During the meeting held on 21 January 2015, the President of Russia Vladimir Putin supported the initiative of Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev on the creation of new state corporations, including Roscosmos and the United rocket and space Corporation (URSC). The next day, January 22, was held the meeting of the Commission on the reform of the rocket and space industry of the country.
In its work took part Deputy Prime Minister of Russia Dmitry Rogozin and now former General Director of ORCC Igor Komarov, who is from the 21st of January was appointed head of the space Agency. They confirmed their intention to create soon a new state Corporation "Roscosmos". It will lead, as expected, Mosquitoes, and the former head of Roscosmos Oleg Ostapenko can get the post of Chairman of the Board of Directors in one of the holding companies of the new Corporation. The temporary acting General Director of URSC appointed Yuri Vlasov.
Previously, the Agency and the Corporation was shared between the functions of the customer (Roscosmos) and by (USRC). "Our idea is to appoint the head of Roscosmos just acting CEO of the United rocket and space Corporation Komarov. Accordingly Oleg Ostapenko from the post to release", — said the Prime Minister on 21 January at a meeting with the President.
In URSC of Mosquitoes came from the Russian Federal space Agency, where since October 2013 he held the post of Deputy head. Prior to that, he from 2009 to October 2013 he was President of "AVTOVAZ", and before that — Deputy General Director of "Norilsk Nickel" and the adviser of General Director of "Rostec" Chemezov. This Corporation currently owns approximately one third of the shares of the automaker.
From RCA to URSC
USRC was established on 2 December 2013 Putin signed a decree No. 874 "About the system of governance for the space rocket industry". The main purpose of the USRC is a large — scale reform of the missile sector of the country. Increasing frequency of accidents with rockets "proton", "Union", "Rokot" and "Zenith" has revealed systemic problems in the industry, associated primarily with the human factor.
Thus, during the period from 2010 to 2014, there were six problematic launches of "Proton", two "Alliances" and one — rockets "Rokot" and "Zenith".One start — with the Indonesian satellite "Telkom-3" made in Russia, another — to the first Chinese Mars probe Yinghuo-1 (burned in the atmosphere along with the "Phobos-Soil"). The majority of failures were in boosters, dobyvatsya the spacecraft in orbit after detaching from the media. Financial damage was estimated at tens of billions of rubles, not counting the huge sums of insurance payments. With the money Russia would hold another Olympics in Sochi.
URSC state-owned was formed on the basis of Scientific research Institute of space instrument making. Currently, the Corporation consists of more than 60 enterprises of the Russian space industry. Among them is the Center of Khrunichev (developer and manufacturer of carrier rockets "proton" and "Angara"), Rocket and space Corporation Energia (the developer and manufacturer of Soyuz and Progress spacecraft), space-Rocket center "Progress" (developer and manufacturer of carrier rocket series "the Union") and others.
The Federal space Agency founded by presidential decree on 9 March 2004 on the basis of the Russian aerospace Agency (CANCER), established on 25 may 1999, on the basis of established on 25 February 1992, the Russian space Agency (RSA). PKA, in turn, in 1994, received his charge in 38 enterprises and institutions of the space industry, whose work until November 14, 1991, controlled mainly by the Ministry of General machine building of the USSR. Also in RCA became the Center of exploitation of ground space infrastructure (TsENKI), engaged in Baikonur. In 1998, before being converted to RCA, CANCER passed another 39 companies.
The first stage of reforms
Roscosmos engaged and involved in the implementation of the state policy space. However, after the USRC industry began to appear from under his subordination. To date, under the jurisdiction of the Agency are TsENKI, TsNIIMash (Central research Institute of machine building, which includes the mission control Center), the construction of the Vostochny space centre, and GLONASS (together with the Ministry of defence).
Now all enterprises, institutions and other organizations that are included in URSC and Roscosmos, are combined into a single state with one hundred percent state share. Rogozin and Mosquitoes are confident that this consolidation will improve the efficiency of state management in the sector following the example of other state corporations (primarily Rosatom), will increase the economic and scientific benefits from specialized organizations, by combining managerial and economic functions.
