According to some American experts, research and development in the field of large-scale networks are designed to ensure U.S. technological leadership in high-performance network communications. It is believed that these technologies would provide such a level of development of methods for constructing networks, which is essential for further growth of public networks such as the Internet and internal networks of the Federal ministries and departments. The initial investment of the U.S. government in research and development of network technology gave the opportunity to form the technological basis of today's global Internet.
Introduction to the problem
Research laboratories, academia, and industry helped deploy prototype networks at the national level, as well as to organize the production of popular applications like email and web browsers hypertext, which changed the approach to the use of the computer person. All this paved the way for U.S. dominance in the multibillion information industry.
Importantly, the results of the joint research and development in the field of large-scale networks, the scientific community, industry and government, are a kind of drawbridge to the private sector, where their use transforms the very nature of public relations.
Key areas of research are in the field of networking components and technologies for the development and management of large scale networks of the future. It is believed that the work on establishing large-scale networks in the framework of the government initiative "Information technologies of XXI century" will:
- to increase the efficiency of research in the field of network technologies, financed from the Federal budget;
- to create an effective network of Federal ministries and departments;
- to create network applications that will allow you to solve a number of problems of national security;
- to ensure the exchange of information and facilitate the interaction of participants during the conduct of fundamental research and development;
- develop mechanisms of cooperation in the field of research and development between Federal agencies, government laboratories, academia and industry.
Organizational structure works
So in 1998 the main focus of developers focused on the initiative to create the Internet next generation (Next Generation Internet, NGI). The creation of the NGI program are the development of large-scale networks, providing investigation and development of advanced technologies and applications, as well as testing and demonstration of results, the implementation of which will significantly expand the capabilities of the Internet.
The efforts of the scientific community on this project is coordinated by the working group of the project of creation of large-scale networks (LSNWG). For the purpose of obtaining an adequate idea of the progress of the project LSNWG organized the collection of necessary information from the four specialized working groups responsible for the state of Affairs in a specific direction of development of the project. Such groups are.
Joint engineering team (JointEngineeringTeam, JET). The JET is coordinating work to develop a common network architecture and the organization of interaction between Federal Agency networks (FedNets) and third-party high-performance experimental networks. The JET provides close coordination among equipment suppliers, scientific community and industry interaction and service delivery in order to improve the characteristics of available end-user, as well as to avoid duplication of resources and efforts to ensure the provision of high quality services. In addition, the JET cooperates with the academic community on the programme for the development of Gigabit switches (Gigapops), the Abilene network (a consortium of companies Qwest, Cisco, Nortel and Indiana University), as well as with program participants creating Internet 2 (I2). Currently JET helps to perform testing and debugging NGI.
Along with this JET supports the interaction between the Federal agencies and the Abilene network to ensure access to cheaper telecommunication services, providing users geographically remote U.S. territories (Alaska and Hawaii).
The group studies the architecture of the networks (NetworkingResearchTeam, NRT). NRT coordinates a research program on the organization of networks in Federal agencies, distribution of information on research results among the participants, and supports actions to achieve the main goals of NGI. Ongoing work reduce the time for obtaining the necessary information on the results of research and contribute to the improvement of interaction between developers and end users.
Application group a high performance network (HighPerformanceNetworkingApplicationsTeam, HPNAT). HPNAT coordinated research and development to maintain and extend U.S. technological leadership in high performance networks through research, the result of which is the creation of advanced technologies of the networks, new services and better performance. It is believed that these achievements will provide new more effective network applications for solving the challenges facing Federal agencies, helping to create the basis for long-term development of the national information infrastructure. In addition, the group HPNAT provides mechanisms of cooperation between Federal agencies, government laboratories, academia and industry in developing applications for large-scale networks, and organizes the dissemination of information, including demonstrations of technologies, conferences and seminars.
Group protect Internet (Internet Security Team, IST). The IST facilitates testing and experimentation with advanced protection technologies, and also serves as a centre to develop requirements of the system of protection. This group provides management LSNWG information necessary for the organization of research for the protection of the NGI. IST is funding the development and testing of Internet security systems, working closely with agencies and JET, which helps to carry out similar experiments, and makes the results available to national and international researchers in the field of security.
Program of scientific research and development in the field of large-scale telecommunication networks
Programme of research and development in the field of large-scale networks aimed at satisfying the requirements of participating in the work of Federal agencies, as well as on the development of technologies and applications that extend the capabilities of the Internet. In this range of programmes included work on the following topics.
The research program of the advanced network infrastructure (ANIR). This program combines the efforts of scientific research and engineering community in the United States for the purpose of increase of efficiency of conducted researches in the field of fundamental works on the study of networks and network infrastructures.
Within the programs provided developing and deploying high-performance networks for research in many scientific fields requiring high-speed calculations, to identify the most promising technical and technological solutions for their subsequent implementation in the new generation network.
