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Tire and rubber in Hitler's Germany
Material posted: Publication date: 30-04-2011

Briefly about natural rubber and how much of it was imported to Germany and how it happened. Hitler was taken autarkic (self-sufficient and create self-sustaining German government) To do this, Germany needed the following basic resources. Food, coal, oil and iron ore. If the coal problem was solved at the expense of own production, with the rest had significant problems. Somehow move iron ore and oil inside of Germany impossible, so it was supposed to push the boundaries of Germany, notwithstanding that the Deposit was inside.

As mentioned earlier, Hitler was taken autarkic (self-sufficient and create self-sustaining German government) To do this, Germany needed the following basic resources. Food, coal, oil and iron ore. If the coal problem was solved at the expense of own production, with the rest had significant problems. Somehow move iron ore and oil inside of Germany impossible, so it was supposed to push the boundaries of Germany, notwithstanding that the Deposit was inside. Iron ore was in Belgium, Luxembourg and France. The oil in the Caucasus. The food problem was to be solved by the USSR. Namely Ukraine. Since voluntarily for the sake of prosperity of the German States it all no one gives a — it was supposed to take it all away by force. More detail all written in Hitler's My Struggle. Links don't give because the book we have recognized as extremist, but who should be looked up in Google in 5 seconds. Why I wrote this — there is a lot of opinions (I mean in Russia and the former republics of the USSR), from pronasida — "Hitler fought against the Bolsheviks for a free Russia" to "Germany and USSR to bleed hard-core West and so Hitler was good and fluffy and together with Germany Oh how we would show all the English and the Americans, Fuckers". Hitler was not interested in neither the USSR or the peoples inhabiting the USSR. The task was defined by Hitler's very simple — the prosperity of the German state at the expense of surrounding Nations and territories. Accordingly this task, Hitler embarked on militarization and creation of necessary reserves of various raw materials.One such material is rubber. The value of rubber no need to explain — it's a bus and all sorts of resinously (tubes, strips and so on.).

 

1. First touch of natural rubber.

Natural rubber is obtained from trees called hevea Brazilian just want to note for readers of Hayama. Hevea Brazilian in the US is not growing. As it grows, as the name implies, in Brazil. In addition it grows in Indonesia, Malaya and Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) And since Indonesia was a Dutch colony, respectively, of rubber the Germans before the war were received from Brazil and Holland. Mostly from Holland, since most of the rubber from Brazil came to USA. General import and manufacture of rubber next to the plate.

Two columns — synthetic rubber and import. It is seen that the imports in 1939 as compared with 1938 is somewhat diminished. This is due to the increase in the production of its own synthetic rubber. However, import of rubber is continued until 1943. Why not completely replace natural rubber with synthetic — this issue will touch
with brief coverage of the production of tires. Now we need to look at consumption. This question will be answered the next plate.


Please note that the sign only applies to the consumtion of new rubber — i.e. the consumption of new rubber. What is important at a later date.

It can be noted that there is some discrepancy between the import and consumption of natural rubber. So why is watching the following label, namely the stockpiles of natural rubber.

It is evident that stocks of natural rubber by the end of 1940 amounted to 1.800 tons. In addition, it should be noted that the Germans also used in the production and captured stocks. Only in Holland the Germans had captured about 7,000 tons of rubber. Were cleaned and pre-war stocks.

Plate import and consumption of rubber from 1936 to 1939.

The question may arise, how the Germans imported rubber despite English naval blockade. Until 22 June 1941, the problem was solved simply — by transit through the territory of the USSR with the mediation of Japan. Ie the rubber was bought by the Japanese, the Dutch in Indonesia, was resold to the Germans and in transit through the USSR did in Germany. Also operated the so-called blockade priyateli. It is a commercial or military vessels used by the Germans for the entire import of essential goods despite the blockade. Of course the crews on these ships are very much risked and that you would like them to inspire, was invented a special award Abzeichen Für Blockadebrecher established on 1 April 1941. (I don't know — the Germans connected this date with the day of laughter or as it is called — Day of the Fool) the Criteria for award of the good service on the blockade and the arrival in his own port, or get injured during such a transition, or for service on the vessel, flush during this transition, or foundering, in avoidance of the capture of the vessel by the enemy, or for participation in the sinking of an enemy vessel during transport.

