About how under the influence of "numbers" changed man, will artificial intelligence displace people from any walks of life and what needs to be done to preserve digital sovereignty, in the program "world Picture" (TV channel "Culture", 20.10.2019 – approx. profiok.com) head of the Kurchatov Institute Mikhail Kovalchuk spoke with the President of the group of companies InfoWatch Natalia Kaspersky. Details – in the material profiok.com.
According to Mikhail Kovalchuk, the development of digital technologies and systems based on artificial intelligence, may drive a man into a trap. Answers to all questions will help to find voice assistant, the route is building the GPS system, and we are barely awake, down to the smartphone. Forgetting your phone at home, the modern man if it does not reach to a nervous breakdown, it definitely feels uncomfortable.
"It seems that people are gathered behind barbed wire in a digital GULAG, – says Mikhail Kovalchuk. – The only difference is that it happened by our own will."
Natalya Kaspersky also believes that modern people are overwhelmed with information flows. They have no time to think, they stopped reading long books and establishing causal relationships is causing them trouble. However, their competence over time decrease. But the problem is not even that, but the fact that in parallel with the decrease of competences increases man's dependence on electronic devices.
According to Kaspersky, the point of intersection of these graphs is the point of no return, after which any failures in the information technology and systems will inevitably lead to a variety of disasters. Moreover, complete recovery of lost while knowledge is in question: it would be either impossible, or will take considerable time.
"We are creating a civilization that is driven by an electric toggle switch", – concluded Mikhail Kovalchuk.
"Atomization" thinking and competencies
Mikhail Kovalchuk is sure that the generation that grew up with gadgets in his hands, undergoes irreversible changes in brain structure. "Brain structure is formed not only in the process of acquiring skills and information, but also due to the physical fine motor skills, the scientist said. – Learned how to tie shoelaces – there gyrus, mastered the drawing of sticks and ticks, adds another gyrus. And if instead of writing letters man pointing at a computer, his cognitive functions irreversible changes".
According to Kovalchuk, the total digitisation inevitably leads to "gut brain" and lower quality "human material".
Natalia kasperskaya is not prone to such exaggeration, although in principle says the same thing. She noted that the generation "born with a smartphone in hand", absolutely differently perceive the world and offers a fundamentally different way of thinking
If in Soviet times, schoolchildren at recess ran, then kids today are constantly immersed in their digital devices. It is clear that the education system needs to change, digital technologies have burst into our lives so rapidly that the reformers of education have to do something, without understanding what will be the long-term consequences.
Young people think are atomic, they are able to perceive in a unit of time much more information than the older generation, but much less analyze it deeply.
The same "atomization" occurs in the professions: the competence of the professional with the years, not expanding, but rather Contracting. Over the years the concept of "generalist" will remain far in the past. To argue whether this is good or bad, perhaps, too late: it is a reality that has to be tolerated. Besides collective work narrow, but deep "buried" each one in your topic experts can give impressive results. The problem is that analyzing just one element of a larger collective work, people lose the overall picture. So, them becomes a lot easier to manage.
That is why it is so important that when massive and widespread transition to digital broadcasting has introduced such technologies that we could control, emphasizes Natalia kasperskaya.
State border in the virtual world?
"We have been living in a state of war, and this war is in a virtual cyberspace – says Mikhail Kovalchuk. It means that we have to set boundaries and guard them. It is the task of the state."
As told by Natalia kasperskaya, the alignment of such boundaries now occupied all developed countries including the European Union, which "builds boundaries within yourself." Too much is put on the scales to blindly give it at the mercy of the partner country or, as the military say, probable enemy.
And on the Internet and in social networks, where the clock time of the Russian children need clear rules of conduct akin to the rules of the road, without which road the drive would become a solid murder. In a number of Western countries the person who is under 14 years of age cannot get a profile in social networks without parental consent. As for the law on the sovereignty of the Internet, he wasn't about to restrict the rights and freedoms of our citizens on the worldwide web. It was created to Russia it was impossible to disconnect from that network from the outside.