Under this program, the vBNS network of linked high-performance computing centers at the National science Foundation and about 100 research institutions engaged in the study of the possibilities of next generation networks on the territory of the United States. To connect the work of these research institutions, the programme of work which require the highest networking performance.
The programme ANIR also conducts research for the development of protocols network access and management tools network management, methods of organization of wireless networks, mobile computing, optical networking, software support for distributed computing, software search support and sharing, as well as devices and subsystems of input-output.
Development of technology networking. The program is Internet-technologies the National science Foundation focuses on the achievements of fundamental science and technology needed to improve the efficiency of high-speed transmission of information in networks and distributed systems.
The programme supports the development of methods of complex network monitoring, detection of problems and mechanisms for their resolution, development of automated and advanced network tools tool, providing network software and network tools and networking applications that facilitate collaborative research and information sharing.
The network is active. The advanced research of the Ministry of defense (DARPA) is developing a new network architecture based on programmable infrastructure. The programme develops methods of organizing active networks, management practices and high-level services to the end user. This program works closely with the development of technology networks by the U.S. Department of defense, NASA and other Federal agencies.
Global mobile information system. Work on the creation of global mobile information systems conducted by DARPA, provide mobile users with the ability to work and use the full scope of services available in the information infrastructure of the Ministry of defense.
Scalable networking. The programme for the development of extensible network, also conducted by DARPA, aims to ensure the ability of the underlying network to adapt to large-scale changes of traffic in modern networks. It is believed that advances in this area will provide access to geographically distributed and heterogeneous information infrastructure while still ensuring that the capacity of the main network and its services will be adapted to reflect the accelerated growth of the system.
Under this program, the advanced research of the Ministry of defense in 1999 initiated research and development of Gigabit wireless communications network, including space segment on the basis of low-orbit communications satellites.
The creation of very high speed networks. The result of this program, conducted by the national security Agency of the USA, should become the high-speed infrastructure network with the speed of delivery channel in a few gigabits per second and the ability to support sustained data flows of at least up to hundreds of megabits per second today and, ultimately, to reach the speed of information flow in several gigabits per second.
In 1999 the national security Agency has increased the efficiency of networks by reducing the total number of levels of protocols of interaction networks and by moving control to the target network nodes. In cooperation with NRL and Intelligence Agency of the U.S. Department of defence (RUMO), the NSA used the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) divided by the wavelength of 720 to transmit digital signals at 1.5 Gbps each for a distance of 400 kilometers in eight ATM switches.
In addition, in the framework of the NSA program began operation in optical network based on two optical technologies:
- prototypes serial routers with wave separation from Lucent, created as part of one of the projects of the MONET Consortium, funded by DARPA;
- optical switch from Optical Networks, Inc.
This network allows the NSA to arrange a direct connection between end users without the interference of the electro-optical conversion, which significantly increases the security of the communication system against unauthorized access and interception of third-party emissions.
Based on the results of the experiments in 1999, the NSA is currently exploring new approaches to congestion management in a network, developing methods of distributed communication network management.
Network for biomedical research. The national cancer Institute (NCI) plans to use emerging technologies of networking and high-speed interfaces to the computational infrastructure of one of the supercomputer centers (Frederick Biomedical Supercomputing Center, FBSC) to improve access to resources for members of the biomedical research community. It is believed that this will provide new data to improve data transmission technologies in the local multimedia networks.
Improved ATMnetwork of the National Agency for the processing and distribution of information of Earth remote sensing (NOAA). As a result of experiments and trials funded under this program, NOAA deploys ATM network. The network will be 2400 nodes in 80-90 virtual local area networks (VLANs). This architecture provides redundancy and the flexibility needed for allocating bandwidth of channels, depending on individual needs. The network infrastructure must support real-time processing of observations of the Earth's surface obtained from remote sensing satellites.
The unified Federal networks (FedNets). FedNets – a unified network of Federal agencies - includes the existing information networks, Federal agencies, and high-speed experimental network. FedNets includes:
- vBNS - high performance backbone network linking National science Foundation;
- DREN research and engineering network of the Ministry of defence;
- NREN research and education network NASA;
- NISN - network NASA integrated service;
- Esnet network research community of power engineers.
Access point high-speed networks for scientific communities (STARTAP) and international grid (iGrid). The national science Foundation has established the access point (STAR TAP) in the network entry point (NAP) company Ameritech in Chicago for vBNS connection with similar international networks. STAR TAP is managed by the Electronic visualization laboratory (EVL) University of Illinois at Chicago, Argonne national Laboratory and Ameritech NAP - exchange point with the next generation Internet (NGIX) that connects to FedNets and Abilene, ensuring international cooperation with other Federal agencies, universities and industrial companies.
