2018 in science. A year of great discoveries
Material posted: Publication date: 01-01-2019

China is in the spotlight after making copies of organisms and return to our natural satellite. Here is the will's most famous theoretical physicist. Research, rewriting prehistory. The article presents the ten best scientific research in recent months.

China is conducting a new experiment with monkeys

Thanks to two eight-month-old monkeys once again become a hot topic of cloning. On the arrival of the Chung Chung and Hua Hua, the two female macaques, it was announced on January 24. Put together (Zhonghua) their names make up the phrase "Chinese people". And in this country was made by the most progressive (at least from an ethical point of view) steps in science. Many Western laboratories have abandoned this technique for getting stem cells, there are already easier ways. However, the Shanghai scientists have not forgotten the main direction of this research. After Chung Chung and Hua Hua, the transition to human is already less than incredible. It is no coincidence that at the end of November from the same China received the news about the birth of the first girls with the modified DNA.

Dinosaurs: the boom after the flood

Somewhere in the period from 232 to 234 million years ago, something happened. After that, the Earth very distant from each other points from Dolomite to South America — left a layer of reddish brittle rocks. Scientists Science Museum (Muse) of Trento and the University of Ferrara today there is a hypothesis, published April 16 in the journal Nature Communications. It was probably kind of a deluge: a long, incessant rain, caused by volcanic eruptions, increasing CO2 and climate change. The so-called Carnic pluvial episode also caused a revolution in the ecosystem. Dinosaurs before the flood represented 5-10% of animal species found in the fossil form, after the disasters amounted to 80%.

The Expansion Of The Universe

14 Mar died astrophysicist Stephen Hawking (Stephen Hawking). His latest study, published posthumously in late April, leaves us a legacy of universe, devoid of one of its most acute problems of eternal inflation. We are talking about the hypothesis under which it is believed that the universe in its emergence widened for a split second, triggering the birth of a new universe with relatively new inflation. And so on, during the endless process of the emergence of universes. Hawking until his death worked on the alternative hypothesis, the last article entitled "a Smooth exit from eternal inflation?" (A Smooth Exit from Eternal Inflation?). The question mark at the end remains in the reminder that this is only a hypothesis. However, even the benefit of doubt is already a wonderful gift. The last before parting with the scientist.

Neutrinos and black hole in Antarctica

This little messenger is such a huge message. Detector "Isub" (IceCube) in the Antarctic caught a neutrino IC-170922A, telling us the story of a period of five billion years. That's how much time the particle traveled, avoiding a huge black hole, moving in the direction of Orion. The researchers would not be able to decode this signal without the help of other 15 experiments on Earth and in space, who described the events of the cataclysm after the analysis of the radiation of gamma rays, i.e. photons with higher energy level. Even if "capture" neutrinos goes back to September 2017, the publication of his "interrogation" took place on 12 July. This is a new stage in the development of so-called multichannel astronomy, using a variety of tools to observe this unique phenomenon.

Italian radar detects the presence of water on Mars

It is the driest desert land on Earth. But something indicates that once Mars had lots of water. The beds of dried rivers and traces of creeks were seen on the surface of the planet space probes. This year the Italian radar Marsis (Marsis), which was in orbit around the red planet to probe interplanetary station "Marsexpress" (MarsExpress), discovered the first proof of the existence of her water in liquid form. Martian lake is not on the surface, tormented by the winds and cosmic rays, and ice thickness of half a kilometer near its South pole. Italian 99% opening, which was attended by young researchers involved in the project on a temporary basis, has earned a place on the cover of the magazine "science" (Science) on July 25. Team leader Roberto Orosei (Orosei Roberto), was invited to talk about this at the ceremony of awarding the Nobel prize in Stockholm.

If in Siberia the mother — Neandertals

And even more surprising. Homo sapiens and Neanderthal. Neanderthal man and the Denisovsky person. Between our ancestors came quite diverse pairing. Confirmation of this appeared on August 22 in the journal Nature: one woman 90 thousand years ago, discovered in a cave in Siberia, possessed DNA, obviously indicating its hybrid origin. The mother of this woman were the Neandertals, and his father, Denisovsky man. It was also found after some time and due to a number of discoveries that the meeting between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals, previously considered to be accidental, occurred frequently and regularly, and even still — how do you evaluate scientists — about 2% of the genome of Europeans and Asians is the legacy of our ancient ancestors. Even the shape of the skull — according to the magazine "karrent Biology" (Current Biology) 13 Dec depends on our ancestors: the holders of the elongated shape have to thank for her Neanderthals.

Bull rock, rock painting

As appeared in the cave that bull? Paunchy, with thin legs, with a strip of ochre, eye-catching side (probably arrow) — this bull, painted on the rock, is considered the first specimen of fine arts was created 40 thousand years ago. At first glance it appears to be just a colour stain, and reveal the pattern can not immediately. However, we are in the cave Lubang Saleh Jeridi in Borneo, where thousands of rock drawings of the subject, the most ancient, has been found in the last few years. So, a group of Australian scientists decided to publish their observations in the journal Nature on 7 November. This year was the first figure in South Africa. He's 73 thousands of years, but it is not the subject of the painting: the network of horizontal and vertical lines can be compared with the lattice of a hashtag.

A soft landing on Mars, "Insight"

60% of the probes trying to land on Mars crashed on the surface. So on November 26, when "insight" (InSight) entered the atmosphere of the red planet and began landing (the so-called six-and-a-half minutes of horror), NASA scientists gripped the chair. Everything was in accordance with the instructions and the U.S. space Agency has confirmed its special relationship with Mars (only his are successful, "primirenie"). The first photos showed the probe with deployed solar panels, located on the highlands of the Elysium, and a few hundred metres — heat shield and parachute, by which was effected the landing. Mission "insight", all scheduled for 2019, is to record earthquakes occurring on the red planet.

Record the approach of the probe to the Sun

Never before probe not seen the Sun so close. 27 millions of kilometers away, the temperature reaches thousands of degrees (and closer — already 1300). "Parker solar Prob" (Parker Solar Probe), a NASA instrument, on 8 November took a picture of a crown, consisting of particles charged with electricity of the plasma, turned into a kind of fiery language because of the effect of the solar wind. However, taking off on 12 August, "Parker solar Prob", the result of a project conceived 60 years ago, will reach the distance of six million kilometres in 2024, moving with a maximum speed of 190 kilometers per second (another record). The biggest mystery associated with our star, is that why the corona 300 times hotter the surface. However, the probe will also need to establish what is the origin of the huge acceleration of the solar wind.

Beijing flying on the dark side of the moon

The flight took place on 8 December. The direction of the ship — the dark side of the moon. China plans to land on the surface of the lunar Rover to make another scientific discovery of the year. The measuring robot is called "Chang'e-4" in honor of the goddess of the moon from Chinese mythology. He reaches the satellite, probably in January, by landing in one of the most uneven areas: the crater of the Pocket, near the South pole, where one of the largest ancient asteroid struck our companion. According to Beijing media, the purpose of the mission is to plant potatoes and other seeds in the lunar soil. The goal is ambitious, given that the constant darkness and the temperature is around -173 degrees it supplies the probe with energy.

Elena Douzy (Elena Dusi)

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