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Soviet computer technology: the history of the rise and oblivion
Material posted: Publication date: 27-08-2012

How many critical arrows have been released in recent years about the state of our computer technology! And that she was hopelessly backward (in this case definitely screwed about the "organic defects of socialism and planned economy"), and now to develop it is pointless, because "we are lagging behind forever." And in almost every case the reasoning will be followed by conclusion that "Western technology has always been better", "Russian computers can't do"...

Usually, criticizing the Soviet computers, focusing on their unreliability, difficulties in operation, small capacities. Yes, many programmers work for certain remember those "hanging" without end "E-es-Ki" of 70-80 years, can you tell us about that looked like "Sparks", "Agatha", "Robotron", "Electronics" on the background only started to appear in the Soviet Union IBM PC (not even the latest models) in the late 80's-early 90's, mentioning that the comparison ends not in favor of domestic computers. And it's true — these models are really inferior to Western analogues in their characteristics.

But these listed brands of computers was not the best domestic developments, despite being the most common. And actually Soviet electronics are not only developed at the global level, but also at times ahead of similar Western industry!

But why now we only use foreign hardware, and in Soviet times hardly "produced" domestic computer seemed to be a pile of metal in comparison with the Western counterpart? Whether the alleged superiority of the Soviet electronics unfounded?

No, it is not! Why? The answer is in this article.

The fame of our fathers

The official "birth date" of Soviet computing should be considered, apparently, the end of 1948. It was then in a secret laboratory in the village Feofania near Kyiv under the leadership of Sergei Alexandrovich Lebedev (then — Director of the Institute of electrical engineering Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and concurrently head of the laboratory of the Institute of precision mechanics and computer engineering Academy of Sciences of the USSR) began work on creating a Small Electronic computing Machine (MESM).

In my first car Lebedev has implemented fundamental principles of computers, such as the availability of arithmetic, memory, input/output and control; encoding and storing the program in memory, like numbers; binary number system to encode numbers and commands; automatically perform calculations based on stored programs; the presence of both arithmetic and logical operations; a hierarchical principle of construction of memory; the use of numerical methods for calculations. Design, installation and debugging of SECM were performed in record time (about 2 years) and held by only 17 people (12 researchers and 5 technicians). Test run machines MESM was held on 6 November 1950, and the regular operation on 25 December 1951.

In 1953, the team headed by S. A. Lebedev created the first great computer — BESM-1 (Large Electronic computing Machine), released in a single copy. It was created in Moscow, in the Institute of precision mechanics (abbreviated ITM) and Computing center of the USSR Academy of Sciences, whose Director and was S. A. Lebedev, and was collected at the Moscow plant accounting machines (abbreviated AMU).

After picking RAM BESM-1 advanced element base its performance has reached 10,000 operations per second — at the level of the best in USA and the best in Europe. In 1958, after another upgrade RAM BESM, already named BESM-2 was prepared for serial production at a plant in Union, which was made in quantities of several dozen.

In parallel there was work in Moscow Special design Bureau No. 245, which was led by M. A. Lesechko, founded in December 1948 by order of Joseph Stalin. In 1950-1953, the staff of the design Bureau, but under the supervised guidance of Y. Y. has developed a digital computer of General purpose "Arrow" with a speed of 2 thousand operations per second. This machine was produced until 1956, and was made 7 copies. Thus, the "Arrow" was the first commercial computer, the MESM, BESM existed only in one copy.

In General, the end of 1948 was a very productive time for the creators of the first Soviet computers. Although the above two computers were among the best in the world, again in parallel with them developing another branch of the Soviet computer industry — M-1, "Automatic digital computing machine", which was directed by I. S. Bruk.

M-1 was launched in December 1951 along with MESM and almost two years was the only one in the USSR the current computer (MESM geographically located in Ukraine, near Kiev).