"Some time ago we prepared a proposal for the establishment of a number of structures in addition to Roscosmos, United rocket and space Corporation in the form of a joint stock company. It works. But the experience that has been gained over recent years, shows that the problems of the industry more serious, more complex, and for this purpose it is necessary to concentrate the efforts of the state somewhat differently, as it was along the line of the nuclear industry", — said Medvedev at the meeting with Putin.
For the new structure, the Prime Minister promised to prepare the relevant draft law, its development to be held in several stages. "First, it is assumed that if the Russian space Agency as the administrative management body will be created Corporation, and we subsequently two governing bodies do not need is always a bad story, accordingly, all management functions will be transferred to the Corporation," — said Medvedev.
At the meeting of the Commission on reforming of space-rocket industry Rogozin and Mosquitoes confirmed the words of the Prime Minister. According to them, the first stage of modernization of the space industry associated with the organization USRC completed successfully. Rogozin said that over the past period managed to hold property and financial evaluation of companies, establish performance indicators and to improve the Khrunichev Centre. The latter is evidenced, according to Rogozin, the successful tests of new light and heavy launch vehicles "Angara".
However, as noted in his interview to the edition "Kommersant" chief designer "Angara" Vladimir Nesterov, December 30, 2014 resigned by agreement of the parties from the Khrunichev Centre, the launch of 2014 took place largely through the efforts of the Minister of defence of Russia. "Sergei Shoigu has personally taken control of the issues Angara: every Tuesday he's on a conference call in a mandatory manner related to the construction of the complex. Few people believed that we really will be able to make a start, but it happened," said Nesterov.
The second stage
The main ideologist of the first stage of space reforms the Deputy Prime Minister told Komarov. He is now as head the new state Corporation will implement the second phase. In the first phase modernized the space industry. Came changes concerning the entire industry. "We wanted it (the new stage of reform — approx. "The tape.ru") long, believing that it should begin at the conclusion of the first stage, but the current situation in the country and in the whole economy requires much more hard and bold decisions," Rogozin said.
The ultimate goal of the reform is well-developed space industry that manufactures not only missiles, but also space ships of a new class, as well as satellites with their own electronics. Russia must regain its status of a space leader. "The task for the Corporation is to be the first. We are talking about competitiveness, but not only as they gain market share, but also to ensure parity and superiority over geopolitical opponents," said Komarov.
Current challenges facing the new Corporation, inherited from URSC and Roscosmos. Among primary — completion in the period of construction of the Vostochny space launch centre, launch in late 2015 of the carrier rocket "Soyuz" and the development of super-heavy rockets. The renewal of Russia's participation in the International space station (ISS) from 2020 to 2024 (as NASA plans) linked with the decision on the establishment of a national space station. In any case, the country from its obligations under the ISS will not refuse.
As expected, the main decision can be accepted already till the end of February this year. As noted Rogozin, have to act in conditions of limited funding and increasing competition with foreign carriers. If last year was the leading Baikonur cosmodrome by the number of starts, this year he reportedly will concede to American Canaveral. In addition, the Vice Prime Minister noted that to reduce the cost of launches (probably meaning that private us company SpaceX is about to launch its heavy rocket for only $ 60 million, which is approximately one and a half times cheaper than a one-start "the Proton").
Roscosmos with relevant institutions within the BFC, designed for 2016-2025 year, asked of 2.1 trillion rubles. In addition to this amount another 250 billion rubles, the Agency hopes to raise yourself with the help of commercial launches of carrier rockets. Due to the difficult economic situation, the reduction in funding, the BFC could reach several hundred billion rubles.
New PCF compared with the program 2006-2015 provides increased funding about three times. The project contains two options: an innovative and "inertia". The first is related to implementation of ambitious projects, in particular, the establishment of a lunar orbital station and heavy rocket for flights to Mars. In the second embodiment, the PCF practically no ambitious projects.
Finally the plans for the development of space industry will be formulated in the Federal space program (BFC) for 2016-2025 year, the draft of which is prepared by the Federal space Agency is now considering reforms. Legal registration of the new state Corporation is planned to be completed in the next six months. Management States it is assumed not to inflate. "A minimum of bureaucracy. For this authority's decision-making is delegated to the enterprises and institutions. The staff of the management structures must be less than the total number of Roscomos and ORCH", — said Komarov.
