Today the theme of the famine 30-ies in Ukraine is often used by anti-Soviet with a view to defame and denigrate the Soviet period of history of our country. Modern "historians" slandering against the "Stalinist totalitarian regime", are silent about the fact that the problem of hunger in the 30-ies was similar to all countries of the world, including the most advanced capitalist countries. Particularly hard hit by the famine in Europe and America broke out during the so-called great depression – a crisis born of the very essence of the capitalist system. The result of this crisis has led to mass suicide, hunger and poverty of millions of workers in Western countries.
The bourgeois scribblers and liistory silent about the fact that the fight against hunger, the Soviet government paid a lot of attention. In particular affected regions, including Ukraine, assistance from Central reserves. In addition, punished the guilty, i.e. those who have allowed or provoked the famine – negligent managers, kulaks, saboteurs, etc. Soon, the Soviet people have solved the food issue completely. In the capitalist countries, during a famine, the authorities left the common people to mass death, thinking only about saving capital and the big bourgeoisie. The capital also came out of that crisis in the most bloody way by the outbreak of the Second world war.
To provide objective coverage of this subject readers are excerpts from the book N.Lativok and E. Mazur, "1932 – 1933: famine in Europe and America; 1992 – 2009: genocide in Ukraine".
In 1929 – 1933 the global economic crisis (i.e. Great depression) covered almost all the capitalist countries and was accompanied by mass unemployment and, consequently, hunger, high mortality. Unemployment benefits were given occasionally in very small amounts – $ 1-2.
All this created the preconditions for the arrival of fascist regimes in Spain, Italy, Germany and some other European countries. Note that fascism, like the medieval Inquisition, there arose in the countries of Catholicism and Protestantism. The extermination of the peoples again, went under the slogan "God with us".
Especially a lot of material on hunger in the United States, Canada and Europe placed in an American newspaper "Ukrainian schodenni Visti" ("USCHV", "The Ukrainian Daily News" – moderni journal, prisvyacheno teresam pracujacego Ukrayinsky people in Spolucheni Powers (SD =USA = USA) I Canad, vicodin home, besides the reigning Holy).
In the binder of this newspaper for 1932, preserved at the National library, the U.S. and libraries in other countries, more than 200 messages about the hungry campaigns of workers and unemployed in different States, more than 170 suicide in connection with the crisis, unemployment and hunger: bankers, entrepreneurs, farmers, workers and the unemployed in Europe and the United States.
In the report of the Director of the International Labour Office of A. Thomas, which was one of the institutions of the League of Nations, in April 1932 it was reported that in 1931 the world was 20-25 million unemployed. "This means, – says Thomas – that 70 million people were deprived of means of subsistence ("USCHV" from 27.04.32 g) including in the United States starving 25 million, in new York city – 250 thousand ("USCHV" from 25.08.32)
At the beginning of 1932 in Europe, there were more than 11 million unemployed, including: in Germany, 6 million (later 8 million) in England – 2.5 million, Italy 1.5 million, in France – 0,3 million ("USCHV" from 11.06.32)
In the capitalist countries was dominated by unemployment and famine, and the rise in prices and a reduction in nominal wages. Workers and the unemployed, intellectuals and peasants organized strikes, hunger marches, demanded: "Work! Salary! Bread!" The government responded with mass repression directed against them by the gendarmes and even the regular troops with machine guns. Raged the courts. The newspaper "USCHV" cites DENR – terrible statistics of increasing repression: "If in 1925 the number of those killed before the trial was to 9.87%, in 1931 – to 33.9%. During this period, much increased the proportion of death sentences: in 1925 – 0,37 %, in 1931 – 8,4 %. The number of victims of the white terror in 1931 amounted to 1090 thousand; for the period 1925-31 the years – 3 million people ("USCHV" from 08.11.32).
The government and press of the capitalist countries concealed the facts of the starvation of the unemployed, and especially the mass mortality. However, in Newspapers and magazines, has appeared regularly notes about the famine and its consequences in Europe and America. Here is a brief press review of the time.
Poland. The famine in Western Ukraine
Recall that prior to 1939 (and 1945), Western Ukraine (8 regions) was part of Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Austria-Hungary.
The chronology of press reports:
Berlin, 09.01.32, the newspaper "Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung": "three-year economic crisis in the country and enslaving the position of the peasantry led to the ruin and collapse of the Polish agriculture and without low-power and backward. Arrears on agriculture has already reached 1 billion zlotys (1 zloty 22 rubles). Living under the threat of bankruptcy government, ruthlessly knocks the arrears of the poor peasantry. Particularly fierce exactions fall upon the Ukrainians and Belarusians. The arrival of the bailiff throws the village into a panic. He appears accompanied by the guards and Maklakov, describes all more or less valuable, described immediately sold for a pittance". According to "USCHV" it was possible to buy a cow for three dollars, a horse for 20 cents.
