From the village in the best University of the country
I graduated from the village school in 1953, when the young people raved about nuclear issues, and he also really wanted to do nuclear physics. So the first thing I started to watch the Moscow engineering physics Institute. Almost applied there when I saw the announcement that there is another institution — the Moscow physical-technical exams which is a month earlier. This meant that you can make two attempts of admission.
Entrance exams held in the building of the Moscow power engineering Institute, where the Dorm was. 10-15 days before the start of the PTI gave us their problem books in mathematics and physics, and I realized that 90-95% can not solve. I started to attend all consultations, and led their people to universities custom. In physics advised by the young scientists of the physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences, in mathematics of the Mathematical Institute. Everything was explained easily and freely. The result for the exams 95% of the tasks I decided.
— As township teachers were able to prepare you for the Institute?
— Our school was one for the whole Kurowski district — he is now Orekhovo-Zuevo, and the village of Kurovskaya now called a city Kurovskoye. In middle school half of the class walked from the surrounding villages. But taught us to say, of Narodniy. Very dedicated teachers, who were working with us constantly. In mathematics and physics I was an excellent student, they made sure I solved a lot of problems. Once a failure has occurred: the test in math I couldn't do it. Usually in such cases I put a deuce, but the teacher said, "I'll be ready for the next lesson, and you decide." Sat with me two hours, because psychologically it was important for me to meet these challenges. The teacher didn't give me a break, losing confidence.
Views Kurowski textile mill, the 1950s, the status of the city working village of Kurovskoe was only in 1952
The entrance exams in mathematics and physics had the best scores in the group. The essay was written well, and the teacher of German said, "the Tone of voice you good. Will teach English, because the German you learn is useless".
— The Institute was difficult?
Very. Phystech — College, which was not cool, because hard labor to pull, not walk. In the first year set of 56 classroom hours per week with mandatory attendance. Plus several hundred pages of foreign texts and a few pages of numbers of tasks. As we stood, I know not. It was the main selection, someone could not cope. The group we had 16 people, was completed 11.
MIPT laboratory building, 1950s
The Institute was created purposefully to address the strategic task, therefore, to learn were those who work at the most advanced level of knowledge of each industry. For three years we have passed a University course in mathematics, physics and other things, and then we were sent to base Institute — ITMiVT (Institute of precision mechanics and computer engineering).
The ITMiVT. A mosaic of different wood species, dedicated to the memory of academician Sergei Lebedev for more than 20 years led the Institute
Computing technique you chose?
— For admission to the Institute, except for examinations conducted the interview. Sat unworldly people looked at us, asked. I asked a single question, because the members of the Commission knew our settlement. "With such a familiar?" "Yes." At this the interview ended. Said, "Go on computation." I did not resist, because to know and not know what it is.
— What were the alternatives?
— The Institute had 16 groups and 16 areas — the range is very large. From physical chemistry to aerospace is missiles and aircraft. Department of radio engineering. Department of automatics, in my opinion, was.
In the first year exams passed not all. The report for 1951: the PTI also called FTF — physical-technical faculty of Moscow state University
The training assumed that the 4th grade most of the time we spend on the base business. There is the chair and lectures, and work. At first we were attached to the laboratory, a final year student enrolled part-time, for example, technicians. The diploma was given, and is a relatively natural distribution. Housing Institute could not give, so about half of the students remained at the base of the plant. Someone went to Novosibirsk.
Interception of a ballistic missile and the flight of Gagarin
— That is, starting with the 4th course, you are constantly at ITMiVT?
— I had a very hard-working leader, he involved me in the development of new elements, then the transistors were vacuum tube machines. I mastered all this technology, she defended her diploma. After modification of these elements was the first computer that I designed.
— What was this machine?
— 5Э92б. It is a military marking machine, the second generation of missile defense systems. In the early 60's we did the prototypes. Experienced at the site, our teams traveled there to enter in the system. And on the basis of this machine was created first operational missile defense system. Two years ago, the machine was still working, but not in combat mode.
— Tasks of such a machine, the location, the computations of the trajectories?