With the German attack on the USSR transit route was of course closed and the main role in the delivery of all kinds of goods from Japan fell on blagopriyatno. Actions blockade of priyatelei occurred in two stages and is reflected there (War At Sea 1939-1945 Voluime II. S. W. Roskill).

Since we are interested in rubber — what the numbers are. In the period from January 1941 to may 1942 delivered to Germany 32.000 tons of rubber lost due to hijacking or flooding 11.800 tons. With one ship (Spreewald) was recessed own submarine. In the second period — from April 1942 to April 1943 — delivered to Germany 7.600 tons, lost — 35.400. The total balance of all goods for the second period showed the following figures taken 29.600 tons to 93,000 and lost. Because of the 15 came from Japan ships only 4 ships delivered their cargo to Germany, from the surface of blockade priyatelei decided to give up. (all in the second period was recessed or captured 7 vessels, and again one ship (Doggerbank) recessed own submarine.) Actually the sign at Roskilde is displayed. (the losses of own ships from your own submarines was in consequence of the fact that the German court on the transition of the first used someone else's flag, pereimenovali court, painting over their names and causing others, and also repainted some of the ship to resemble the court of other countries and of other methods of concealment. However, as the loss helped is a bad thing.)

As an example, two stories. The ship Odenwald and the ship Ramses.

A little background. With the outbreak of war in Europe U.S. President Roosevelt established the so-called Neutral Patrol. Defined area 300 nautical miles from the American coast, where the belligerent parties were forbidden to conduct military operations. Area started from Canada and extended as far as the Caribbean sea. In this zone were supposed to patrol U.S. ships, and upon detection of ships and vessels of belligerent countries, to monitor their activities and support them until the release from the aforesaid zone. The event is, shall we say, more theoretical, because tracking everything that goes in the Atlantic in this area the Americans at that time (September-December 1939) had no chance. Subsequently (in April 1941), this area was extended to the South up to the Cape Verde Islands and along the coast of South America and in the North all the way to Iceland. In addition, there were founded the American naval base in the Caribbean, in Canada (actually it was an English base, but after the transfer of 50 destroyers to the British these bases were leased for 99 years. Generally speaking — the exchange of destroyers for bases in the Russian-speaking Patriotic the Internet is seen as a awesome acquisition Americans. Although the truth is to seek out the benefit of Americans in the rent for the destroyers is to try to be strong.) and in Brazil.

Ie in fact the Germans were ordered to conduct operations on sea, almost off the coast of Europe, to which of course the Germans had expected. In addition, the Germans drowned two American merchant vessel, although the rules of war at sea they could not sink neutral vessels, without the prior inspection thereof. And only detected on a neutral ship military cargoes of neutrals can be sent to the bottom by releasing the team on boats, rafts and so on. (Actually if anyone remembers the drowning of a ship by Somali pirates Russian ship, happened that way) After the incident with the destroyer Greer on 4 September 1941, when the German boat attacked an American destroyer, and although the torpedo had gone by, September 11, 1941 Roosevelt made a speech (you can and hear) in which he mentioned about the drowning of merchant ships, mentioned the attack of the American destroyer submarine and actually ordered the Navy to sink all the German boats by detecting them in the Neutral zone Patrol. Here on this background and the developments around blockade of proryvalas Odenwald.