However, the performance of the M-1 was extremely low — only 20 operations per second, which, however, did not stop to solve the problem of nuclear research in the Institute I. V. Kurchatov. However, the M-1 took quite a bit of space — 9 square meters (compare with 100 sq. m. the BESM-1) and consumed significantly less energy than the brainchild of Lebedev. M-1 became the ancestor of a whole class of "small computers", the supporter of which was the Creator of I. C. Brooke. Such machines, in the opinion of the brook, were to be for a small design bureaus and scientific organizations, do not have the funds and facilities to purchase the machines of the BESM type.

Soon the M-1 was greatly improved, and its performance has reached the level of "Boom" — 2 thousand operations per second, at the same time, the size and the power consumption increased slightly. The new machine has been naturally the name of M-2 and commissioned in 1953. In terms of cost, size and performance M-2 was the best computer of the Union. Exactly M-2 won the first international chess tournament between computers.

As a result, in 1953 a serious computational problems for the needs of national defense, science and national economy could have been solved on three types of computers — BESM, "Arrow" and M-2. All these computers are computing the first generation. Element base — electronic lamps — determined their large size, significant power consumption, low reliability and, as a consequence, small production volumes and a narrow range of users, mainly from the world of science. In such machines there was virtually no means of combining operations performed by the program and paralleling the work of different devices; commands are executed one after another, ALU ("arithmetic logic unit", unit, directly perform data transformation) were idle during data exchange with external devices, the set of which was very limited. RAM BESM-2, for example, accounted for 39 2048-bit words in external memory used magnetic drums and tape drives.

Setun was the first and only in the world ternary computer. MSU. The USSR. Manufacturer: Kazan mathematical machines plant of Minradioprom of the USSR. Manufacturer logic elements — Astrakhan plant for the production of electronic equipment and electronic devices of Minradioprom of the USSR. Manufacturer of magnetic drums — Penza computer plant of Minradioprom of the USSR. The manufacturer of the printing device — the Moscow factory of typewriters Minibarom the USSR. Graduation year of development: 1959. The beginning year of release: 1961. Year discontinued: 1965. The number of vehicles produced: 50.

In the West thing at that time was not too better. Here is an example from the memoirs of academician N. N. Moses, familiar with the experience of their colleagues from USA: "I saw that in the technique we are almost not playable: the same tube computing monsters, the same endless crashing, those same magicians-engineers in white coats, who fix the breakage, and wise mathematicians who are trying to get out of difficult situations." Recall that in 1953 in the U.S. was released the IBM 701 with a speed up to 15 thousand operations per second, built on the electronic-vacuum tubes, the former the most productive in the world.

But more productive was the next development of Lebedev — the computer M-20, serial production of which started in 1959.

The number 20 in the title refers to the speed — 20 thousands of operations at second, volume operative memory twice OP BESM, provided some combination of functions. At that time it was one of the most powerful and reliable machines in the world, and it decided many important theoretical and applied tasks of science and technology of the time. In the car M20 were implemented the possibility of writing programs in mnemonics. This greatly expanded the range of experts who were able to take advantage of computer technology. Ironically computers M-20 was released exactly 20 pieces.

Computers of the first generation was produced in the USSR for a long time. Even in 1964 in Penza has continued to be the computer "Ural-4", were used for economic calculations.

Victorious gait

In 1948 the United States was invented semiconductor transistor, which was used as element base of the computer. This has made it possible to develop computers with significantly smaller dimensions, energy consumption, and significantly higher (compared to tube computers), reliability, and performance. Extremely relevant was the problem of automation of programming, as the gap between the development time of programs and actual time of the calculation increased.

The second stage of computing the late 50's-early 60-ies characterized by the creation of developed programming languages (ALGOL, Fortran, COBOL) and development of process automation control flow tasks using the computer, that is, the development of operating systems. The first OS has automated the user for performing certain tasks, and then were created by means of entering multiple jobs at once (batch jobs) and distribution of computational resources between them. Came multiprogramming mode of data processing. The most characteristic features of these computers, usually called "computers of the second generation": the combination of the operations of I/o with computation in the Central processor; increase the amount of RAM and the external memory; use of alphanumeric devices for input/output of data; a "closed" mode for users: the programmer was not allowed in the computer room, and handed the program in algorithmic language (high level language) to the operator for further crossing by car.