— Locators themselves and develop an electronic enterprise, information processing — at the expense of our computers. The missile complex was the world's first sophisticated system where the control loop was embedded digital computing machine (the air defense systems of that time in the control loop was embedded with the operator, based on the limited capabilities of analog devices). Computer was objectively necessary. Sites were located from each other at a distance of 100-200 km. pad, radar, command post. It was necessary to provide a connection between them, gathering information, processing, guidance. The first intercept of a ballistic missile that occurred on March 4, 1961, is the event value is approximately equal to the Gagarin's flight.
Declassified the American reconnaissance satellite KH-7. In June 1967 he filmed element of A-35 at the station ABOUT the industrial districts of Moscow in Kubinka. A-shaped building locator, nicknamed "the hut"
I think few can imagine that such a launch Gagarin into orbit, because our writers and journalists are very misrepresented, I would even say debased. For me it was always a mystery how a healthy man of 30 years who has two children, seriously risking his life in order, I'm sorry to wave a hand somewhere out there in space. Why the hell would he need it? And recently I read that Gagarin's flight was made at the suggestion of four prominent people, including "three To": Korolev, Kurchatov and Keldysh. They wrote in a letter to the Politburo on the strategic objective of launching reconnaissance satellites, and there is a special solution identified 7 missiles for testing of the first flight.
A feat that made Gagarin, much higher than the waving the hand in space. His flight showed that the Soviet Union already has a powerful (weight of the cabin exceeded the weight of the warhead), reliable (only reliable technique to put a man) rocket, which could seriously threaten the aggressor and to serve as a base for the deployment of intelligence systems. The successful interception of missiles showed that the Soviet Union has a detection locators, locators, precision guidance, high speed missile interceptor and digital computers, capable of providing automatic control of interception. These two events showed that the Soviet Union should not be disturbed.
The main command and computing center of the system ABOUT the A-35 in Kubinka
History Of ITMiVT
— ITMiVT has always been on strategic management. His job was to make the fastest car possible in our country. They were needed everywhere. The entire staff was the first form of tolerance, that is tolerance to top secret documents of special importance. When did the first classic car BESM, I just found out about it. Periodically, the computer room was closed, there was security. Of famous personalities came to calculate your hydrogen bomb Sakharov.
Before that, all the calculations were so-called design Bureau — part of our Institute had a large division, consisting of women with adding machines. And when there was some automatic system is considered much more productive, this was a dramatic leap forward. Went tasks such as circling the moon. It is also one of the areas close to the intelligence technology. Volumetric calculations for all of the trajectories were performed with us.
When the machines BESM-6, released them less than 400 pieces, and distributed the government's decisions. Several of them were at universities, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and most in Arzamas-16, Chelyabinsk-40, in the center of space monitoring in the mission control center, etc.
— The Institute much attention is paid to foreign language. You have had access to foreign publications?
— At first we supplied a closed literature. Magazines received, interesting materials came to us from IBM. It was a real school competent engineering work. If you do, be sure to report back about it competently, and they have this style still exists.
Magazine cover IBM Systems journal, No. 3-4, 1968
Something very serious from there we learned. There was one material, which in the early 60s predicted the further development of computer technology. He remembered me that nothing was wrong. Then such materials to us ceased, but they were not particularly needed. If you yourself are unable to solve the problem, copying is pointless. Because the main thing in our business is mistakes. Do you think it is doing our business? 90 percent — looking for mistakes. Quickly drew a diagram, and then a few years chase. First, on the simulator, that is on the computer. Then on a specially made instrument is the so — called prototype that runs only 50 times slower than the designed processor. So, it can be a big task to drive. Mistakes are always native, no you with them will not help. The fact that two and two make four, will tell you, but what to do next, you're on your own, and most importantly.
Long ago, I tried to understand what occurred ITMiVT and other such enterprises. They were created in 1949 or so. Why? Remember the phrase, spoken by Stalin in 1931: "If we do not run for 10 years this gap, they will crush us". She defined the entire life of the country before the war, including reprisals, the tragedy of collectivization.
After the war was the same situation. Our people got out. Came up with a plan to defeat the us — BAM, tanks naizgotovku. Americans have accumulated 300-400 bombs, and we have only a dozen — were forced to create them. No means of delivery? Created malishevski bomber. Then set up the rocket Royal. Was their little, as they say — during the Cuban missile crisis just one operational, but it could cause serious damage. Survived this period.