More than 15 networks of different countries were United through STAR TAP by the end of 1999. Among them, the network of Asia-Pacific consortium (APAN), Canada (CA Net), a network of European laboratories for particle physics (CERN), Франциb (Renater), Israel, the Netherlands (SURFnet), the Nordic countries (NORDUnet), Singapore (SingaREN), Taiwan (TANet), Us-Asian Pacific consortium (TransPAC), and the U.S.-Russia Consortium (MirNET). One of the main features - STAR TAP develops and uses a combined approach to managing, measuring, planning and use of geographically distributed resources called the International grid (iGrid).
Providers of high-speed networks (HPNSPs). The national science Foundation has designated a category of commercial providers of access to high-speed network (HPNSPs) that provide advanced network services over broadband networks to University and Federal Agency sites and provide high-quality services are necessary for NGI. The Abilene network is the first HPNSP. Sellers coordinate closely with HPNSPS, through JET and other groups LSN, to provide connectivity and advanced services to high-net users.
Improving distributed data access. A number of Federal agencies such as NASA, NIH, NOAA and others are predicting in the coming years a substantial increase in the requirements for transmission of data from satellites via the communications network.
The results of these forecasts make the Agency's conduct within the group JET a number of studies aimed at improving high-speed access to arrays of data. In particular, NOAA predicts that the flow of information in the Center of silver spring in Maryland, will grow from today 150 Gbytes per day to 1 per day Terabyte in 2002.
To prepare for this major change, NOAA in cooperation with other agencies operating under the program of large-scale networks, is conducting a series of works to improve the management of high-speed data networks. Among the most promising technologies high-speed data transfer is called asynchronous data transfer.
The field of application of large-scale high speed data networks
The main purpose of the research and development in the field of large-scale networks is to give the end user the following services that would be able to solve the increasing needs in computing capabilities.
Among the many applications of high-speed networks highlights the following areas.
High-performance application for science and engineering (HPASE). The national science Foundation supported an extensive research program on creating applications for the fundamental branches of science that will allow you to get closer to massive and the most important discoveries of modern science, allowing to answer the most important questions of our time. Such an ambitious task output application of this group to a higher level in the hierarchy of needs for computational resources.
In 1999-2000 by the joint efforts of the University community, the Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and other Federal laboratories in the program HPASE continued development of a system modeling the Earth's climate and atmosphere. By the end of 1999 researchers already have access to the simulation results, covering the period from 1860 to 2300 years, reflecting the changes in the Earth's climate under the influence of various factors, including human activities.
In 2000, under the program, HPASE, NCAR received a new supercomputer system, which allowed to continue work on the development of new computational methods.
Weather. NOAA also supports a program of research in the field of collection and processing of meteorological data. In achieving this goal, NOAA is actively using the existing and future access to high performance computing systems and modern information technology, including NGI, distributed computation, iGrid and digital library.
Telemedicine. Research and development in the field of large-scale networks in the National library of medicine (NLM) form a network to link hospitals, support institutions, medical schools, medical libraries and universities to enable health workers and researchers to share medical data and have access to relevant medical literature. NLM also supports the development of technologies that allow healthcare workers in remote areas direct contact with their colleagues in larger medical centers, including visuals of human anatomy, analyzers of x-rays, cat scans and other diagnostic tools as well as database technology to store, access and transfer of medical data, with appropriate measures to protect the integrity and confidentiality of these data.
In addition, NLM focuses on the evaluation of the effectiveness of the methods of telemedicine. So in 2000, NLM continued financing of projects that contribute to the implementation of telemedicine.
Computerized medical history. The goal of the program computerized medical history (AHCPRS) is to improve the efficiency, accuracy, and replication of the data on the health status of the patient, to facilitate their use to improve the quality of clinical decisions.
The program is the creation of an integrated Academic information management systems (IAIMS). The purpose of the IAIMS program is to develop and implement systems of information flow management within academic centers and large medical centers, to enhance the impact of research results, improve access to data for evaluation of health status. The program connected more than 120 academic medical centers including schools, hospitals, clinics and laboratories. These centres need immediate information about the health status of patients, the results of the studies in the database contains bibliographic and factual data about patients, their molecular data, database, laboratory and clinical studies.
The project "the Visible Human" (VH). The large size of the set of VH images and other medical images challenges storage and transmission technology of the network. Since the full set of images of a person requires the capacity of more than 100 CD, NLM is exploring compression techniques to minimize storage capacity and improve data transmission speed on the Internet.
Bioinformatics. Bioinformatics is a key component of the human genome, genetic engineering, and the design of the newest medicines, and widely used analytical and predictive methods to identify key molecular groups associated with health and disease of man.
National center for biotechnology information (NCBI) focuses on automated systems for recording and analysis of extensive information on molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics data, the volumes of which are increasing. In a distributed database NCBI collects data from researchers worldwide and incorporates them into GenBank - a database of DNA sequences is a key resource of the project "human Genome". These databases are approached daily by more than 90.000 Internet sites.
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