So on November 6, 1941 the U.S. cruiser Omaha and the destroyer Somers heading to Recife (Brazil) to replenish the fuel in 5.06 has found an unknown ship. Come together with the vessel, an American patrol hit it, find it on the American flag and the name Willmoto. Then followed the standard procedure of a polling light signal, on which the ship did not respond. Then the patrol was ordered to stop. Become acquainted with the ship at a distance of voice, the captain of the cruiser began to ask questions through a megaphone. The following dialogue took place: "Whence do you come?", "From Cape town", "Where are you going?", "In New Orleans", "Why don't you answer signals?" There was no reply. "What are you carrying?" , "General cargo". When considering Americans of a vessel near, it became clear that the vessel, in accordance with Handbook on trade and the courts, not an American vessel Willmoto. Suspecting that there is something wrong, captain of the cruiser gave the order landing party go to the ship and figure out what the problem is.

 


In the picture made with the destroyer. Left Odenwald, on the right Omaha.

As soon as the American boats were launched, the ship sent a telegram "We are sinking, need help" at the same time the crew began to jump overboard, and the destroyer Somers watched from the ship into the water drop some weight. As soon as the landing party reached the ship, the ship he heard two explosions and the members of the landing party rushed into the hold to seal the holes, isolate the flooded compartments and to pump water. The crew attempts to rescue his ship was taken and furthermore, refused to help the Americans to do it. Officer landing party on the cruiser was passed that the vessel is a German ship Odenwald , and so all the crew are Germans. Moreover, later it became clear that the engines of the ship are also destroyed. German mechanics in the repair of engines refused to help. However, one German was forced to help in the repair of engines, for which he was subsequently beaten by their own comrades. Anyway — the German team was sent to the cruiser, and the Americans remained in the Odenwald. To 17 hours one engine failed to start and start driving to the port of Trinidad. By 2000, managed to run the second engine. During the inspection of the ship and ship's documents revealed that the ship comes from the Japanese port of Yokohama and is on Board in addition to all the goods 3857 tons 102 tons of rubber and tire company Goodrich truck.

On arrival in Puerto Rico the ship was confiscated, as the court declared illegal the use of the American flag and the title. Moreover, it was found very clearly that it is the crew attempted flooding of the vessel and did not fight for his salvation.

Interrogating the sailors and officers of the ship, the Americans found out the following . The ship remained in the far East from April, 1939, carrying out flights between the Philippines, Japan and China. 12 August 1939 the ship sailed from the port of Nagoya (Japan) and headed to Los Angeles. On August 26, the ship stopped at sea, the name of the Odenwald were changed to Denwal, the swastika was painted over and the ship continued on his way. However, on 27 August, the ship changed course to the opposite and headed back to Japan. On 30 August 1939 the ship again repainted according to the color vessels of the Japanese company and caused the new name of Miho Maru. On arrival in Yokohama on September 15, a part of the crew, consisting of Chinese and recruited in July 1939 in Shanghai, wrote off the shore. Then the remaining German part of the team inspected for suitability for military service. Then the ship was in Japan. Whether it was used for any local transportation — is unknown. August 21, 1941, after receiving the goods, and typing the command from the Germans, whose vessels of war found in the far East, the ship sailed from the port of Yokohama and went to Germany (or rather France) across the Pacific, rounding Cape horn. (the southernmost tip of South America) Soon after leaving Yokohama the ship was again renamed and repainted. This time it became known as the Nikka Mary. Entering the Atlantic, the ship was renamed the Willmoto and once again repainted.

On 4 November 1941 the ship received a signal from the sinking of the British tanker one, like olwen. It was reported that the tanker was the victim of a German raider. At the same time the radio operator of the ship intercepted a signal that any ship goes to the aid of the tanker and not to run into this ship, it was decided to change the course that ultimately led to the discovery of the ship by the Americans. Interestingly the appearance of the radio operator on the ship. Them there was a man of Helmut Ruge. On the ship he came in an unusual way. He was born in 1917. In 1936 he was drafted into German military service in the Navy. In 1939 on the ship Graf Spee took part in the battle at the mouth of the river La Plata.

After the flooding of the ship were on shore, and before January 1941 was in Argentina as interurbano face. Then he planned an escape to Germany, which with several companions crossed over the Andes and landed in Chile. From there on a cargo ship with the help of the German Consul went to Japan, where for some time he worked in the German Embassy radio operator finally appeared on the ship Odenwald in November 1941 again became interned face and finally in December 1941 prisoner of war.