ITMiVT created with good intentions, but in the beginning things were neither good, nor bad. Gathered from the Academy of Sciences, several laboratories, together put, but to sense from it was not special. And the Central Committee had sent a man, Yuri Zhdanov to check the status of the Academy of Sciences. At the end he wrote a letter, a page and a half devoted to the ITMiVT. About the contingent leadership, the confusion. After that, they sent the outstanding scientist and organizer of Mikhail Alekseevich Lavrentyev, academician. Then he created the Novosibirsk Akademgorodok. Personally.
Mikhail Lavrentyev was elected Director of the ITMiVT in 1950
It was not very long, a year and a half. From 40 percent cleaned out as unnecessary, had set a condition that the Institute was headed by Lebedev. Then they sent a team of students from the Energy Institute, which was prepared on the instructions of Beria, who oversaw all major destinations. It was created for the nuclear project, but Lavrentyev persuaded Beria to redirect this group here. Entered it people 20 students who diplomas defended here. The selection was very serious, and therefore from this group came out 2 academician, 4 doctors of Sciences. Almost all became laureates of the Lenin and State prizes.
These people became the Foundation of the first car. Because he drew her well, but she was very unreliable. Refused through a couple of hours, and we had 15 minutes to fix it.
In the first world war, when there was total confusion and nothing was missing — no ammunition, no chemicals — the Commission was created to mobilize natural resources. There were a shipbuilder Krylov, the future academician Vernadsky, a distinguished chemist Kurnakov. They formulated the rules of how to survive, and from these circles came the electrification plan. In the 1930-ies they formulated the rules how to develop science. The basis is a enterprise or organization in which there is everything: researchers, developers, engineers, testers. The whole bouquet should be in one place and focuses on addressing the main challenges. This enterprise can be called the company of BIG SCIENCE. According to this principle was built most of our efficient enterprises. In particular, the ITMiVT. A lot of it was naive of research, but it always happens: when something is examined, the essential part then disappears. But qualifying remains.
Then some people felt sad to sit with tolerances to the secret works (without going abroad). According to the memoirs of "great scientist" Gvishiani, communicating with his father Kosygin, he heard: "we Must distinguish pure science." Then Academy of Sciences and began to rot. What is now happening to her — echoes of the 1960s. Then ITMiVT out of the Academy of Sciences and was included in the Ministry of radio industry. We learned how to connect to the development of a lot of companies in the country. Was such a body — the military-industrial Commission under the Presidium of the Council of Ministers. That is, the Central Committee and the Council of Ministers has adopted a basic decision on allocation of money, and the military-industrial Commission implemented them. Through my Department, sometimes it took a whole year of work for those 10-20 million rubles, now it is 30-50 million dollars. When we did "Elbrus", to the left about 300-400 million rubles (at today's exchange rate — more than a billion dollars), the third on the subcontractors.
The main a number of famous machines made by ITMiVT is BESM. There were other options available?
They are all described in our books. Line BESM gave an incredible surge in the machines BESM-6. It was the effect of the developers of the second generation. When you do a first draft, you still do not know much, try, wrong. But the second can be brilliant. BESM-6 was doing mostly the guys from MEI. The main man in this project Andrei Sokolov. He was engaged in the design, and electronics, and architecture. It is believed that this is all Lebedev was up to, but Sergey was already elderly.
On this line of cars began to improve. Was released as-6 became the basis for the MCC's (mission control center) in Korolyov. In parallel to the ITMiVT formed a group of development units emergency vehicles.
Restaurant "Metropol", 1960s
The history of this is quite funny. I said that the first BESM was served by a young intelligent engineers. They were paid in the mid-1950s, well — 1800 rubles plus bonuses, which is significantly more than others. For young people in those days it was a lot of money. They lit up the restaurant "Metropol", where it is absolutely contraindicated to go, because that's where all the tables were bugged. After a memo from the intelligence services they were deprived of access and, therefore, forbidden to work in BESM. Sergey Alexeevich Lebedev then said, "Let's make a special". Here they made the first computers for the flight control of the aircraft, which, however, never commercially released.
The development of a missile defense system is another major area of ITM and VT. The predecessor of the BESM-6 had a lamp machine M-20, and a backup M-20 To M-40, included in the control circuit of the first stage of a missile defense system. It was conducted all these tests — intercept of a ballistic missile and others. The next generation — 5Э92б — this is solid state machine with substantially higher performance than the M-40 and much more reliable for the first stage of the Moscow ABM. One of the cars of this generation created in the ITM AND VT, as I said, two or three years ago, he worked in Kamchatka. Monitor the launch of missiles from the American Atoll Kwajalein — there are Americans all tests carried out ABOUT. On the basis of this machine was made air defense system, the prototype of the s-300. The Americans were in hysterics and still not allow its use in the contract OSV-1.
