in the Empire State Building, radio beacon (for mounting the Nazis wanted to use their agents). Supposedly, to restore, could also be used pilot, who was in a pressurized cabin. After adjusting the flight A-9 he had to eject from a height of 45 km.
The Germans were the first who made anti-tank guided missiles. The first one was RuhrstahlХ-7 that existed in aviation and land-based versions. The rocket was controlled through the two insulated wires to control X-7 was visually, using a special joystick. In combat, the missile was used episodic, and the beginning of mass production prevented the end of the war.
"V-2" was created by the great German designer Werner von Braun (Wernher von Braun). Baptism of fire of missile took place on 8 September 1944, and was produced 3225 combat starts. Range "V-2" was 320 km It was sufficient to defeat the cities in the UK. Victims of rocket attacks were mostly civilians - hit "V-2" cost the lives of 2.7 million people. "V-2" had a liquid propellant rocket engine, which allowed to reach the speed of 6120 km/h.
Sometimes among samples of the "miracle weapons" attributed to German u-boats type XXI and type XXIII. They were the first submarines in the world, is able to be permanently under water. The boat was built at the end of the war and participation in combat operations almost did not accept. Strictly speaking, the war in the Atlantic was lost to Germany in 1943, and the Navy gradually lost to the Nazi leadership of its former value.
The main question can be formulated as follows: could the German "miracle weapon" to exert a significant influence on the course of the war and tilt the balance towards the Third Reich? On it we said well-known historian, author of many works on the theme of the First and Second world war, Yuri Bachurin: - "Wonder weapons" could hardly change the course of world war II, and here's why. Already because of the complexity of the construction project, with limited resources, Hitler's Germany was not able to establish serial production of this or that "weapons of retaliation". The single specimens in any event, would have been powerless against the total power of the red army and the allied forces. Not to mention the fact that many of the projects "the free" were a dead-end technologically. Armored vehicles among the most expressive examples are the heavy "rodents" - tanks "Mouse" (Maus) and a Rat (Ratte). First, after its embodiment in metal, the Germans were unable to evacuate at the approach of the red army. Second, when the projected mass up to 1000 tons, and it appeared to be stillborn - it did not come to build the prototype. Search "free" for Germany was a kind of military-technical escapism. Accordingly, the display losing the war the Reich from the crisis at the front, in industry, etc., he wouldn't.
The authors Ilya Vedenko and Yuri Bachurin
Tags: assessment , armed forces , Germany , AME