By the way the first German prisoners of war, captured by the American military. In Germany he was only in 1946. Then went to Costa Rica, where he lived until his death in March 2009.

But back to the tires. Tires American company was on the ship going to Germany, became interested in the FBI. After some investigation it turned out that the tire was manufactured in the Philippines and shipped to Shanghai. Date of production and transportation of tires is unknown. From Shanghai to Japan bus were transported to the ship Ramses. The very same ship Ramses was in Shanghai from September 1939 to may 1941. Leaving his goods on the ship Odenwald himself Ramses remained until October 1942 in Yokohama. There the ship was equipped with high explosive charges with a timer to eight minutes. In October 1942, the ship went to Batavia (now Jakarta) (Indonesia), and took on Board 4000 tons of rubber and other commodities on November 23, 1942 went to Bordeaux (France) through the Indian ocean.

 

Ramses in Japan.

November 28, 1942, although the vessel was under the Norwegian flag and had the name Taiyang, was identified by an officer of the Australian cruiser Adelaide , who along with the Dutch cruiser Jacob van Heemskerk and the Australian corvettes Cessnock and Toowoomba was escorted by a convoy in the Indian Ocean and on which the Germans had the misfortune to run into. Although the ocean seems great, but there are such incidents. The vessel was ordered to stop. The Germans took to the boats on the water and after eight minutes in the bow of the vessel explosion. The nose is smoky and considering that the Germans opened fire, the Australians and the Dutch replied. Third volley the ship was covered and drowned. Sending the Dutch to guard the convoy, the Australians were engaged in the catching of the crew of a German ship. Noticing that the water floundering dog and pig, Australians at the time stopped to save people and do animal rescue. After catching the animals, catching the Germans continued. All on Board raised in addition to pigs and dogs 78 of the German crew and 10 Norwegian sailors, whose vessels were sunk by German raiders in the Pacific and Indian oceans. Adelaide caught up with the convoy and continued escorting the convoy. Closer to India both were replaced by the cruiser approached from India by the ships and returned to Australia.

Arriving in Fremantle, Adelaide passed all ashore, except the dog, which quarantine was refused to let into the country, insisting on its elimination, as the dog may suffer from different diseases. What happened with the dog — the author writes.

Since the surface of the court has not justified itself, the Germans used submarines for trade communication with Japan. Tried also to establish air service on the route Germany — Rhodes island — territory of China, controlled by Japanese in Japan. But on a single flight is not gone. Using basic German submarines seventh series was inefficient because given the small size and the range the way on Board they could only take 100 tons of cargo. Boats IXd series could take on Board 200 tons of cargo, but it was too late to make use of a boat. Statistically 22 such boats (9 series) have completed the path from Germany to Japan and back three, bringing in Germany 86 tons of rubber (among other cargoes), which does not do weather in the German rubber industry. In General, the action of submarines, both German and Japanese for cargo transportation on the route Sweden-Germany and back again — a separate issue .

 


The picture — in the spring of 1945 on the German airfields was possible to see such picture. The result of fuel shortages and the inability to deliver it from producer to consumer.

 

2. A brief history of synthetic rubber.

The impetus for the production of synthetic rubber was above all the shortage of natural rubber in terms of mass motorization of the early 20th century.

Annual production of natural rubber in 1906 amounted to 60,000 tons, and as the demand for rubber was high, the price was $ 3 U.S. per pound (DM 26). (For comparison, the price in 1914 a pound of rubber has fallen to 11 cents a pound) Therefore in these circumstances the German company Bayer has announced a competition to create a substitute for rubber, the price of which would not exceed 20 marks per pound. In 1909 a group of chemists, headed by Fritz Hofmann discovered the method of producing synthetic rubber based on isoprene methyl.