The Polish newspaper "New hour": "In the Hutsul region the number of hungry households in 1932 reached 88.6%. Property of Polish landowners in these years has reached 37% in the Stanislav province, 49% in woodland. On the landlords ' land even in lean years, farmers have worked for 16 or 18 minutes bundle. In March, starving completely kosivskogo 40 villages, 12 villages and 10 Naddvirnyanskogo – kolomiysky counties". The newspaper notes: "an epidemic of People starve and die on the go. Especially cracking down hunger in the villages – Perehresnyah, Old gvizdtsy Ostrovtsy. Along with hunger quickly spread typhoid and tuberculosis."
Until 1929 Huzulschyna for polonisation of the region were resettled from Poland 16,000 families of Polish military and civilian colonists. They transferred 600 thousand hectares of Hutsul land".
In another room of the "New hour" in the article "report from the Hutsul" the correspondent writes: "Sorry, brothers-Hutsuls, I never believed your stories about the devastated villages "king-hunger", but now in Coloma, I made myself".
Hungry people in Western Ukraine and suffered national oppression of Poland: if the resident Krakowsko province paid 30 zlotys poll tax, the resident of the Western Ukraine – 35 PLN. Carpathian forests are ruthlessly cut down the colonists.
Lviv newspaper reported that in the Carpathian population of Western Ukraine live in terrible poverty. In Kalush province there are villages where hunger entire families have been decimated. After the ban by the Polish government to engage in wood craft in a bad year Hutsuls had no means of subsistence. The government no famine relief is not provided. People dying families.
The American newspaper "Ukrainski Visti Soden" describes in detail the horrors of the famine in Western Ukraine. These are just some: "Jahlive hunger Sered Sered girskogo hungry population" ("USCHV" od 10.04.32 R.). Describing the horrors of the famine, the newspaper calls reasons: "If three years ago on deforestation lumberjack earned 6 angry on alloy – 8, and in this forest was estimated at 70 angry., now cutting – 2, and in the city – 18 angry. There is not enough money for food, not only of the family, and of the woodcutter. In the article "Scho write z Galychyny" (USCHV from 05.04.32 R.) the writer writes about excessive taxes and, due to the low purchasing power of the population hungry peasants sell the horse for 5 or 10 evils, i.e. for half a dollar. The author writes that he wanted to buy himself a pig, but cut in private is not allowed, and to kill, to pay the tax, get permission, etc. need to have a lot of money, but they are not.
In the same newspaper from 04.05.31 in the article "Ukrainian children in Western Ukraine prohibited to speak Ukrainian language" talking about the Polish teacher Maria Voicelessly, which is fine Ukrainian students at 3 a penny for the use in school of their native Ukrainian language.
In the article from 05.04.32 "15,000 children in Transcarpathia are threatened by starvation" sets out the statements of the deputies of the opposition parties in the Czech Parliament: "In the mountainous districts of many villages where the food consists of children from a small amount of oat bread and a few rotten potatoes. Prices for animals and property unusually low because of high taxes: cow – $ 3., horse 20 cents. The Czech authorities are guilty before the Ukrainian Carpathians and the fact that in this poor province where there is not enough bread for half a million population, have moved 50 thousand Czech settlers, mainly former military and civil servants who with the brutality of medieval conquerors realize there is a policy of czechization and economic exploitation".
As you know, Transcarpathia was annexed to the USSR in 1945 Since then, the population of the Transcarpathian region began to grow rapidly and, in 1956, amounted to 0.9 million people (Ol. Dibrova, Geography of the USSR, p. 130), in 1993, reached 1.28 million Since 1995 Transcarpathia is dying, in 2006 the population was already 1.24 million people.
In the article "Starvation prevails in the villages of Hutsulshchyna" ("USCHV" from 16.04.32 g) the author notes: "In rural huts are the whole family, swollen from starvation. Hundreds of people have fever kills in the coffin, and old and young. In the village of Ash solid evening darkness; no kerosene, no matches." In the article "the Famine in Western Ukraine increased" ("USCHV", may 1932) noted that national oppression, pogroms, punitive expeditions, confiscation of the crop destroying hungry Western Ukrainian village. Poles-the invaders cut down the forests. Wood sold at dumping prices abroad. Poles predatory policy quickly yielded results. Did not the forests, the rivers annual flood. Floods destroy entire villages. Since the great flood of 1927, dozens of villages have not yet been restored. Farmers are not received from the state no assistance.
