Regardless of the reliability of the results rassledovanie, very interesting, what methods are used by NSA to deanonimizatsii users who publish on the Internet a lot of texts on forums, unprotected chat rooms, in emails.
The search for the Creator of Bitcoin go for many years.
Conducted in 2011 linguistic analysis of all online communications on behalf of Satoshi Nakamoto (≈80 thousand words on the forums and in the letters of distribution) showed that this person is fluent in English, writes in the bright and clear style and allows for very few mistakes. In the very first message he used American English, but then switched to classical spelling with the use of words such as colour instead of color, grey instead of gray, and so on, embellishing the lyrics with exquisite phrases like bloody hard.
Simultaneously with the linguistic analysis was the analysis of program code. It is possible to conclude that the developer is "a programmer with deep knowledge of C++ and an extensive background in cryptography, Economics, and P2P systems".
At the same time with independent specialists of their work on deanonimizatsii legendary NSA cryptographer spent. They used methods of stylometry.
What is stylometry in practice? As you know, people tend to repeat in the texts. Even the smartest person can sometimes use the same phrase twice. This is especially true of technical terms and expressions, where stereotyped statements is particularly high.
This feature was used by the NSA. According to Moose, the experts used stichometrically method called "author's invariant". By definition, this is a quantitative characteristic of literary texts or a parameter which uniquely characterizes their behavior, the works of one author or a small number of "friends of contributors" and takes significantly different values for the works of different teams of authors. Author's invariant is traditionally used in the problem of identifying authorship of the text.
In this case, a well-known texts Satoshi compared to the trillions of samples of texts of other authors on the Internet. In particular, the NSA identified the 50 most popular words (phrases?) in the texts of Satoshi. Then his texts broke 5000 text fragments, each of which were calculated the frequency of these 50 words. The result was a unique identifier for each fragment of the 50 numbers. Then, explains the Mews, each of the numbers obtained was placed in a 50-dimensional space and projected on a plane using the method of principal components. The result was a digital fingerprint of texts Satoshi Nakamoto, which establishes his authorship.
Having received the imprint, the NSA has set the task to establish the identity of the author. To do this, they scanned the massive e-mail archives stored in the process of wiretapping of e-mail systems Google, Yahoo, and other system (PRISM). In addition, with a digital print compared the data obtained in the process of archiving the entire Internet traffic of the data centers of Google, Yahoo, Amazon and Facebook using the tabs on the fiber optic cables near data centers — the MUSCULAR system (the American counterpart of the law of Spring).
In the end, with unique prints Satoshi compared emails and chats one billion people to reveal his identity. As reported, the process took less than a month and gave a positive result.
Why would the NSA have attended in this project? Source Moose says that at first the Obama administration was suspicious of the Bitcoin project. Spoke version that Satoshi Nakamoto may be a Russian or Chinese agent, and the bitcoin threatens the global financial system. The identity of Satoshi was to help establish his motives. What are the results of the investigation is unknown. But the fact is that total wiretapping of traffic helps to de-anonymize many Internet users means of stylometry.
Linguistic investigation of Pinneberg
It should be noted that back in 2011, journalism Professor and professional linguist Adam Penenberg from new York University have conducted a linguistic analysis of texts Satoshi. In his opinion, the developer of Bitcoin deliberately used British camouflage to complicate the linguistic analysis of his texts, so he has high intelligence and knows how to cover his tracks. So the NSA could easily get trapped.
In the course of its investigation, Adam Penenberg for several months studied the texts of Satoshi Nakamoto and checked its specific phrase. In the end, the journalist was waiting for luck — he found that the specific combination of words [computationally impractical to reverse] found on the Internet only 26 times, mostly are copies from the same document. But there is another document with the same combination of words. This application for U.S. patent No. 20100042841 Updating And Distributing Encryption Keys published in the public domain on 18 February 2010. This application describes a cryptographic system, largely based on the same principles and technology of Bitcoin. The attention of the researcher was drawn to one fact. Patent application filed 15 August 2008, and domain bitcoin.org was registered on 18 Aug 2008 — another coincidence.