In the late 50-ies in the USSR was also the serial production of transistors.

This allowed us to start to build computers of the second generation with higher performance, smaller footprint and power consumption. The development of computer technology in the Soviet Union almost went "explosive" pace: in the short term the number of different models of computers, which was put into development, began to number in the dozens: M-220 — heiress of the Lebedev M-20, and "Minsk-2" with the subsequent versions, and Yerevan's "Nairi", and many computers for military use — M-40 performance 40 thousand operations per second and M-50 (still had vacuum-tube components in itself). Thanks to the last in 1961 managed to create a fully functional missile defence system (during the tests repeatedly managed to down a real ballistic missile with a direct hit in the warhead capacity of half cubic meter). But first of all I would like to mention a series of "BESM", developed by the team at ITM and VT, USSR Academy of Sciences under the leadership of S. A. Lebedev, a top labor which was the BESM-6 was created in 1967. It was the first Soviet computers, reached a speed of 1 million operations per second (a rate that surpassed the national computers subsequent editions of only at the beginning of 80-ies at a much lower than the BESM-6, reliability in operation).

In addition to high performance (the best index in Europe and one of the best in the world), the structural organization of BESM-6 was notable for a number of features, revolutionary for its time and anticipated the architectural features of the computer next generation (components of which were integrated circuit). So, for the first time in domestic practice and in complete independence from foreign computer was widely used the principle of combining execution (up to 14 machine instructions can simultaneously be in the processor at various stages of implementation). This principle, named chief designer of the BESM-6 academician S. A. Lebedev principle "water", later became widely used to enhance the performance of mainframe, receiving in modern terminology the name "command pipelining".

BESM-6 was produced at the Moscow plant ITSELF is from 1968 to 1987 (published a total of 355 vehicles) — some kind of record! Last BESM-6 was dismantled in our days — in 1995 at the Moscow helicopter plant Mil. BESM-6 was equipped with the largest academic (e.g., Computing Center, USSR Academy of Sciences, United Institute of Nuclear Research) and industry (Central Institute of Aviation mechanical Engineering — CIAM) research institutes, factories and design bureaus.

Interesting in this connection an article by curator of the Museum of computing in the UK Doron Svejda about how he bought in Novosibirsk, one of the last working BESM-6. The title of the article speaks for itself: "Russian series of supercomputers BESM, developed over 40 years ago, can testify to the lies of the United States, declared technological supremacy during the cold war years". Full text (English language) available at http://inc.com/incmagazine/archiv...

Information for professionals

Work RAM, a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit of the BESM-6 was carried out in parallel and asynchronously, due to the presence of buffer devices intermediate storage of commands and data. To accelerate pipeline commands in the control device were provided separate registered memory storage indexes, a separate module address arithmetic that allow a fast modification of addresses using the index registers, including the stack mode of treatment.

Associative memory on fast registers (type cache) allows you to automatically save the most frequently used operands and thereby reduce the number of accesses to main memory. "Stratification" of memory has provided the opportunity of simultaneous access to different modules from different devices of the machine. Interrupt mechanisms, memory protection, conversion of virtual to physical addresses and preferred mode of operation for the OS has allowed to use the BESM-6 in multiprogramming and time sharing. In arithmetic-logic unit were implemented accelerated algorithms for multiplication and division (multiplication by four figures of the multiplier, calculation of four-digit private of one clock cycle), and the adder circuits with no pass-through transfer, representing the result of the operation in the form of a two-row code (bitwise sums and transfers) and operating with an input row code (new operand and a double-row result of the previous operation).

BESM-6 had a memory on ferrite cores — 32 KB of 50-bit words, the RAM was increased on subsequent versions to 128 KB.

The data exchange with external memory on magnetic drums (and later on magnetic disks) and magnetic tapes was carried out in parallel on seven high-speed channels (the forerunners of the selector channels). Working with other peripheral devices (feature-based input/output data) has been implemented by software drivers the operating system when the corresponding interrupts from the device.

