There are a few issues that will not allow us to sleep at night, and they relate to the ultimate destiny of the whole cosmos. The stars light up, replace them with new, they too fade, and all is repeated until the Universe runs out of fuel. The galaxies merge and throw away matter, and the space between groups and clusters of galaxies will expand forever.
Dark energy leads to the fact that this expansion is not only inexorable, but is accelerating. But whether such will be the end? Can this "wide gap" (where it will eventually be infinitely far away from each other) lead to a new "big Bang"? When the universe will expand fast enough to break the atoms and separate them from the quarks... is Formed if the quark-gluon soup?
At stake is the fate of the Universe, anyway.
What will happen to the Universe in the end?
If you look at a random distant galaxy in the Universe a high probability that you will find that it will glow more red than the stars that glow in our galaxy. Back in the 1920-ies scientists found that this pattern is preserved in General: the farther the galaxy, the redder its light. In the context of General relativity, it became quickly clear that this is due to the expansion of the very fabric of space over time.
The next step was to quantitatively calculate how quickly the universe is expanding and how this rate has varied over time. The reason for the importance of this, from a theoretical point of view, is that the history of the expansion of the Universe determined that it was. If you want to learn what makes up your universe on the largest scales, measuring how the universe has expanded over cosmic time, will help you.
If your universe is filled with substance, you would expect that the rate of expansion will fall in proportion as the substance will be diluted. If it is filled with radiation, the rate of expansion will fall even more, because the radiation itself is the redshift and lose energy. The universe with spatial curvature, cosmic strings, or energy inherent in the space, everything will develop differently, depending on the ratios of all components of energy.
Based on the full set of measurements, we were able to implement, including variable stars, galaxies of different types and properties and supernova type Ia and cosmic microwave background, and clustering and correlations of galaxies, we were able to determine exactly what the universe is made. In particular, it consists of:
- 68% of dark energy;
- 27% of dark matter;
- Only 4.9% of ordinary matter;
- 0,09% neutrinos;
- 0.01% of the radiation.
Plus or minus correction in a few tenths of a percent in each case.
Our universe, dominated by dark energy, is particularly interesting because this component of the Universe did not exist, not to mention his dominance. And yet, here we are, after 13.8 billion years after the Big Bang, we live in a Universe where dark energy drives the expansion of the Universe.
Dark energy surrounds a lot of questions. What is its nature? Where does it come from? It is constant or changing with time? Final answers no, but indicates that dark energy is a cosmological constant. In other words, it behaves as a new form of energy intrinsic to space. With the expansion of the Universe, she creates a new space which contains all of the same uniform amount of dark energy.
Anyway, that's our best idea at the moment. From a theoretical point of view there are several known ways to create a cosmological constant, and therefore, this explanation — until then while the data are consistent with it — will remain preferred. But there is no reasons why dark energy may not be something more complex.
It can be something that eroded with time, becoming less and less dense, albeit slightly. It can be something that changes the sign in the distant future leads to the re-creation of the Universe in the Big Compression. It can also be something that becomes stronger, accelerating and expanding the Universe over time. This option causes the script of the Big Gap.
When we talk about any component of energy in the Universe, we speak about its equation of state, which describes how she evolyutsioniruet over time in the Universe. Astrophysics is used for the parameter w, where w = 0 corresponds to matter, w = 1/3 corresponds to the radiation, w = -1 corresponds to the cosmological constant.
Dark energy apparently has w= -1, but this is not accurate. For example, the new work collaborations Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam, has added new restrictions to the equation of state of dark energy. Although dark energy very convincingly corresponds to w = -1, there is also speculation that she could be even more negative. If she really is — if it turns out that w < -1 and not -1 is then a Big Gap inevitable.
If a Large Gap is inevitable, the universe is not only expanding, but distant objects are accelerating away from us faster and faster over time (due to dark energy). But also objects that are kept together due to any fundamental forces that will eventually be broken to the increasing force of dark energy.
Through many billions of years in the future our local group will see how the stars on the outskirts will be thrown into space because of gravity come off from our future of a distant galaxy: Mlekojedy. Over time, more and more stars are thrown out, it is not destroyed the structure known to us as galaxy and will not turn into a disjointed collection of billions of stars and stellar corpses.
Over time the world will be jumping out of their solar systems, because the dark energy will increase, and then even the planets will be broken. In the very last moments held by atomic and molecular forces, objects will be broken, will break electrons from their atoms, atomic nuclei would fall apart, and even the quarks will be separated. And then they will explode.
Whether we are waiting for new Big Bang?
If a Large Gap is a correct model of the Universe, everything in the Universe will be reduced to the most fundamental parts of something much matching the first stages of the Big Bang.
However, the quark-gluon plasma will be different from what it was during the Big Bang. First, the Big Bang is characterized by hot and dense state, a Big Gap will be extremely cold and dispersed. Secondly, the Big Bang is characterized by the fact that all matter and energy in the Universe compressed into a tiny volume of space, but with a Large Gap they will be dispersed in the trillions of light years away. In addition, the Big Bang represents a state of relatively low entropy, but with a Large entropy Gap is 10to 35 times more than at the Big Bang.
But there is hope.
Perhaps dark energy, which will lead to a Large Gap, will be able to restart the Universe. If the strength of dark energy increases, this dark energy is inherent in the fabric of space itself, and thus can be completely the same early period in the history of our Universe, when space was expanding with a huge speed: cosmic inflation. Inflation eliminates all pre-existing matter and energy in the Universe, leaving only the fabric of space. After a period of inflation the energy is somehow converted into particles, antiparticles and radiation, which leads to the Big Bang. This scenario has already been considered previously and is known as the rejuvenated universe.
If a Big Gap is a true scenario of the end of the Universe, he will just tear all matter apart and the universe would be very empty, but with a huge amount of energy intrinsic to space. If the energy is very large, you may break the fabric of space itself — but this is a completely different scenario.
Tags: science , space