However, after 1910 the prices of natural rubber began to fall and the need for industrial production of methyl isoprene (for short MI) of rubber has disappeared, although it was a pilot plant is created. The demand for synthetic rubber in Germany appeared again in 1915, when it became clear that the First World war delayed, and English Maritime blockade prevents the import of natural rubber in sufficient quantities. Himself MI after a lot of experiments were generated from coal and lime through all sorts of chemical processes. However, from the MI turned out to be rubber, it is necessary to polymerize. In this regard, again, after many experiments, we developed three methods of polymerization to obtain different types of rubber for different purposes.
1 — solid rubber. Resulted from polymerization of the MI in tin barrels at a temperature of 30 degrees Celsius for 6 to 10 weeks. Used in battery-powered submarines and other electrical purposes.
2 — soft rubber. Resulted from polymerization of the MI in iron barrels at a temperature of 70 Gy Celsius within three to six months. This rubber made tires, hoses and other similar products. However, the rubber obtained from this rubber had a very poor qualities. It was very difficult to vulcanizing and besides, the elasticity is preserved only in the warmth. Cars and all sorts of armored vehicles, shod in solid rubber tyres for the night had to be put on jacks because when you try to move first if the car is stood for on earth, there have been cases just forking pieces of the tyre.
3 — rubber obtained by polymerization in the presence of sodium in carbon dioxide. About the time of polymerization not reported. The rubber is used to prorezinennye fabric for balloons and airships of all kinds. In addition, as an insulating coating for wires.
It is clear that such methods, when the polymerization occurs within 3-6 months, be called industrial in any way impossible. However, by the end of the war, Germany received 150 tons of rubber by similar methods. All in all, the Germans for the First World war has received 2,500 tons of different types of rubber. After the war, the need for that rubber fell off.

However, the experiments on obtaining of synthetic rubber continued. By the early 30-ies has developed a method of producing synthetic rubber from butadiene by the method of its polymerization in the presence of sodium in carbon dioxide. The resulting material was called BUNA (from the first letters of Butadiene and Sodium) However, this method was too expensive and in the presence of relatively cheap natural rubber to produce it did not make sense. Was found another way of polymerization — emulsion. (as the name implies — he came in the emulsion and thus without gas) Method was cheaper, but took up too much time and towards manufacturing was not suitable. The work continued and finally chemistry Walter Bock and Eduard Tschunkur developed a copolymer (or heteropolymer) (the term means that two (or more) molecules of different substances are combined in one molecule of a new substance and then the newly obtained molecules
are connected to each other) by adding to the butadiene styrene (aka styrene). The new substance was called BUNA-S (C — styrene) (Buna-S)

(on the Soviet rubber polymers read here
and here)

Finally in 1934, Eduard Tschunkur and Erich Konrad decided that instead of using styrene to Acrylonitrile the result is a new rubber, which among other things, have resistance to gasoline and other similar liquids, softening and eventually dissolving ordinary rubber. The new substance was called BUNA-N (Buna-N) However, the Acrylonitrile was more expensive and, accordingly, Buna-N was used in Germany purely in order that suggests exposure to petrol and similar substances.

These two types of rubber Germany and came to the Second World war.
For Germany the beginning of the war, the butadiene was produced from acetylene, resulting in turn either from calcium carbideor from gases in the process of hydrogenation of coal. Styrene was obtained from coal tar, ethylene and benzene.

Actually all this was coming. Now the main part.

The picture — factories for the production of synthetic rubber. Columns is the average monthly volume of production in the summer of 1944 proud. The scale below is applied.

The first plant, put into operation, was the Schkopau (1938) . The flowchart shows that it is located next to the plant Leuna (Leuna) with whom resinosa supplied the necessary chemicals. Acetylene at this plant were obtained from calcium carbide. Further commissioning of the plant Leverkusen, then Huels (here acetylene is extracted from the gases produced in the process of hydrogenation of coal) and finally Ludwigshafen (at the plant butadiene was obtained in a new way — from acetylene and formaldehyde ). The plant in Auschwitz (actually not in Auschwitz, but a place called Monovitz) built during the war, it seemed to the Germans, in the area inaccessible by enemy aircraft. However, it turned out that in available. The plant itself never worked at full capacity. Being built by the summer of 1944, he in August was bombed, and then bombed it again in September, in November and December. And in January 1945 the area was liberated by the Soviet Army.
Шины и резина Германии. Часть 2.