Technical and operational characteristics: the Average speed is up to 1 million unicast commands/word Length — 48 binary bits and two control bits (the parity for the whole word had to be "odd". Thus, it was possible to distinguish commands from data — some parity half word was "odd-even" and others "even-odd". The transition on the data or mashing code was caught easily, as only occurred attempting to perform a data word) Representation of numbers — floating-point working frequency is 10 MHz Occupied area of 150-200 square metres power consumption 220 V/50 Hz — 30 KW (without air-cooling)

BESM-6 had an original system of elements with vapour phase synchronization. High clock frequency of the elements demanded from developers of new original structural solutions to reduce the lengths of connections and reduce parasitic capacitance.

The use of these elements combined with the original structural solutions enabled us to provide the level of performance up to 1 million operations per secunu when running in 48-bit mode, floating-point, which is a record in relation to the relatively small number of semiconductor elements and their performance (about 60 thousand transistors and 180 thousand diodes and 10 MHz ).

The architecture of BESM-6 is characterized by an optimal set of arithmetic and logical operations, fast modification of addresses using the index registers (including stack handling), the extension mechanism code of operations (extrabody).

When creating a BESM-6 were established the main principles of system of automation of computer design (CAD). Compact recording machine diagrams formulas of Boolean algebra became the basis of its operational and commissioning documentation. Documentation for installation was given to the plant in the form of tables, obtained on an instrumental computer.

The BESM -6 authoring team were V. A. Melnikov, L. N. Korolev, V. S. Petrov, L. A. Teplitsky — heads; A. A. Sokolov, V. N. Laut, M. V. Tyapkin, V. L., L. A. Zak, V. I. Smirnov, A. S. Fedorov, O. K. Shcherbakov, A. V. Abaev, V. Y. Alekseev, A. O. Bolshakov, V. F. Zhirov, V. A. Zhukovskii, Yu. A. Mitropolsky, Yu.Znamensky, V. S. Covers, overall supervision was provided by S. A. Lebedev.

In 1966 over Moscow was launched the missile defense system created on the basis of the groups of S. A. Lebedev and his colleagues V. S. Burtsev the 5e92b computer formed with the capacity of 500 thousand operations per second, which existed up to the present time (in 2002 should be removed in connection with the reduction of the strategic missile forces).

Was also created the material base for the deployment of the ABM over the entire territory of the Soviet Union, however, subsequently under the contract, the PRO-1 works in this direction were stopped. Group V. S. Burtseva took an active part in the development of the legendary anti-aircraft missile complex s-300, created in 1968 for her computer 5Э26 characterized by a small size (2 cubic meters) and precise hardware monitoring, tracing any incorrect information. The performance of the computer 5Э26 was equal to the BESM-6 — 1 million operations per second.

5Э261 — the USSR's first mobile high-performance multiprocessor control system.

Betrayal

Probably the most stellar period in the history of Soviet computing was the mid-sixties. In the USSR then there were creative teams. The institutes of S. A. Lebedev, I. S. Bruk, V. M. Glushkov — only the largest of them. Sometimes they compete, sometimes complement each other. At the same time produced many different types of machines, often incompatible with each other (with the possible exception of cars, was developed in the same Institute), for different purposes. They were all designed and made at the global level and not inferior to its Western competitors.

The variety produced computers and their incompatibility with each other on software and hardware levels did not meet their creators. It was necessary to put a little bit of order in the whole set of computers manufactured, for example, taking any of them for a standard. But...

At the end of the 60s the leadership of the country decided, having, as shown by the course of events, disastrous consequences: the replacement of all mixed domestic developments of the middle class (there were a dozen — "Minsky", "Urals", different architectural options M-20, etc.) — on a Family of computers based on the IBM 360 architecture, American analog. At the level of the Ministry not so loud was made a similar decision in respect of mini-computers. Then, in the second half of 70-ies, as the General line of mini and micro-computers was approved the architecture of the PDP-11 also foreign firms DEC. As a result, the domestic computer manufacturers were forced to copy old samples of IBM's computer technology. It was the beginning of the end.