"Approved program for the work with personnel. In particular, by 2025 it is planned to increase three times the productivity with the growth of real wages in two times," — said Rogozin about the personnel policy.
The new Corporation will be able to participate in the development and introduction of laws concerning the space industry, will have the right of property and freedom to manage their own finances. At the meeting of Rogozin and Mosquitoes on several occasions referred to "Rosatom", a successful example which has inspired the organizers of reforms.
"Operating model "Rosatom" has proved its efficiency. Key powers of the Corporation, we believe the right to develop and submit to the authorities draft normative acts in the field of space activities, as well as the right to exercise legal regulation in this sphere", — said Komarov at the meeting of the Commission.
Opinions and perspectives
The proposal to merge the URSC and Roscosmos sounded and earlier. In November 2014 talked about this the first Deputy Chairman of the Committee of the lower house of the State Duma industry Vladimir Gutenev. "The recent reform of Roscosmos with the division of functions of the customer and the contractor, unfortunately, has not led to significant improvement in branch efficiency. In this regard, I think it advisable, following the example of "Rosatom", which shows great progress, merge Roscosmos with the United rocket and space Corporation. I think that the example of space industry this model works," he said.
December 26, 2014, the "Interfax" citing a source in the space industry announced the forthcoming creation of a new state Corporation on the basis of ORCC, which, together with the Ministry of industry and trade will share the assets and functions of Roscosmos. However, the same day URSC officially denied this information.
Experts differ in their opinions regarding the appropriateness of the decision. Former cosmonaut and Deputy head of the TsNIIMash Sergei Krikalev believes that this consolidation may speed up the development of manned cosmonautics in Russia, he said in an interview with TASS. "When I was appointed in the Institute, was tasked to consolidate manned space flight, but it was set so that further it was not possible to perform. Therefore still there was a certain pause. Let's hope that in the new reality, common sense will put everything in its place, and we will continue to raise this task", — said the astronaut.
The main concerns of the experts related to the organizational and political issues. "I believed and still believe that the best such a system of governance in which the selected function of the state goals, as well as separated functions of the customer and the contractor," the lead "Izvestia" the words of Sergei Zhukov, President of the Moscow space club. Expert in General does not support the Association of Roscosmos and URSC, though does not deny that in the current economic and political situations such reform makes sense.
"The reform initially went on the right path, but at some point, instead of to reform Roscosmos, and to solve thus the problem of goal setting has been selected is another form that involves the concentration of resources. This, in essence, mobilisation, command-and-control model. It has advantages in an environment like that which now exists around our country. The controllability increases. But in the medium and long term are evident disadvantages of this model, among which is a smaller innovation, because with myself the system to compete will not be", — said Zhukov.
Solving scientific and technical problems may prevent the lack of funding and sanctions imposed over Ukraine against Russia, the U.S., EU, Japan, Australia and several other States. The sanctions regime has led to the fact that the parties were forced to think about creating independent from other industries.
So, Russia is going through several years of decline foreign electronics in their spacecraft, as well as to limit the cooperation with Ukraine in the space industry. On the other hand, the European company Arianespace continues to use the Soyuz rocket in their fleet vehicles of the middle class, and the U.S. — Russian engines. In addition, currently the only carrier of astronauts to the ISS are the ships "the Union".
International relations is not the first time affect space research. Suffice it to recall that a similar situation was in 2008 during the Georgian-Ossetian conflict. Then the United States thought about discontinuing the use of their Space Shuttle to deliver astronauts and cargo to the ISS because of the high cost of flights and remaining life of the ships. Despite criticism of Russia's actions during the conflict, the US chose to abandon the Space Shuttle and to trust the Russian "Unions".
Meanwhile, Russia does not refuse cooperation with NASA. According to Rogozin, the space is one of the few places where such cooperation should be. In particular, despite the sanctions, the spacecraft NASA's Orion will include the ability to dock with the Russian "Unions".
The new Corporation will be the eighth such structure in Russia after Rostec, RUSNANO, Rosatom, Olympstroy, Fund of assistance to reforming of housing and communal services, as well as Vnesheconombank and Agency for Deposit insurance. We wish her success.
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