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Blocking Internet content: the situation on the world stage
Material posted: Publication date: 14-11-2017
Access to Internet content blocking in many countries — in different sizes, using different technologies. In this series of articles will look at how things are in the "closed" States, and by what means limited to access to Internet services.

The most "closed" countries

In the modern world, billions of people face some form of locks while surfing the Internet. Access to Internet content is blocked in countries with the equipment of Internet providers. To the technical limitation of individual countries resort, usually for reasons of national security and for the purpose of execution of specific laws.

The five least free from the point of view of the Internet user countries have recognized China, Syria, Iran, Ethiopia and Uzbekistan. Illustrative example of total blocking China's Great firewall. All the time Internet exists in the country, China continued to control its use by citizens. The firewall responds to a lot of keywords and blocks many sites, while tens of thousands of employees of the regulator and check a variety of resources. According to 2015, the Chinese government has blocked about 3 thousand resources (with their incomplete list can see the link).

Another Asian country known for its insularity, North Korea. About what it looks like the bulk of North Korean Internet, we can only guess. However, in 2016 because of an error in the configuration of the server top-level names to network "leaked" a few domains that you can access. A list of 28 sites in North Korea published a Reddit user.

According to the BBC, access to the "big network" is limited, and only the North Koreans who are engaged in the monitoring permissions. The content in your internal network also tightly regulated.

Along with Asia, "policy bans" is popular in middle Eastern countries. For example, Iran is home to 20 million Internet users. They have no access to almost half of the 500 most popular sites on the Internet. And in Saudi Arabia subjected to censorship of any content that is contrary to Islamic laws.

How to implement locks

Public the Internet Society identifies several ways to lock access to the Internet, including: blocking by IP, blocking of the site on URL blocking using the system DPI, the lock is within a specific platform (especially search engines) and blocking by DNS.

Tools blocking IP are network obstructions such as firewalls that restrict all traffic on specific IP addresses. Also implemented lock using a port number of TCP/IP. These methods are simple approaches to restricting access to content.

The URL-blocking filter intercepts the flow of web traffic and checks a URL in a local database. If matching, then it blocks the connection to the requested web server.

Closest in its essence is a DNS filtering. When the computer user tries to access a resource, the DNS resolver checks the requested name from the list of blocked sites. If there is a match, the server restricts access and may even inform you that this name does not exist. As for content filtering using DPI, these systems limit traffic based on established templates.

Locking content to a particular platform, such as Google Play or Yahoo, only filters out links to content, not the content itself, which complicates the access to it. Many governments require the major search engines to apply filters in accordance with national laws and regulations, for example regarding copyright infringement.

Google noted that in the period July to December 2016 received 16 thousand requests to remove search results. And the so-called right to be forgotten have used over a million times in 2014 alone.

As a "tool" to lock in some countries, also are humans. For example, in the already mentioned China monitoring network employed millions of employees. But in office of locks of Saudi Arabia much less. Their work is the users themselves — in day arrives more thousand calls.

Note that in some countries the government has the right to a full or partial "shutdown" of the Internet and mobile communications throughout the state or in certain regions. So, this year in India, a law was passed, which stipulates this procedure. One of the main legal reasons for the disconnection — possible threat to national security. Some States already have a situation where the population lost 2G, 3G, 4G, CDMA and GPRS connection for a few days.

To similar measures used in Ethiopia and Iraq, so that students are less distracted during the exam period and didn't cheat during the preparation. In some African countries, the Internet "off" during the elections, to reduce the likelihood of protests. And ethnic riots in Western China have forced the government to completely shut down the Internet in Xinjiang for 10 months.

In other countries, not mentioned above, also control over the Internet space. Perhaps it is expressed less brightly, but the infrastructure and the legislative base, allowing partial restriction of access to content that are present almost everywhere.

However, with the data growth on the network, monitor all of the content becomes problematic. By 2020, nearly 80% of all content online will be is unknowable using the existing methods. For example, this year a number of brands have turned away from YouTube when it was revealed that their ads are displayed on videos that use inappropriate speech. Google point out that such situations occur because for all of the following, computational algorithms, and they are not yet perfect.

Therefore, the it giants today are engaged in the development of intelligent services content recognition. They are based on artificial intelligence technology and machine learning. Google already has an API that identificeret key objects in the video, and Facebook is teaching the AI to recognize fake news.

In the following article we take a closer look at famous cases of bans on the Internet, namely the blocking of social networks and messengers.


Source: https://habrahabr.ru/company/vasexperts/blog/340850/


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