Management represents activity of the subject on change of object for achievement of some purpose. The information on a condition of object of management and influence possibilities is necessary for acceptance of administrative decisions on object for the subject from the subject and external factors. Also in the course of administrative activity it is necessary for subject to trace constantly a condition of operated object if necessary to correct influence on it. Thus, in managerial process the information has defining value. Hence, the question on information security of political leadership is represented actual.
Political leadership represents constant priority and legitimate influence of one or several persons taking imperious positions, on all society, the organisation or group.
In leadership structure three basic components are allocated:
- Individual traits of the leader;
- Resources or tools which it arranges;
- Situation in which the leader operates.
Allocate following basic functions of the political leader:
- Society integration, association of weights;
- Finding and acceptance of optimum political decisions;
- Communications of the power and weights;
- Mobilisation of weights on realisation of political ends.
Thus, political leadership is an all-important element of a society and the state, uniting people in a uniform generality and realising management of this generality in interests of all who included into its structure.
All resulted functions of political leadership provide this or that form of information interaction. For integration of a society the leader should personify and represent in mutual relations with other states national unity, unite citizens round overall aims and values. Decision-making represents the realised choice from possible alternatives; therefore to the person, making the decision, the authentic and sufficient information on a case in point is necessary. The communications of the power and weights mean timely reception by the political country leaders of the information from various strata of society and reaction to the received information. For mobilisation of weights on realisation of political ends by a key element the transmission of information from a political management to various strata of society is; However forms of giving of this information should consider conditions in the country and moods existing in a society, differently effect from information influence washes to turn out the return expected.
Thus, for political leadership the information component is crucial, its effective realisation defining possibility. We will consider the problem on essence and the maintenance of information security of political leadership.
In the wide plan safety can be treated as a condition of hardening of the vital interests from internal and external threats. As essence of political leadership is priority and legitimate influence, key interest possibility of realisation of the political power by means of fulfilment of the basic functions of political leadership in this case is represented. Such possibility comes true by means of political system - sets of political institutions, norms, values, ideas and relations in which the political power is realised. Hence, safety of political leadership can be defined as hardening of political system from internal and external threats, information security of political leadership - as hardening of political system from internal and external threats of information character.
Influence of threats of information character on political system is aimed at an information component of political leadership, urged to break the information interaction directed on fulfilment of the basic functions of the political leader. Hence, it is possible to define the basic directions of influence of the given threats:
- Division of the purposes and values of citizens and political elite, introduction in political elite of the purposes and the values which are not corresponding to national interests;
- Granting to political leaders of the false or distorted information, capable to influence acceptance of political decisions;
Interrelation infringement between political elite and various strata of society.
On a way of realisation of threat of information security of political leadership in particular it is possible to divide on two basic categories.
The technical. Destructive influences concern the given category on technical and software of the bodies of state power, called to break operation of these bodies and, thus, to complicate government realisation by political state leadership.
The psychological. Realisation of the threats concerning the given category, is capable to influence consciousness of people, perception them of the information, decision-making.
Sources of threats of information security of political leadership also are divided into internal, which sources are in territory of the considered state, and external, which sources are behind its limits. At the same time it is necessary to notice that owing to exterritoriality of information field such division not always has strict character. Some threats connected, in particular, with terrorism or extremism, can have both internal, and external sources.
Possible sources of threats of information security of political system of the state can be:
- Activity of the terrorist organisations;
- The activity of foreign prospecting and political structures directed on infringement unktsionirovanija of bodies of state power, influence on political elite, destabilization of social-political conditions;
- Working out by a number of the states of the concept of "information wars», providing creation of means of dangerous influence on information spheres of other countries of the world;
- The actions of radical opposition directed on overthrow of the existing political system.
Singapore which has received independence in 1965, is parliamentary republic. The supreme body of legislature of the state is the one-chamber parliament; the multi-party system operates, however since declaration of independence in power there is a Party of national action. The head of the state is the president elected by direct vote. In Singapore strong internal political stability is supported, the universal system of a regulation of the internal political life, based on deeply worked legal base operates.
Singapore actually is a city-state, the urban population share makes 100 %. The basic ethnic group - Chineses, also lives a significant amount of Malayans and natives of Southern India in Singapore. The population practises various religions - konfutsianstvo, the Buddhism, Islam, induizm, various directions of Christianity. The state has the developed economy, on a standard of well-being occupies 4 place in the world. The basic branches of economy - sphere of services and hi-tech manufacturing industry. Important feature of Singapore is the arrangement on crossing of a considerable quantity of sea trading ways.
Let's consider possible threats of information security of political system of Singapore.
The international terrorism is now one of the major threats to security both at the international level, and at level of the separate states. Singapore did not face till now acts of terrorism in the territory, however such threats were sounded. With reference to threats of information security of political system of Singapore it is possible to allocate following possible directions of activity of terrorist groupings:
- Propagation of radical ideology, in particular, Islamic extremism;
- Dissemination of information, probably false, about preparation of the acts of terrorism, called to spread panic;
Carrying out of the cyberacts of terrorism directed against bodies of state power.
Information war is a set of the purposeful and carefully organised actions for infringement of information security of the environment of management, information resources of the counter-partner and subjects of administrative activity in various spheres of its purposeful activity. The concept of information wars has arisen in 90th years in the USA, now is considered by many developed countries as one of ways of an antagonism. Originally the concept developed as addition to traditional understanding of the confrontation, however now many analysts speak about possibility of achievement of strategic targets methods of an information antagonism without use of military force. The military doctrine of the Russian Federation considers strengthening of a role of an information antagonism as one of lines of modern military conflicts.
Thus, the information antagonism is one of forms of confrontation of geopolitical subjects. Singapore as the small state which is in a sphere of influence of the USA, is not the independent subject of a similar antagonism. The probability of threats of similar character from China, in case of development in this country of the concept of information wars, is represented to the lowest as conditions destabilization in Singapore can threaten the sea trading ways necessary for China.
In view of stability of political system of Singapore and a high standard of living the probability of destabilization of the political conditions caused by the internal reasons, also is represented to the lowest. Hence, on political system of the state for the purpose of its destruction it is possible to consider threat of this or that information influence potential and now for Singapore not actual.
Summing up, we will allocate the basic conclusions.
- Threats of information security of political leadership actually represent threats of information security of existing political system.
- The political system of Singapore is rather steady, level of threat of its information security is represented rather low. Threat of destructive influences can be actual from the international terrorist organisations.
The list of references
- The military doctrine of the Russian Federation.
- V.P.Pugachev, A.I.nightingale. Introduction in political science. - M: ASPECT-PRESS, 2000
- Philosophy: the Encyclopaedic dictionary. - M: Gardarika. Under A.A.Ivina's edition. 2004.
- A.P.Stelmah, A.V.Tonkonogov. Maintenance of cybernetic safety of the Russian Federation (a basis of the general kiberologii): the Monography. M, 2012.
- The encyclopaedia of the countries of the world. - M: NPO "Economy", the Russian Academy of Sciences, branch of social studies. The editor-in-chief: N.A.Simonija; an editorial board: V.L.Makarov, A.D.nekipelov, E.M.Primakov. 2004.
- Belov V. P, Derbin E.A., Rodionov M. A «Information security of the government». Moscow - 2004.
- AsiaOnline [the Electronic resource]//Singapore. URL: <http://www.asia-online.ru/infoasia/Singapore/> (reference date: 4/20/2015).
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