The proving ground of the US army on Kwajalein Atoll, 1960s
The development of special vehicles divided industry is still in two directions. One is air defense systems (s-300 and others) and the missile defense system. ABOUT ensured emergency vehicles 5Э92б, and when the next generation took significantly more powerful computers, was created family "of Elbrusy". It still works in different systems.
Stand with the parts of the processor of the computer "Elbrus-2" at the California Museum of computing. Photos of a former employee of the ITMiVT living in the United States
Physics lyrics. The intersection of the two cultures you once felt?
— Next to us was Physical Institute of the Academy of Sciences, served as a real clubbing venue for all. Someone's been reading samizdat. Among those who had engaged in serious business, many perfectly know the literature. The penultimate in the USSR, General designer of the missile defense system occasionally we have enlightened quoting "Eugene Onegin" by heart, the meeting place brought some figurative expressions. The General designer of the first missile defense Kisunko sang — I saw it in a documentary. He's a lyricist or a physicist? Probably, both that, and another.
We are the children of the war, survived very difficult times. Almost died in the evacuation with the sister was not eating normal. After the war there was a famine other — culture knowledge. Scoured all the museums. In the Russian Museum, I definitely came to the hall Kuindzhi. If the Conservatory is not just by chance celebrated, and for certain performers, and authors. Van Cliburn, for example. My wife is a night standing in the queue, so we can go there.
Van Cliburn performs the arrangement of a song by Vasily Solovyov-Sedoy "Moscow nights". Concert at the Moscow Conservatory, April 2, 1958
— The story of "Metropol" was funny. How else did you spend your free time?
— Once everything revolved around sports and physical culture. Loved to get out into nature, mastered water skiing, make their own boats. Then came the fashion for skiing, checked out entire teams. I've been 20 times in the mountains, all the mountains of the Soviet Union has traveled. It built the spirit of community, camaraderie that helped in the work.
Here is our own example. I have always been, relatively speaking, for the main part. No matter what the name of the post, everyone knew that I am responsible for the hardware of the machine. The RAM was periodically held at the suburban sites. When for three hundred system the car has done, I traveled every two weeks to Zagorsk factory. In the manufacture of a prototype for the VK-300 is stymied — can't check modules. New technology — there are integrated circuits. Became more complex modules, methods of control there, and manually to check them will kill any ragged Postings to look. I'm absolutely not concerned, but the atmosphere was tense. Began to think and remembered how a few years ago, worked in groups, reviewed poorly working communications equipment in the car of Leonid Brezhnev. The techniques used then, useful now. Together with the tech we have installed a breadboard, called the chief designer: "Here's how to check." He looked up and asked a very good engineer Oleg Gorlovskogo. The three weeks worked out the technique, then we are 15-20 years in this part of the problem is not known. This is the work of the team.
— Changes in the element base — the transition from lamps to transistors — was seen as an incredible breakthrough?
— It was a natural process, no miracles. Key invention in integrated circuits, the so — called planar transistor. We used it, then realized that they can be in pairs to do this get a new circuit solutions. Then they began to group, there was a scheme that was pure prototypes of old solutions, new technology. We very quickly mastered. Worked continuously in contact with the Zelenograd institutions. They are our assignments was developing a series of chips, we planted them in the car.
The power integrated circuit design in a natural evolutionary development. No brilliant insights. Everyone finds something that fixes another problem. Reduced number of defects, a more complex scheme, increasing resolution. When I had to make the decision of the military-industrial Commission-300, I was wound all institutions and factories. Communicated directly with the experts that the system was doing. Ask: "What problems are preventing to produce integrated circuits of a higher level?" "First — water, the resistivity of treated water should not be less than 100 Megohm. This is the basic material for the flush, it's everywhere used. The second micrometer screw with great precision, because the photomask is drawn. And optics with a line resolution of 2,000 lines per millimeter. All the other problems we solve ourselves."
