In the last article we looked at what are digital state at its core, what ideas they are based and what was the first operating system in the United States and the Soviet Union.
Now let's go to the important period when the possibility of combining disparate technologies on a single platform was found with the desire to make them massive.
Meet the consumer
In the review of the first digital state, we stopped at 1980-ies and noted that in the United States by that time formed the thematic research group and implemented several it solutions. For example, submitting tax returns via a single information portal.
In the 90s the term "digital state" did not exist. It was offered later, but some ideas were in Vogue. In 1993, U.S. President bill Clinton attended to the problem of efficiency of the state apparatus and formed the analytic group. In the same year she introduced the report, which proposed steps to reduce bureaucracy and refocus on the needs of citizens.
In 1997 came a report "Modernization gossistem on the basis of information technologies". It has formed the basic idea of the TT — the Ministry had to start using it to improve the efficiency of interaction between citizens, business and government. Special attention in the report was paid to the synergy services and technologies. Based on these developments were formed by "the Memorandum on the digital state". It was addressed to the heads of Executive bodies and agencies that later joined to work.
The Memorandum set out a number of guiding principles of the concept of the TT. One of the main principles applied to the work with information and ordered to organize it, not on individual departments and on categories of services. The second principle is openness and ease of interaction of citizens with state institutions and the provision of information in understandable form. Third — the security and confidentiality of such interaction.
In December 1999, the Clinton administration undertook the first attempts of implementation of the digital state in the country. By 2000, 43% of Americans were providedaccess to the Internet, so the situation was conducive to implementing the idea of a public digital public services portal. It was launched in 2000 on a domain FirstGov.gov now — renamed USA.gov.
In 2001, George Bush succeeded bill Clinton as President of the United States. His presidential program included the development of the concept of the TT: "the Advanced digital state" included the need to improve it in the public sector, simplification of business processes and unification of information flows of various government ministries and departments.
To achieve these objectives, in 2002 established a special working group. She selected 24 initiatives and prepared an economic justification for each of them, estimating the potential costs, benefits and risks. Among them were services such as E-Authentication (portal of digital signatures); GovBenefits.gov (portal public benefits); Business Gateway (portal for business).
The Central event in the process of expansion of the CG system was the adoption of the "Law on digital government" in 2002. Its provisions established a special Department in the OMB encouraged the use of it in the provision of public services and interagency communications.
In 2003 was published the updated strategy digital state. She put the interests of citizens in the spotlight — in a document dated phrases such as "access in three clicks".
Other important ideas related to interagency communications, attracting and retaining a skilled workforce to support all it initiatives. During the year, with the publication of the law was launched portals such as volunteer.gov (to coordinate volunteer groups) and regulations.gov (for the publication of official documents of government agencies).
The strategy also addressed the recommendations for working with the information architecture of governmental companies (Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework). The first version of best practices was launched in 1999. It is based on the Model Sukmana.
The main objective is to improve the efficiency of ministries and departments. Strategy digital state 2003 emphasized the role of this set of best practices. He was one of the first integrated approach for centralization and unification of information services.
A study of 2004 conducted by the American Association of public administration and the UN, confirmed that all the efforts of the U.S. government have not been in vain — the country ahead of the other member States of the UN in the development of the TT.
However, in most cases, citizens still had either on the phone or in person to seek services. The problem lies in the fact that electronic forms are often needed to Supplement the paper statements with the signature and in some States just did not have access to any electronic government services. We have a situation where there was all the necessary infrastructure, legislation and strategy, but there was not a single format systems CG. With this authorities had to deal in the following years.
Asian digital state
Not only the US authorities were concerned about the transition to a new level of government and public services. The leaders along with the foreign countries with the highest penetration of Internet Dating and Asian States.
So, great strides towards building a digital state reached Singapore. Already in the 80s the country has embarked on a national plan to "computerize". In the framework established the national computer Board (NCB). One of the important directions of his work was the computerization of public services. In the early stages, the Council was engaged in automation of business functions and workflow in government agencies.
In 1989 was launched TradeNet portal, which served as a single platform for trade and logistics operations. By 2000, the country has a strategy IT2000 Masterplan. A substantial part of it dedicated to consolidating it resources around solving tasks of the country's citizens. The result was a proposed "action Plan on the implementation of the TT" for 2000-2003. His basic premise — government agencies should no longer be isolated from each other and provide comprehensive services.
For example, since 2003, all Singapore residents aged 15 years may apply to receive SingPass — digital identity for transactions with a government portal online services.
Their programs to create digital state was China, and South Korea. But we will focus on Japan, which today is among the leaders in the field of digitalization of public services. In the period from 1999 to 2005, the government of Japan has suggested several directions of development of the TT: the Basic principles of a society based on information and communications; Lawgoverning these principles; program e-Japan, which contains all the steps to build digital society; and finally she program to build the TT.
In 1997, the country launched a unified information platform, which brings together ministries and agencies — Kasumigaseki WAN. An important step for dissemination of the concept of CG was the adoption in 2000 of the Charter of the global information society. The idea was that all people should be available to the benefit of the society. The document was to be signed the members of the Big eight. Russia has become one of the countries signatories to the Charter.
The emergence of digital government in Russia
Even before the signing of the Charter in Russia, attempts have been made to the digitalization of the public sector, for example, the creation of the "concept of state information policy". By 1998, it was prepared by profile Committee of the State Duma. The concept is an analogy with other documents of that time, made in the USA. Society's interests were the priority, and it served as a tool for their service.
A continuation of the ideological concept was the Federal program "Development of Informatization in Russia for the period till 2010". She regarded as practical issues like infrastructure, socio-economic and moral aspects of it at the state level, the observance of cultural and historical traditions, values and ideals. The document has not been approved. Thus, to the signing of the Charter on global information society Russia came without a current plan or project digital state. However, like other members of the Big eight, the country has committed itself to develop it sector for the benefit of society.
Specific measures have been taken with the launch of the Federal program "Electronic Russia". It was launched in 2002, but its implementation was complicated by the fact that only 19% of government staff and 1% of government officials had access to the Network. The situation was reflected in the indexes of readiness for a digital state within ten years Russia has not been able to move on 50-th place. In 2003, among the leaders were the US, Chile, Australia, Mexico and the UK. In 2005 , the United States, Denmark, Sweden, UK, South Korea. Russia was between Uruguay and the Republic of Belarus.
However, already in 2003, Russia began to implement the project on a large-scale introduction of information technologies in Federal agencies. According to Leonid Reiman, who served in that time as Minister of information technologies and communications, approximately 80% of the agencies and departments have moved to electronic document management in the early 2000s. However, summing up the program, the Ministry was forced to admit disappointing results. "Electronic Russia" has not achieved its goals, but later said Leonid Reiman, laid important foundations for the development of CG in Russia.
About how continued development of the TT we have in other countries, will be discussed in the next section.
Tags: information Society