Here is the assessment of corresponding member of RAS Boris Artashes Babayan (full text articles available from the address znanie-sila.ru/ online/issu...):

"Then came the second period, when was organized VNIINEFT. I think this is a critical stage in the development of computer science. Was disbanded all artistic groups, closed competitive developments and decided to drive all in one "stall". From now on, all had to copy American technology, and by no means the most perfect. Giant team VNIINEFT copied IBM, and the collective INEUM — DEC."

In no way think that the development teams UCS were doing their job poorly. In contrast, creating a perfectly workable computers (though not very reliable and powerful), similar to Western counterparts, they have coped with this task brilliantly, given that the industrial base in the Soviet Union lagged behind the West. Erroneous was precisely the focus of the entire industry on imitation of the West, and not on the development of original technologies.

Unfortunately, it is unknown who exactly in the leadership of the country took the criminal decision to collapse the original domestic developments and the development of electronics in the direction of copying Western counterparts. Objective reasons for such decision no.

One way or another, since the early 70-ies of the development of small and medium-computer technology in the USSR began to deteriorate. Instead of further development-developed and tested concepts of computer-the enormous power of computer technology institutes of the country began to engage in "stupid", and besides, still and semi-legal copying Western computers. However, legally it could not be — was the cold war, and the export of modern technologies "computer" in the USSR in most Western countries was simply prohibited by law.

Here's another Testament B. A. Babayan:

"The hope was that it will be possible to do a lot of maintenance — and the flourishing computer technology. This, of course, did not happen. Because after all were gathered together in one place, the creativity ended. Figuratively speaking, my brain started to dry from completely uncreative work. Just needed to guess how you make a Western, in fact, obsolete computers. Advanced level was not known, the latest developments do, was hope that the software will flood... it Soon became clear that the software is not flooded, stolen pieces were not suited to each other, the program did not work. Everything had to be rewritten, and what I got was an ancient, badly worked. It was a resounding failure. Cars that were made in this period, were worse than the machines developed to the organization of Unicauca..."

Most importantly — path copying overseas solutions was much more difficult than previously assumed. For compatibility architectures required compatibility at the level of element base, and its something we never had. In those days, the domestic electronic industry also forced the path of the clone components, to ensure the possibility of creating analogs of Western computers. But it was very difficult.

It is possible to get and copy the topology of circuits to learn all the parameters of electronic circuits. However, this did not provide an answer to the main question — how to make them. According to one of the experts of the Russian MEP, who worked at the time, CEO of a major NGO, the advantage of Americans has always been huge investments in electronic engineering. In the United States were and remain absolutely secret is not so much a technological line of manufacture of electronic components as the equipment for the creation of these lines. The result of this situation was that created in the early 70-ies of the Soviet microchips — the Western analogues were similar to U.S.-Japanese in functional terms, but did not reach them on technical parameters. Therefore, fees collected for the American topologies, but with our components that failed to work. Had to develop your own schematics.

In the above-cited article, Sweida concludes: "BESM-6 was, reputedly, the last original Russian computer that was designed on a par with its Western counterpart". This is not entirely true: after the BESM-6 was a series of "Elbrus": the first cars from this series "Elbrus-B" was microelectronic copy of BESM-6 were given the opportunity to work in the command system of the BESM-6 and use software written for it.

However, the General sense of the correct conclusion: because of the order incompetent or deliberately damaging figures of the ruling elite of the Soviet Union of that time the Soviet computer science was closed the way to the top of the world Olympus. Which it could achieve — academic, creative and physical potential was enough to do it.

Here, for example, a little from personal experience of one of the authors of the article:

"During the period of my work in TsIAM (1983 — 1986) already there was a transition of suppliers — plants and design bureaus of the aviation industry — in the EU's machinery. In this regard, the leadership of the Institute beginning to force managers to pass on newly installed in the EU institution-1060 — a Western clone of the IBM PC. The developers sabotaged this decision, passive, and some active, preferring to use good old BESM-6 fifteen years ago. The fact that work on the EU-1060 in the daytime was almost impossible — permanent "zavisa", the speed of the tasks is very slow; at the same time, any hang-up of the BESM-6 was seen as an emergency, they were so rare."