The authors of the patent application are the three man — Neil king (Neal King), Charles Bray (Charles Bry) and Vladimir oksman (Oksman, Vladimir). Further investigation of permits to determine the identity of these people. They are the authors of several patents close to the Bitcoin technology.
Neal king and Charles Bry — residents of Munich (Germany), and Vladimir oksman, perhaps, it is the programmer of Russian origin Vladimir [Vova] oksman, who lives in new Jersey and works at the company Samsung (at the moment, Vladimir went to work at Goldman Sachs, LinkedIn profile).
Two months before launch Bitcoin.org these three have registered another patent application that also speaks for itself: Key Management For Communication Networks.
Best of all under a linguistic-psychological portrait of Satoshi Nakamoto suitable Neil king, the author of the investigation. According to his profile on Facebook is very educated and extremely well-read man, he left reviews of 46 books on Amazon, including astronomy, biology, cryptography, linguistics, literature, mathematics, philosophy and physics. Moreover, these reviews are written in excellent literary style, is very clean, without a single superfluous word and typos, just like Satoshi Nakamoto. However, as other potential co-authors, Neil king denied any involvement in Bitcoin. Six years ago on a direct question he gave a very lengthy reply, and expressed the sense that never heard about Bitcoin and he had to study the article in Wikipedia.
Cryptologist who has not heard about Bitcoin — about the same as the journalist, who does not know about Twitter, says Adam Penenberg. He also recalled some examples of how many famous writers and inventors published their works anonymously and at first denied the authorship. However, a few managed to perpetuate anonymity.
Deserved the wealth of Satoshi Nakamoto
In 2013, the security expert Sergio Lerner (Sergio Demian Lerner) has conducted a thorough analysis of the initial transaction and proved that c 3 Jan 2009 to 25 Jan 2010 mining practiced almost exclusively by one person, and the vast majority produced at the time the coins are kept from him until now.
It is obvious that this man was the Creator of the cryptocurrency, which we know under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto.
Black and red colors shows the generation and spending of coins in the gap between blocks 1 and 36288
The Bitcoin algorithm involves the increasing complexity of transaction with a steady flow of new money into the system, so the first time to generate coins was very simple. Conventional CPU Pentium was good enough to get 50 BTC every 10 minutes.
Of course, you can't 100% say that is generated the first time the coins owned by Satoshi, but the fact that someone started mining from the first block and continued for a year at a stable rate of about 7 mahahaha per second, with short breaks approximately every 100 hours, presumably to back up the wallet.
The author, Satoshi in the first months produced about 1 million coins.
In General, from the first 1814400 generated coins about 1148800 BTC has never been spent, or about 63%. Perhaps almost all these coins are still available to Satoshi.
Bitcoin and Moore's law
It would seem that recently we rejoiced that bitcoin reached parity with the dollar, although even then some have suggested that it is a digital bubble that will soon burst. However, the cost has since been growing exponentially, in fact, obeying Moore's law, approximately doubling for equal intervals of time.
That bitcoin is subject to Moore's law, in a recent interview with Business Insider UK said Harvard scientist Dennis Porto.
According to Porto, the quickly developing technology there is a certain rate of doubling, which means a doubling of their efficiency for consistent, repeatable amount of time. Usually Moore's law applied to processors on the chip, but in a broad sense it can be applied to any digital technology which demonstrates exponential growth. According to estimates Porto if the trend will continue in the future, the cost of 1 bitcoin by February 2021 will exceed $100 000.
In this case, the as Satoshi Nakamoto will grow to about 100 billion US dollars, with the condition that he resist the temptation to sell bitcoins before. And also provided that US dollars will remain in circulation by that time. Whether it's one person or several, he fully deserved his money.
But critics still seven years old began to insist that we are seeing bubble like tulpenmanie the 17th century. Talk about the "bubble" began when the exchange rate is 1 BTC increased sharply, from $0.15 to $1.10 per short period of time.
- 02-05-2020Four of the Americans ' Outlook: what will happen to the world economy and the US economy
- 21-02-2020The phantom menace: the non-obvious consequences of the depletion of nature for the economy
- 24-07-2019Look at the future of business: five trends postremoval era
- 23-06-2019Industrial revolution 4.0: how the Internet of things is changing business and how to stay afloat