In the picture the plant itself Monovitz with the adjacent camps.

Data for the production of synthetic rubber — in the picture. The first part is the average monthly indicators. The second part
monthly. (In tons)

Now consider where the Germans put the rubber produced. The question to answer here is picture. The distribution of rubber at all between military needs and the civilian economy. In various kinds of rubber products was as follows.

It is evident that not all the rubber was used for producing tires. (the picture Technical & Mechanical goods — all sorts of resinously for industry — hoses, belts and so on. Pneumatic tires & tubes — pneumatic tires and tubes. Solid tires — solid rubber tires — it is actually solid rubber tyres and tyres for tank rollers. Finally an object is designated as Camelback & Repair Goods. The items used in the process of tire retreading. )

The value of tire retreading and rubber in particular for Germany, we show that such a sign.
Шины и резина Германии. Часть 2.

Reclaimed is a restored rubber. Crumb — crumb rubber. However, as the signature is the use of crumb rubber in 1938 were negligible. But in the period 1941-1943 probably amounted to over 6,000 tons. And finally note by 1944, tells us that the data were calculated from 6 months to 44 years.

And total consumption of recovered rubber in the total consumption share will show us the following graph.
Шины и резина Германии. Часть 2.

As you can see — the use of recovered rubber had in the whole of Germany of great importance.

 

3. Now, go straight to the tires.

This picture is a plant for the production of tires (the circle) and the other resinously (rectangle) in Addition, tires and other products were also produced in France and in other occupied countries.

On the needs of the armed forces of Germany in the initial period of the war was up to 75 % of all manufactured tires, to the last period of the war this percentage increased to 85 %. Although, as has been seen, not all the rubber was on the tires and thus, if we consider the issue with tyres — Germany had a considerable reserve for increasing the production of tires. How looked the tire — has the answer here's a chart.
Шины и резина Германии. Часть 2.

Heavy Duty tires for heavy trucks, tractors and similar machinery. Passenger — tyres for passenger cars, Light trucks — light trucks. Motorcycle — clear. Solids — solid rubber. Aeroplane — tires for aircraft and finally Tractor — believe it is clear.

It should be noted that all the tires of all countries and peoples in the time we were diagonal. Radial tires appeared only after the war. Device bus presents here. Here it is written than one tire differs from another. Basically, a tyre consists of rubber and cord. For the manufacture of cord by the Germans used viscose, produced from cellulose, either used cotton fabric.

Although the video is quite modern, but overall the stages of the process has not changed much since the war. Well, maybe more of the inner layers in the tire were added for greater durability. For us it is essential that the original rubber mixture was made by mixing synthetic rubber and natural. Either
the absence of natural rubber used substance koresin. In addition, for the manufacture of tires carbon black is used. This product will not be considered, since the generation of soot is generally not a problem. Especially for Germany with its huge reserves of coal. Mixing artificial with natural rubber is contained in the following considerations. First tolerates high temperatures up to +90 °C, but is absolutely unusable at temperatures below minus 10 °C. But with natural all the way around, it is able to operate at minus 60 °C, but can not withstand the heat. To achieve compromise, they are mixed. The mixing was performed according to the principle of 86 % synthetic rubber 14 % natural. As appears from the next report, in the course of the war (due to shortages of natural rubber), the ratio of synthetic rubber in the tires and the cameras were different. In 1944 aircraft of the chamber consisted of 85 % of synthetic rubber, whereas aircraft tyres — 95 % were synthetic. For truck tires — 85 % and synthetics for tires of passenger cars 100 % synthetic. All cameras (except for aviation) on 98 % consisted of synthetics.