However, not all of the original domestic developments were stopped. As already mentioned, the staff of the V. S. Burtsev continued work on a series of computers "Elbrus", and in 1980 the computer "Elbrus-1" with a speed up to 15 million operations per second was put into production. Symmetric multiprocessor architecture with shared memory, implementation of secure programming with hardware data types, superscalarity processor, single operating system for multiprocessor systems — all these features implemented in a series of "Elbrus", appeared earlier than in the West. In 1985, the next model in this series, "Elbrus-2" were already completed 125 million operations per second. "Elbrus" worked in a number of important systems related to the processing of radar data, they are believed to number Arzamas and Chelyabinsk, and many of the computers of this model still provide the missile defense and space forces.

A very interesting feature of "Elbrus" was the fact that the system software developed in high level language El — 76, and not a traditional assembler. Before the execution of code in the language El-76 was translated into machine instructions with hardware, not software.

Since 1990, also issued "Elbrus 3-1", its modular design and intended to solve large scientific and economic challenges, including the modeling of physical processes. Its performance has reached 500 million operations per second (on some teams). There were 4 copies of this machine.

Since 1975 the group prangishvili and V. V. Rezanov in the research and production Association "Impulse" began to be developed computing complex PS-2000 with a speed of 200 million operations per second, was put into production in 1980 and used mainly for processing geophysical data, the search for new mineral deposits. This complex was used most of the possibility of parallel execution of commands of the program, which was achieved by cleverly designed architecture.

Large Soviet computers like the PS-2000, in many respects even superior to their foreign competitors, but cost much cheaper — so, on the development of the PS-2000 has been spent just 10 million rubles (and its use allowed us to receive profit in 200 million). However, their scope of application were "large-scale" problems — the same missile defence or the processing of space data. The development of medium-sized and small computers in the Soviet Union a betrayal of the Kremlin elite has been delayed for a long time. This is why the device that stands on your Desk and which is described in our journal made in South East Asia, not in Russia.

Disaster

Since 1991 for the Russian science fell on hard times. The new government of Russia took a course on the destruction of Russian science and original technologies. Stopped funding the vast majority of research projects, due to the destruction of the Union interrupted the relationship of manufacturers of computers who are in different States, and efficient production was impossible. Many developers of computer science, were forced to work in another profession, losing skills and the time. The only instance was developed in the Soviet era of the computer "Elbrus-3", two times faster than the most productive American supermachine that time Cray Y-MP, in 1994, was dismantled and put under the press.

Some of their creators of the Soviet computers went abroad. So, currently the leading developer of microprocessors Intel is Vladimir Pentkovsky, who studied in the USSR and worked in ITM CT — Institute of Precise Mechanics and Computing Machinery named after S. A. Lebedev. Pentkovsky participated in the development of the above-mentioned computers "Elbrus-1 and Elbrus-2" and then has led the development of processor "Elbrus-3" El — 90. Due to the purposeful policy of destruction of Russian science, waged by the ruling circles of Russia under the influence of the West, the financing of the project "Elbrus" has stopped, and Vladimir Pentkovsky was forced to emigrate to the USA and get a job in Intel. He soon became the leading engineer of the Corporation and under his leadership in 1993, Intel developed the Pentium processor, according to rumors, so called in honor Pentkovskogo.

Pentkovsky embodied in Intel'ovskih processors the Soviet know-how, who knew himself, much dedamiwa in the development process, and by 1995 Intel introduced better processor Pentium Pro, which are very close in capabilities to the Russian microprocessor 1990 El 90, though, and caught up with him. Currently Pentkovsky is developing the next generation of Intel processors. So the processor, which might work on your computer, made by our compatriot and could be manufactured in Russia, if not for events after 1991.