About the same development now, only the names changed. Need ultra-pure hydrogen because if it is a little not that, your stove will go to a landfill clogged. Need ultra-precise coordinatograph etc. Now it is very difficult. Attempt to buy whole factories for the production of LSIs (large-scale integrated circuits) were. But for the sixth or seventh year went on, spent half a billion dollars, and in the case of equipment not running. Because not bought specific knowledge.
— When the first microprocessor Intel 4004, as it is perceived in the community?
— It is normal. In the late 80-ies we had designed your microprocessor "Elbrus-90". He disappeared, but the developer has become a leading developer in the firm "Intel". Is Vladimir Pentkovski, laureate of the state prize for "Elbrus-2". It was even said that the Pentium by his name called, but it's not.
The age of interaction
— In parallel with the ITMiVT worked, and other Soviet institutions. Have you had any contact with them?
— Such contacts, to the knowledge flowed, unfortunately, was not. They had to be organized centrally, and so, when the project ended, I became quite interested, as someone else did the parallel option. I had to move on to new challenges, which for us had not been decided. Separate specialized enterprises worked on our assignments. It was constructive interaction, but the ideas and knowledge was not transferred. If you decide, and you decide.
INEUM, say, engaged in a very different direction. We did very fast cars, but they — control systems of nuclear power plants, distillation plants, underground. There doesn't need high performance but want reliability, in the first place — system.
The approaches were different. Someone copied us circuitry for UCS, someone made the call to the "Elbrusy" — our independent project. They laughed at us when we typed in "Elbrus" system of liquid cooling. At first it was kind of Amateur radio: "Let's try and see how it will work." Then it turned out that without it there would be a missile defense system. Because the required power is large, heat is released and read out the number. About 1000 kilowatt hall. If you remove the excess air, the ducts lug, have to pump 360 cubic meters per hour per kilowatt. All ceiling air ducts are broken and do nothing, and cooling the system with water — easy.
When we solved the task of testing modules and lived quietly, all giggling. "But how so? It can't be, because it can never be!" But it works for us! The Minsk factory on manufacture of computers people are greatly toiled. The modules they really could not verify, put in the car, and for a month were looking for what system is denied. Then came to us at the Zagorsk electro-mechanical factory: "What to do". We: "Bring the modules, inspect them according to our methodology". Citizens formed a list of faults, their methods of testing have revealed about 80 % of the defects, our 99.9% uptime. The staff we have — girls after school. We have them two days to train, and they work.
Back to the age of interaction, remember the competition. Was in UCS is the fastest car in my opinion, 1066 — processor. Somewhere in the early 1980s, we compared its performance with the "Elbrus". The same batch of tasks, stopwatch. The difference in the two and a half times. Our architects are puffed up: "due to the architectural achievements!". I said, "No. Let us equally share. View clock speed". It turned out she was in our half times higher. On the same base on the same technology. But we are more carefully worked through the design procedure and the accuracy of performance, plus the cooling system was more efficient — this gave a ratio and a half.
The remote control for the new of the computer of EU-1066, 1990. Photo by Yuri Tumanov from the archive of the joint Institute for nuclear research
There is a very interesting example of interaction between industries. Our last project was "Elbrus-3". This is a significantly more powerful machine than the "Elbrus-2", we brought only to the state of the design prototype. The hardware was all designed and tested. But dramatically increased the power of the module, and had the power to take. This required the panel, which is adjacent to all the chips. Technically quite a difficult thing, because all warped. Tried to use casting, milling — no way. The chief of OKB of the Zagorsk factory went to the welding Institute the Paton. They are for missiles and aircraft technology are carefully worked out, and we have proposed a simple and ingenious solution. In the end, we made a socket 6 mm thick, 20 by 20 centimeters is a fairly large size. With the warping 100 microns. Technology is this: are made of high-precision dies, they vyshtampovyvajut configuration made of stainless steel or any other suitable metal. Of course, after stamping the panel leads. Collect them together, squeeze, but inside pre-coat with solder. Heated, cooled, and the socket — hard, light one. Amazing decision, I still admire.
Debugging multiprocessor computer complex "Elbrus" in the Institute of Theoretical and applied mechanics to them. S. A. Khristianovich of the Siberian branch of the Academy of Sciences
In the second half of the 1980s, the supply of institutions has deteriorated, how did you survive yours?