In the article "the Three peasants, 2 Ukrainian and 1 Polish origin, was sentenced to death for the uprising in Lviv Voivodeship" ("USCHV" from 25.07.32) reported that the rebellious peasants against the Polish army uses the aircraft. In the article "Ukrainian peasants in the armed struggle with the army of Poland" ("USCHV" from 23.07.32) reported that there are dozens dead, more thousands wounded.
In the April issue of the newspaper in the article "West Ukrainian village is starving" ("USCHV", April 1932), the author emphasizes that the tax robbery, usury, the fragmentation of farms, lack of draft power, teleoperative of machinery and equipment made agriculture of Poland such that it is in a normal year does not protect against hunger. Last year (1931) in addition to all this there were adverse weather conditions; a lot of bread killed by floods and hails – the peasants were on the edge of the abyss. In the article for 16.10.32 G. "In Western Ukraine rages against the workers and peasants of the terror of the fascist regime" lists the names of the victims in the hands of the police without trial.
Such articles of the "USCHV" very much. We present a few of these titles: "the Flood caused great damage in Romania and Yugoslavia" (09.04.32), "Hunger collects his harvest" (11.04.32 G.), "the State of permanent hunger" (17.04.32 G.), "the Catastrophic situation in the Transcarpathian Ukraine" (05.06.32), "Galician peasants rebelling against the new panschiny" (15.06.32), "Crocodile tears of the Polish social-fascists against the population of Western Ukraine" (08.04.32), "Two letters from a field of the class struggle in the West. Ukraine." A list of such articles and the chronology confirms that the famine in Western Ukraine, which was part of Poland, Romania and Czechoslovakia, was terrible, and the governments of these countries did nothing to help the population survive it, moreover, they have reduced workers ' wages, raised taxes, did not render medical care.
When you read these articles 75-year-old, "in the skin run the creeps". And it becomes terribly from the fact that today in the so-called "independent" Ukraine is THE SAME: UNEMPLOYMENT, PEONAGE IN POLAND, FAMINE, FLOODS...
Being a member of the bourgeois countries, the population of Western Ukraine were dying. For example, in Bukovina (Chernivtsi region) in 1920, there were 812 thousand. In 1956 – 800 thousand. With the advent of Soviet power, the population there grew, in 1993 amounted to 912 thousand to the elimination of socialism, the population of Chernivtsi region again fell to 905 thousand people (according to 2005). The situation is similar in other regions of Western Ukraine.
According to press reports the 30-ies of XX century there are signs of genocide in the regions of Western Ukraine by the authorities of Poland, Romania and Czechoslovakia, the population of Western Ukraine by creating unbearable living conditions: the overstatement of taxes; reduction of wages; prohibition of life to engage in fishing forest; settlements in Ukrainian lands of the colonists; slave labor of the Ukrainian children and women (18 hours a day); the execution of anti-hunger; repression of anti-hunger; non-payment and delay of wages; the prohibition of the media, spoke in defense of the hungry; squeezing taxes with the help of the army and the gendarmerie; the ban on Ukrainian children to speak the Ukrainian language in schools.
Hunger throughout Poland
Insatiable large private capital of the Polish magnates, by the government of the colonels, in the words of the French magazine "Jurnal de DeBa" by cutting jobs and entire production, reducing wages and raising taxes, "unhappy left the Polish population into the arms of the terrible famine". As 01.01.1932 G. according to official debt of Poland stood at PLN 4.6 billion, external – 458 million PLN. Only the interest on foreign loans in 1931 amounted to 350 million PLN. According to the newspaper "Proletarian": "foreign Exchange reserves "Polish Bank" dropped from 1.4 billion zloty in 1927 to 0.8 billion in 1931". According to estimates of the "Gazeta Polska" indebtedness of farms in Poland was on average 60% of the entire agriculture. In the article "Thousands of farms go to licitatie (forfeiture and sale) for debts" from 01.10.32 "USCHV" wrote: "the Warsaw Land Credit Union put on licitatii 1200 farms. Of these, 370 were not sold at the previous auction due to lack of funds from the buyers, 230 owners by that time were able to pay off debts. In the spring of 1933 preparing for licitatii 1500 farms. Only in the Land-the Credit Union was listed as 6000 debtors."
In order to get currency, which is then plundered Poland to sell their goods abroad at dumping prices, often at half the price: a ton of sugar – 232 PLN at a cost of PLN 500 oil – 20 at a cost of a penny to 60 penny. In just 1931, a loss of Polish due to the dumping prices amounted to half a billion PLN and this is when the state budget is only 2 billion zlotys ("USCHV" from 10.09.32)
In June 1932 the newspaper "workers" reported: "...the level of production of leading sectors in Poland amounted to: cast iron – 65% steel – 34%, coal – 65%, textile industry – 55% of the level in 1926, Last year's harvest on average 30% lower than the previous. Unemployed, over a million people, and their families – over three million. Only 100 thousand benefit".
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