During the war the Germans perfected her synthetic rubber. Were invented Buna-S. 3, Buna-S. S, Buna-SR, Buna-SSGF, Buna-SSE, Buna-SW. They were intended for different purposes. For example Buna-SSGF was intended for use in the food industry and in General where was the need of rubber contact with food. Buna-SSE — for the purpose of, when it is assumed rubber contact cement, and also for medical purposes. Buna-SR — for the manufacture of rubber items, used in low temperature. According to the same report, all of Buna-S in the production of items with the use thereof in low temperature conditions by 1944 was replaced by a modification of Buna-SR. We must assume that this included the production of tires.
In addition, for the manufacture of tires into the mix the Germans added different kinds of softeners and vulcanization activators.
Tenderizers — Ambutol he Naftolin (the product resulting from the processing of oil), plasticizer 32, plasticizer 77 (no idea what it is) , Aktiplast S. H. - stearate of zinc. Kautschcol he Bardol
Activator — a substance called Vulkazit A. Z and benzothiazyl disulfide.

 

4. Briefly about the bombing of objects.

It should be noted that the actual bombing of factories for the production of synthetic rubber had first priority. Although, as can be seen from this picture


the factories were bombed, resulting in lower production. However, one should be aware that in consequence of the heavy dependence of some chemical plants from the other, the decline in production occurred not only due to direct damage to plants, but also in the bombing of factories-suppliers of raw materials. For example, production at the plant in Schkopau has also suffered from the bombing of Leuna factory. Actually the picture is clear.

To never return to the issues of the bombing briefly on the actual bombing.
Here is picture


this is a General outline (or rather the draft of the plan) United States called AWPD-1 (Air War Plans Division) for the conduct of the war with Germany. The count goes from mobilization day (M Day) the Top of the picture will not be touched upon are common activities on the part of the ground forces (mobilisation, training, construction vehicles and the transportation of troops by sea) describe the General outline on the part air war. So we see that the first nine months of the training, increased production, training of military air bases, Then the second nine months — the build-up of forces in the British Isles. Then 6 months of air attack (bombardment of all sorts of objects, aircraft factories. factories for the production of synthetic fuel) And finally — 2 or 3 months — preparation for the invasion of Europe. (Again, the bombing of all sorts of objects that are relevant to ground operations — bridges, railway stations and so on and so forth), as I have already noted, only a General outline as based on overly optimistic calculations by the destruction of German industry. In the future, this plan was repeatedly refined, supplemented and changed, changed dates and so on. However, the overall indications appear that way. However, the first RAID of 1942 had shown that the plans plans, but the reality of it is slightly different. In particular, in 1942 the primary objects of the bombing were the shipyard and submarine base. This is due primarily to the Battle of the Atlantic. At that time the shipping industry has suffered from German submarines. However this is a topic for another article. In short — the total tonnage available afloat is not allowed to increase transportation by sea, because the vessels were heated, and the level of production is barely covered losses. Fight the sea went on with varying success until may 1943, when the allies at the cost of enormous material costs finally won the Battle of the Atlantic.