According to Kaspersky, to use foreign computer-aided design or use of foreign neural networks is quite dangerous, since we don't know how they work, and can not be sure that there are no "tabs", which work at the right time. They can be used to stop the turbines of nuclear power stations, to force the car to change direction, to stop the operation of entire industries, or to introduce confusion in the transport system.
"General technologies, which supposedly lives in the whole world, have two unpleasant features, – says Natalya Kaspersky. Almost all modern information technology in the cloud. This means that either the information leaked to the outside, or they could be controlled from the outside. And besides, they can be turned off at any time".
Here I should add that in addition to technological threats, there are threats to humanitarian. Digital environment, controlled by someone from the outside, forcing the human behaviors, not only consumer, but also for life.
According to Kaspersky, in the social networks of working professionals, the purpose of which is to set the population of our country against their own government, to inspire young people lack of confidence in their own abilities, to make them believe in electronic devices and not to trust parents. In addition, social networks substitute for the deep connection of the surface: young people today have usually many friends, but very few friends.
Natalya Kaspersky believes that the way to neutralize all these risks is only one: the protection of digital sovereignty and the transition to the products of domestic development – starting from components and ending with the software. Fortunately, domestic companies have learned to design enterprise information systems, and DBMS.
The robots attack?
By developing technologies in a number of professions really will rapidly cut jobs. Only the section will take place not on the border of a "skilled – unskilled", thinks Dmitry Medvedev, stating that "the balance will shift towards high-tech fields". Professions will disappear or change entirely on a different principle. For example, in the very near future, the neural network will enable the primary diagnosis on the level that may not always be able to approach even the most experienced doctor. Simply because it will unite the experience of thousands of doctors. So with the primary diagnosis under certain conditions, the computer will cope. But to put a dropper, to make dressings and care for patients many, many years to be real people, artificial intelligence here can not cope. Pretty soon will disappear accountants – not the financiers, of course, and those that invoices and print payment orders, or, for example, computer programmers – the software today well write the code.
The problem is that in the digital environment – in the form in which it is formed today – thinking people do not need. All this leads to the erosion of knowledge, as well as to the degradation of the education system that we see.
Mikhail Kovalchuk believes that it is necessary to nurture creative people that will be in demand in areas where people don't cope artificial intelligence. However, as the scientist, we have a gap in time, since Russia is a huge country, which not all territories mastered. In addition, our people have laid some serious groundwork. "We are an intelligent nation, – said Kovalchuk. – We can move on and develop, not to give the "figure" destroy".
However, according to Natalya Kaspersky, the situation is completely in our hands. Only to events and technology evolved as we would like, need reasoning to get to the point.
"This is a management issue, – said Kaspersky. – I'm for it, to replace the futuristic predictions came state planning. "Figure" will destroy man if we let this happen, and we must not let this happen".
This is also with the heads of defense enterprises, which are training in INES, spoke one of the leading experts in the field of it, the developer and founder of several companies in the field of artificial intelligence Igor Ashmanov. A course for defense industry was dedicated to digital transformation, and Igor Stanislavovich has explained to the audience that the race for the "newest innovations" to get involved not worth it in any case. This race imposed on us by Western companies, so we borrowed their technology and fell into addiction. Instead, we should focus on creating its own technology, for all that we have. Moreover, Ashmanov said that the value are not technologies in themselves, but solutions that are built upon them.
In addition to experts the following idea. Technology development and even the introduction of working solutions should not be ignored. It would be nice to focus efforts on those areas where such solutions are needed in the first place: for example, to relieve the people working in hazardous industries, to provide transport accessibility in remote areas and so on. As for the areas where you need to make serious decisions, they will always remain human. At the very least, should stay. Although some members of the government, judging by their actions and statements, probably, and the truth will soon displace artificial intelligence.
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