In the middle of 1990-ies in Russia there was at first glance inconspicuous, but very important event. First the consumption of natural gas for domestic consumption exceeded oil consumption. This inconspicuous fact hides a very important trend. World's first natural gas began to be used in such a large scale and pushed oil as the main energy source is the engine of economy and progress as the Foundation of modern civilization.
To convince us that natural gas today is a wonderful fuel, environmentally and economically the most convenient energy carrier and excellent technological raw materials in most processes in the petrochemical industry, it is hardly necessary. At the same time, the share of natural gas in the energy balance of the world is rather small - 23%, which does not comply with his advantages compared to other energy sources. Accordingly, the rate of growth of the gas industry in most countries of the world is also low. Exceptions are countries such as Russia, the Netherlands, Norway and several others that already today, natural gas is the primary energy source and which can be considered in place of the "oil age"came the "era of natural gas" or "methane era".
1.Age of methane
A powerful introduction in the XX century in the energy market of oil and natural gas can be explained by the rapid development of power industry,aviation, automobile and sea transport, as well as the chemical industry, for which oil and natural gas was technically and economically the most convenient energy and excellent technological raw materials. An analysis of the prospects of world energy development leads to the conclusion that coal peaked in the 1930-ies, oil peaked in the 1980-ies and in the next 20-25 years, global oil production will decline, and to balance demand and supply in the global market is possible only with dvuhserijnom the increase in world prices.
Despite the fact that coal and oil is ongoing, it is clear that in the future a dominant position in the energy mix of countries they already occupy will not. Therefore, the immediate problem is to choose the optimal technical, economic and environmental points of view the strategy of using the cheapest and most efficient sources of primary energy to produce heat, electricity and motor fuel. The main source of energy for future needs over a longer period of time to ensure sustained economic growth, people's needs for energy services at acceptable prices objectively, reliable operation of energy supply systems, ensuring energy security and a healthy environment. These requirements will best meet natural gas as the most versatile,environmentally friendly and the most reliable in terms of resource provision source of energy. Ecological cleanness and high efficiency use of natural gas can significantly change the view of its possible role in the energy mix of the future world and to talk about the advent of natural gas,which is already today in Russia, as natural gas in the energy balance already has a share более50%.
Figure 1. The geographical distribution of geological reserves of natural gas by major region of the world at the end of 2009. trillion.cube.m
In recent years, along with such common terms as "natural gas" is increasingly used to hear phrases such as "liquefied natural gas","compressed natural gas", "shale natural gas","hydrates" or "hydrate of natural gases", etc. Today, thanks to the achievements of geological science become known and available to new so-called unconventional sources of natural gas. According to many specialists after the resources of free gas in the future in line will be the development of vast resources of natural gas dissolved in brine, and solid gas hydrates, which require the creation of appropriate technologies. Possible integrated use of the gas dissolved in the water, along with extraction of valuable components from mineral brines and the use of thermal energy. All of this suggests that natural gas is firmly entrenched in our life and occupied one of important places along with the electricity, petrol and other phenomena of modern civilization, and in the future he will take the place of the main primary energy carrier. But the widespread introduction of natural gas not only in industry but also in everyday life requires proper careful and economical and careful handling. At the same time economically feasible with the increase in gas production in the future, it is necessary, first, energy technological re-equipment of gas industry based on modern energy and resource saving technologies of extraction, transportation and processing of natural gas, and, secondly, a significant increase in the efficiency of gas use in industry and in everyday life.This will require technological reconstruction of gas facilities with its full automation and computerization fields,pipelines and consumers of natural ha. Natural gas is becoming one of the most effective motor fuels for automobiles,locomotives, airplanes and rockets, while reducing the intensity of air pollution by 40-60%. But before humanity is waiting for new discoveries that will expand the scope of application of natural gas.
2. Natural gas reserves
The proven gas reserves in the world amount to about 173 trillion cubic meters, if they are
to add more undiscovered reserves, according to preliminary calculations, amount to about 120 trillion cubic meters the total is about 300 trillion cubic meters. Such amount of gas to the people of earth will last about 65 years.
In addition, the IAEA reserves in the world:
- shale gas is about 500 trillion. cubic meters;
- coal mine methane be $ 260 trillion. cubic meters;
- the reserves of methane hydrates is about 23,000 trillion. cubic meters.
Figure 2. Major proven natural gas reserves of Earth (101 trillion.cube.m.) concentrated in three countries
Explored 50 trillion cubic meters of gas reserves in Russia such reserves with additional undiscovered reserves may be enough country for another 100 years. (according to the Deputy Chairman of the State Duma of Russia Valery ot). And if to consider, todokanai gas reserves approximately 25% of all gas burned in vain, rational use of natural gas, it is possible to"live" longer. Reserves for internal use to Iran will last for 227 years, and even Qatar on all 680 years!
Of course, these figures are very optimistic. Each year, the use of natural gas as fuel in the world is growing at 2.4%, and to 2030году the consumption would be doubled and about 26% of the total burn of hydrocarbons will have on the gas. The largest gas consumer is industry (45%), electricity(33 %).
Of the ten largest gas fields in the world (Fig. 3), the initial stocks at the end of 2009 was not less than 63 trillion. cubic meters, half is in Russia. The largest, however, South Pars/North is located in the territorial waters of Qatar and Iran.The reserves of the Deposit are estimated at 13.4 trillion. cubic meters of gas and 7bn. T. of oil. In second place in the world - Urengoy oil and gas condensate field with total geological reserves of 16 trillion. cubic meters and remaining reserves - 10,2 trillion. CBM is the youngest Deposit of the first ten Hansville - opened in USA in 2008
Until recently, exploration was limited. Currently searching only produced about 1/4 of promising gas areas. More than 2/3 of all exploratory wells drilled for gas in the U.S. and Canada, which represent only 1/7 of all prospects for oil and gas territories. Compared with USA other regions are poorly studied, and in some areas it is possible to expect the discovery of major gas reserves.
Figure 3. Ten largest gas fields in the world, trln.cube.m
3 . Shale natural gas
Recently about shale gas speak and write. -Shale gas is mostly methane, the same, but he's not focused in the underground traps, and at great depths are distributed in the pores of the rock. The exit of such gas to the surface are hindered by layers of clay and more dense rock that lies above.
Shale gas reserves in the world estimated by the IAEA are почти500 trillion. CBM. we Can say that shale gas is everywhere -somewhere more, somewhere less. As it accompanies the oil and natural gas, then obviously Russia is not inferior to other countries in the world. If the natural gas reserves in our country is estimated at 48 trillion cubic meters, while coal bed methane is over 80 trillion cubic meters, it can be expected that shale gas many times more. If necessary, in extreme circumstances it can get and need. What in the shale formations contain large reserves of natural gas, has been known for a long time, but now, according to many enthusiasts,there are new technologies to extract it without too much cost. A number of analysts give fantastic forecasts of increasing production of shale gas in the US, Europe, China, that threatens to put out of business traditional exporters, and the price of gas down to historic lows. However, the experience of development of shale deposits maintained for several years, shows that the situation with shale gas extraction is not as simple as we would like enthusiastic commentators.
Most light to extract shale gas occur at relatively small depths and will be quickly depleted. Have to drill to 3 km and deeper. In this case, according to the European professional organizations, the volumes of potential shale gas production in the EU will be in 2030 only 15 billion cubic meters per year. Incorrigible optimists dream of 40 billion cubic meters per year. Note that this лишь3-5% of projected natural gas imports. Obviously,the market paintings such minor additives will not change. Therefore, the production capacity of our gas "flows" will be loaded completely.
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