In January 1943 in Casablanca took place Alliance conference, among other things, were discussed and the air war against Germany. Among the priority targets for bombing the following was determined: 1 objects associated with submarines, 2 aircraft plants, 3 — objects of oil refining and production of fuel and to transport objects. As success of the sea and the build-up of forces in General and aviation in particular strategic, priority has changed. First is the steel plant, the second production of ball bearings, the third objects associated with the oil and only the sixth production of rubber. But again man proposes and fate disposes. Before the bombing of oil refining facilities is generally not reached, due to heavy losses in the summer - autumn 1943 (heavy on the background of the total number of aircraft, however the loss I have already touched on when writing about the defense of the Reich). Bombed aircraft factories to reduce the production of fighters and the bearings were appointed the Achilles heel of the German industry. (Because vyrobit the whole of Germany impossible, it was decided to find a critical product, without which industry will suffer significant damage. It was suggested that it is just the bearings) While the aircraft factories and was devastated, but it was not as significant as expected, besides the Germans was undertaken by the programme of dispersal of production. It looked so — alone enterprises produce planes, other fuselage, third arms, the fourth motors, the fifth all different equipment and finally the sixth all this collected in different places of Germany. It played a role in the increased production of aircraft, although later, when the allies came to grips with the German Railways, it played a cruel joke with the Germans. Components from different parts of Germany became impossible to take place in the Assembly of aircraft. Bearings — single song, confine ourselves to the fact that the Germans themselves knew the narrowness of the place and has taken measures to protect their plants. For readers Haema again write —
the plant in swanport (and other ball-bearing factories in Germany) originally belonged to the Swedish company SKF in addition, available stocks helped to offset some decline in production in the autumn of 1943. In this connection, the allies began to look for a different Achilles ' heel. In fact to find it was no longer needed, it has been identified as the third goal after ball bearings. Namely fuel and aviation mainly. In this direction, as you already know, the allies acted more successfully. Perhaps they would be more successful if some of the bombers had to divert to bomb facilities launches of V-1 and V-2. V-1 began to run towards England in June 1944 and V-2 in September. Why I write in the — direction because the main part of neither one nor the other to England and flew. The reasons are different. The imperfect missiles, guidance systems, and finally the opposition of the British. However, if V-1, as slow flying object that you could fight fighter planes, antiaircraft guns, balloons, ballistic missile such numbers of course did not work. And the only method of dealing with such missiles — bombing launchers. To tell the truth, the effect of both shells is negligible. However, the effect of ballistic missiles, which are not visible and audible, when it exploded, has done its job. The aircraft had to divert. And although the overall problem in the summer and autumn of 1944 was resolved, the launches continued until March 1945, with a certain amount of V-1, the Germans launched from aircraft. This whole bomb idea was worth American quite expensive.

In the picture the number of heavy bombers and fighters by type.

 

As you can see — the number of heavy bombers by the summer of 1944 has reached significant numbers. 1st line operational aircraft. 2nd line — the planes need repair. Sometimes a line was used as a source of spare parts and therefore there were such kind of loss, as cheating from the second line. This meant that the plane took off everything that can be used in the repair.

The bombing of Germany and other adjacent territories, had carried out two air armies of the United States. The eighth in England and 15 in Italy. (in 1942, in Africa) the range of the bombers on the next picture.

As already stated — the problem of survival depended on bombers fighter escort.
The next picture area action fighter P-47 without tanks, with one tank under fuselage (belly) of different capacity and two underwing tanks.

The picture is similar for aircraft P-38 without tanks and underwing tanks with different capacity and P-51 also without tanks, with one under fuselage tank and two wing tanks of different capacity. Actually the tanks were of two types 75 gallon and 108 gallon.

Because the fighting in Italy flowed smoothly from Africa — this is called the Mediterranean Theater of operations. (MTO). All that operated from England and then fighting in France and then was called the European Theater of operations (ETO). In the following pictures combat losses of aircraft (heavy bombers and fighters) in Europe (ETO)


and in the Mediterranean (MTO)


As can be seen — indicated reasons — aircraft — aircraft, AA, anti — aircraft guns, Others others. This includes joint losses from anti-aircraft guns and aircraft, and losses as a result of incidents in the air (collision, falling under the bombs) it also includes the loss of the aircraft made an emergency landing in neutral countries. And Total — the total for the period.

 

Now the next plate. Loss of aviation personnel.


Officers — the officers, enlisted personnel — the privates and sergeants (according to our classification) total — total. For reasons — died — dead, wounded, wounded, missing — missing (in this category of prisoners, internees (which had landed in neutral countries and by laws — theoretically we have until the end of the war to remain in these countries. Although this situation was observed only formally. It is known that all American pilots, operating against Japan, which had landed in the USSR, so to speak, was the internment camp in Central Asia, where they organized did "escape" vehicles to Iran and where it was headed back to America. In addition, the allied pilots made an emergency landing in Sweden, exported from there as a passenger aircraft in England) And finally in this category is really missing. Ie actually dead. In General, the total number of US casualties in the Second World, aviation is second only to the infantry. The third artillery.


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