— Until 1991-for us it is not covered. It was normal financing, we are doing a project and sought to complete them. But then really began survival. The money received through two channels. In the General staff there were people who understood that the team must be preserved. They gave us some work, though, and for very little money. The second source of financing — the orders of foreign firms. We have, for example, always lived by the representative of the American company Sun with which we were often in contact. It took a lot out of the architecture "Elbrus", has created a microprocessor in America. One time he was fairly successful — clearly aimed at lower power in the main stream of universal processors did not climb. Then his company he successfully sold, as is usual in the United States is.
— Tell us about cooperation with Intel.
— Boris Babayan — people with initiative, he dangled for abroad. About 15 years ago in the "Intel" decided to take our group to implement its projects. Created the office of Intel in Russia, built a building great, and they worked for a long time our team. Some people were conventionally built into the conveyors. Got the job, for example, in testing programs. Who wrote what — as they say, none of your business, test. Targeted projects in architecture under the guidance of Babayan's made, explores, develops on the shelf. They are easy to this case are. You see, useful.
— Ordinary citizens of the Soviet Union as computing treated?
At the time, they computers are not in contact. Who were touched, he was a professional. We used the machines in automation systems design, testing — that is, in narrow areas. This requires qualified people.
— How do you assess the personalization of computers?
— When the Japanese announced that they will release a phone that is just phone, I was looking for him. To clean out all of the features and leave the main: large screen, large keyboard. If a scout is in intelligence, he doesn't put himself on the knife with all the bells and whistles. He chooses a knife for a specific function. Now smartphones are even used as a mirror. For the sake of it or what created them? Touch screen for whom invented? For pilots. Because they keyboard has no time to mess around. The tool should be a tool.
— What is the episode associated with domestic computer hardware, you most remember?
Imagine a project costing billions of modern dollars. The first place missile defense near Moscow. We conducted all tests on the ground, put a set of computing machines — there are 12 pieces in parallel is necessary. Suddenly the machines start to freak out. Work, then BAM — crazy collective. All fail, the signals are unclear. A terrible situation. It is time to take the system a lot of money invested, the labor of so many people, and then that's it.
Caught, saw some crazy signal pret from the device idle memory. Not like digital, but something resembling the type of signal generator. Low frequency. Then think: how could he take. Somewhere there is a high frequency, it was protectively, appeared a low frequency signal. How to measure it? Measuring instruments do not show anything. So you have to make your own measuring device. Blind. Begin to measure. On the same diode wire so put a plus 15 volts, on the contrary put or minus 15 volts. This means that some ultra-high frequency. Oscilloscopes do not show anything. Where did it come from? How?
It was predinfarktnoe state when nobody tell nobody, and he can't do anything. In the end it turned out that the Assembly technology of the boards, which was used at the time, did not match the performance of transistors, and they are periodically excited. To find them was theoretically impossible, so we did a lot of blind. And so, and so, but no result. Enter additional parts in the amplifier circuit does not work. Started to remove one of the filter capacitor of the many and suddenly removing one of them repaid the generation. Probably using snap circuit parasitic feedback, which led to unstable operation of the group of amplifiers in memory. Amended, and since then, computing complexes on the basis of 5Э92б successfully exploited.
No less dramatic episode was when developing a prototype computing complex (VC) for air defense systems s-300. It was successfully debugged expanded (for easy setup) the stand, but when placed in a regular container began to work with many failures. Then still problems of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) was designed very poorly. Currently, it is the whole direction with its standards, developed measurement systems and well-designed knowledge. Then had to just to reach your mind and unaided.
When the next RAM I have become a dull pose a problem, the Deputy Minister listened and said, "Okay, all clear, Ryabtsevo to put a cot in the shop. And until the question is resolved from the factory not to let go." Cot though replaced at a service apartment near the entrance, but a month and a half I was completely spent on the solution. With the full cooperation of the factory workers.
Method of sorting improvements in this case didn't work. Only fully defining the mechanism of occurrence of interference, we have developed and applied new rules of installation — then managed to reduce the noise level dozens of times and to ensure stable operation of the VC. Then the accumulated knowledge is still helping me to solve new problems.
Leading developer of CAD in ITMiVT Andrew Garin with the cooling system of the computer "Elbrus-3"
Only the independent solution of complex problems makes the engineer a professional who is not afraid to take on the creation of major products.
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