Note. I deliberately use the word "intelligence", because it usually means the ability to analyze problems and decision-making based on templates, without understanding the process. In the value of the intelligence inherent in the program Maple, which solves a complex equation, and bees are capable of learning and complex behavior, and many other animals. Instead I will use the word "reason", speaking about intelligent machines human level.
And whether we actually artificial intelligence? Need. Alas, the "naked" intelligence decides too narrow class of problems, and sometimes very inefficient. Moreover – "naked" intelligence is not able to answer the problem! For example, consider the game of chess, the machine solves the problem of not creative, spending a lot of resources and using a variety of algorithms built into it by engineers. Man solves the problem creatively – it generates new solutions, and using much less resources!
Back to our problem. Most likely the first artificial intelligence will be modeled on a human. Because we still don't know how consciousness works, and the only available way of designing artificial intelligence is human reproduction. In other words, we have created intelligent machines will simulate the human brain. And this is a very important circumstance imposes serious limitations on our expectations.
The fact that we plan to put artificial intelligence creative tasks. We are waiting for breakthroughs in medicine and biology, physics and cosmology, sociology and psychology. Moreover, we believe that he will be able to write books, compose music, draw pictures. In other words, we believe that he will be able to create new knowledge (in the broad sense – including the arts and Sciences). But most healthy adults of normal people not engaged in anything similar! They are really normal, because the majority defines the norm.
Being created based on average human, artificial intelligence will be no different from him except for potentially unlimited resources. And it is possible that artificial intelligence, having consciousness, just not want to deal with all of this in advance assigned to it by art. After all, modern man has unlimited resources compared to its ancestor from the stone age. He could have any of the information accumulated by mankind, in a few seconds. But it is not necessary, except for scientists and engineers. A large part of the information industry working on entertainment. So it was and always will be, regardless of the amount of available resources (assuming that human nature will remain the same).
Thus creativity is more of an anomaly than the norm. Of course, the consumption of information is in itself a creative process, requiring some creativity, as, indeed, and life in the modern world. However, such creativity at the household level is needed in order to survive, and a little similar to the study of the Universe or writing music.
For example, the emergence of musical training programs make life easier for aspiring musicians, but did not increase their number. If a person is not interested in music, he's not going to do it, as it was not an easy process. Similarly, no matter what computational resources were not a thinking machine, if it is not interesting to the problem of human aging, it will not be to solve it.
However, there were several ideas how to circumvent these difficulties. For example, it is possible to program an artificial intelligence so that he decided we need problems. However, until we know how our and any mind, until we figure out what changes you need to make to the brain at a low level to trigger interest in music, we will not be able to influence our brain and thus on his computer model.
Well, well, say opponents, we are still unable to program the mind directly, but unable to raise the needed person. It is definitely a more realistic idea, but still not implemented in the framework of today's knowledge. (And education itself is a form of high-level programming!)
There are no less important issue about which tend not to speak – but in vain. The problem lies in human nature. Man is an animal and for animals it's OK to get physical pleasure and breed. And anyone who spends her life creating new knowledge, instead of making a lot of money minimal effort and get more physical pleasure can be considered a "fool." In psychiatry, it is not considered normal, when an idea seizes the mind of man for many years. Many talented people really are insane or have other mental health problems. Of course, these people get pleasure from their creative process, the problem is that it can be dangerous for their mind or life. As well, and creative people are sometimes dangerous to others.
Our entire civilization is built "crazy" people! All around us, created by scientists and engineers, artists and musicians, writers and other creative crazies who have dedicated themselves to changing the world, sometimes to the detriment of your life! And yet "mad geniuses" are more or less accustomed, and to control the affected person is easier than a car, and entrusted your life powerful artificial intelligence, if a little doubt in his sanity?
It is possible that in the near future we will learn how to design really creative thinking machine, but not whether they are as crazy as their human prototypes? And aren't mental problems an essential part of any creative process? Questions that we still don't know the answer.
In other words, artificial intelligence will arise the same problems as the human mind. How to avoid them? We need a universal theory of mind, explaining the principles of operation of any – or at least human – mind. Only knowing the principles of the mind, we will be able to design intelligent machines, not by blindly copying, not by trial and error, but by purposeful design. We take the basis of the human mind and improve his or prepracticum do it again. With this theory we can improve and your mind.
We need a breakthrough in philosophy, we need a theory explaining how the brain creates explanations.
David Deutsch, a British physicist and philosopher
Compare the clumsy aircraft and current military aircraft or F-35! The current aerospace engineering is a good example of our understanding of the laws of physics. Engineers don't copy a bird's wing, they expect the options as desired, using the laws of physics.
Alas, the development of an artificial mind, all a little different – we have no universal theory as, however, and attempts of its construction, and that there is still a lot of trial and error, and time.
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