Many research institutes have switched to the creation of large computing systems based on imported components. So, in scientific research Institute “Kvant” under the leadership of V. K. Levin is Razrabotka computing system MVS-100 and MVS-1000, based on the Alpha 21164 processors (production DEC-Compaq). However, the acquisition of such equipment is complicated with current embargo on the export to Russia of high technologies, an opportunity of application of such systems in defense systems is questionable — no one knows how they can find "bugs" that are activated by the signal and displays system disable.

In a market, personal computers, domestic computers are missing completely. The best Russian developers is assembling computers from components and the creation of separate devices, such as motherboards, again from ready-made components, while placing orders to the factories of Southeast Asia. However, such development is very small (you can call the company "Aquarius", "Formosa"). The development of the same line "EU" has practically stopped, — why to create their counterparts, when it is easier and cheaper to buy the originals?

1948 — 1958, the first generation of computers 1947-1948 G. - the beginning of works on creation of the Institute of electronics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine under the leadership of academician Sergey Alekseevich Lebedev first first national universal lamp computer MESM (small electronic calculating machine).

1948 - S. I. Bruk, received the diploma for the invention of the computer and introduced the project of creating such a machine, called M-1. In December, I. S. Bruk and B. I. Rameev received the copyright certificate on the invention of "Automatic digital electronic machine". Due to organizational difficulties the work was delayed.

1950 - in effect the first Soviet electronic digital computing machine SECM, the high-speed then in Europe, and in 1951 she officially put into operation.

1952 - started practical operation of the M-1, was developed under the direction of I. S. Bruk. For M-1 followed by M-2. Its development was performed by a group of students from MPEI headed by M. A. Kartsev. Then they produced the machine M-3. The M-3 has a special place in the development of computer technology. With some modifications it was repeated in Yerevan, Minsk, and also abroad - in China and Hungary, which served as the basis for the development of mathematical engineering.

1953 - the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Moscow), commissioning of the BESM (big electronic counting machine computing), developed at the Institute of precision mechanics and computer technology of the USSR. under the leadership of S. A. Lebedev. BESM belongs to the class of digital computers of General purpose oriented to solution of complex problems in science and technology.

1953 in Moscow, the CSC of Ministry of machine building and instrument making under the direction Bazilevsky and birameev completed the development of the serial computer "Strela" of General purpose.

1954 - began serial release of the computer "Strela". The series was very small: in total for four years seven machines were released. Nevertheless 1954 is the year of establishment of domestic industry of computers.

1955 - the Institute of precision mechanics and computer engineering Academy of Sciences of the USSR introduced improvements in Most computers "BESM", increasing its speed up to 8000 operations per second.

1956 in the USSR the state Commission presented the M-3, was developed by the initiative group (C. I. Brooke, N. I.Matyukhin, V. V. Belinski, G. P. Lopato, And B. M. Kagan, V. M. Dolkart, B. B. Melik-Shahnazarov).

1956 - developed the BESM-2. Head of development - S. A. Lebedev

1957 - completed one of the most sophisticated computing machines purely relay RWM-1. The machine is designed and built under the leadership of the Soviet engineer I. I. Bessonov (start of construction refers to 1954).

1957 - in Penza under the direction birameev created unicast tube computers "Ural-1"General purpose oriented to solution of engineering and planning and economic objectives. She polozila rise to a whole family of small computers "Ural".

1958 - commissioning of the computer M-20 (Kazan) Development made ITM and VT jointly with SKB-245. Director: S. A. Lebedev, Deputy chief designer M. K. Sulim, M. R. Shura-Bura. M-20 is a digital electronic computing machine General purpose, focused on solving complex mathematical problems. It served as the original model of the family of compatible computers M-220 and M-222.

1958 - the release beginning in the Ulyanovsk BESM-2 (S. A. Lebedev, V. A. Melnikov).

1958 - at the Institute of Cybernetics has developed an electronic digital computer “KIEV”, designed to solve a wide range of scientific and engineering problems.

1958 in Yerevan under the leadership of F. T. Sarkisian (B. B. Melik-Shahnazarov) created the computer "Razdan". Universal

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