Artificial embryos, the neural network with the imagination, the anonymous Internet and other previously unthinkable things become reality.
1. 3D printing using metal
For decades, the technology of 3D printing was in demand only among fans and designers. They created prototypes of disposable plastic because other materials such as metal, making printing impossible expensive and long process.
Now 3D printing allows you to easily and quickly produce objects of any material, including metal. This means that businesses do not need to store the mountain of parts in stock. After the order is entered, it can immediately be manufactured and delivered to the client. In the long term, factories will become more universal. Producers will be able to produce parts of varying complexity without any additional hardware.
2. Artificial embryos
Artificial embryos. static1.squarespace.com
Embryologists at Cambridge University were able to artificially create mouse embryos from stem cells. This achievement opens new possibilities for understanding how life began.
The next step, according to Magdalene, will be the creation of an artificial human embryo from stem cells. Working on it, scientists at the University of Michigan and Rockefeller University.
Artificial human embryos will help to study the very concept of life. However, this raises a number of ethical issues. What if they are indistinguishable from the real embryo? How long you can grow them in the laboratory before they feel pain?
3. Smart city
A smart city. businessinantwerp.eu
The concept of "smart city" yet out of science fiction. All plans for the creation of such infrastructure still exist only on paper. However, the new York company Alphab''s Sidewalk Labs in the framework of the project Quayside is going to rethink this idea and to create in Toronto a quarter, using the latest digital technology.
Alphab''s Sidewalk Labs plans to accommodate a variety of sensors that will collect information about the city and its inhabitants. In the project plan says about automated vehicles and robots, operating in the underground. In addition, the company will place software in the public domain, so the developers were able to create and implement their services.
Alphab''s Sidewalk Labs intends to monitor closely the social life. This decision is of concern to residents. They worry about the safety of their personal data. However, the staff Sidewalk Labs believe you'll be able to settle this question.
According to the state Agency Waterfront Toronto, and other cities in North America are already in line to participate in the project Quayside.
4. Artificial intelligence for all
Artificial intelligence for everyone. learnfly.com
Artificial intelligence (AI) was an expensive toy for big companies like Amazon, Baidu, Google, and Microsoft, and for the others was inaccessible and incomprehensible tool. However, the industry giants plan to place your development in the cloud services that could benefit others.
So far in this area was dominated by AWS is a subsidiary of Amazon. Google remained aloof and developed TensorFlow library AI open-source. It is used for programming with machine learning. Recently, the search giant announced a Cloud AutoML. Is a set of systems that will make the AI more easy to use.
Microsoft and Amazon have created a Gluon library machine learning open source. It should help in the creation of neural networks is the key technology of artificial intelligence that roughly simulates human learning.
It is not known which company will become the market leader. In any case, consumers will benefit.
5. Neural network with imagination
Neural network with imagination. fraunhofer.de
Artificial intelligence is well versed in the subjects. Show a million photos, and it with extraordinary precision will determine which shows a pedestrian crossing the road. However, AI has long been deprived of the opportunity to create their own. Whether in artificial intelligence, imagination, he could use it for training. For example, a neural network in a driverless car would learn to recognize people on the road without having to go outside.
Graduate of the University of Montreal Ian Goodfellow suggested a solution to this problem. He described a method called "generative-adversarial network" or GAN. The algorithm is based on the interaction of two neural networks — generator and discriminator. One of them creates the image, and the other compares them with the database and determines authenticity.
Take the example of an unmanned vehicle. At the beginning of training images of pedestrians are different from reality. The generator can draw it with three hands, a large head or even from man. The discriminator will reject these images. In the end, one neural network will draw such realistic pedestrians that the other will not be able to distinguish it from the present.
GAN is considered a technological breakthrough. Some experts believe that using this algorithm artificial intelligence can learn how to better understand the world around us.
6. The Babel fish
The Babel fish. 1843magazine.static-economist.com
It is a fictitious creature from the book series of Douglas Adams "Hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy". A kind of organic implant, through which the media can understand any language. Alien fish translates speech in real time and sends signals directly to the brain.
Our technology is not yet so advanced, but is also something that can. Google announced Pixel headphone Buds, which, in addition to performing its basic task, can translate foreign speech in real time using voice assistant. While the headphones are still under development. However, everyone can access the underlying technology is voice translation on your smartphone.
It is worth mentioning Microsoft. The company implemented a real-time translation via Skype. At this rate, humanity will invent a Babel fish.
7. Eco-friendly energy
Natural gas is cheap and readily available source of energy. It produce 30% of electricity in the U.S. and 22% worldwide. However, this pollutes the environment.
NetPower American startup has built a pilot plant in Houston. Carbon dioxide, which is produced by the burning of the gas will be processed or sold to other companies. Using new technologies can not only solve environmental problems but also to reduce the cost of electricity production.
8. The anonymity of the Internet
The anonymity of the Internet. lobnyamedia.ru
The proof with zero disclosure Protocol, which will protect personal data in the Network. He gained popularity thanks to the zcash for cryptocurrency, which launched in 2016. The developers used a method called zk-SNARK, to allow users to make anonymous transactions.
In most public blockchains transactions visible to all. In theory, they are anonymous, but by comparing data from other sources, it is possible to track the user. Acne Buterin, the Creator of Etherium is a blockchain network, called a zk-SNARK "technology, completely changing the game."
Banks will be able to make payments without disclosing the information on the client. Last year, JPMorgan Chase added a zk-SNARK in its own payment system based on the blockchain. Regular users also will not remain on the sidelines. For example, they can prove that they have enough money on the card without revealing banking data.
Nevertheless, there is still a lot of work. zk-SNARK is a complex and slow technology that needs additional configuration.
9. Genetic predictions
Genetic predictions. nationmagazine.ru
It turns out that the most common diseases, traits, behavior, and intelligence do not depend on one or more genes, and their combinations. Using data from a large genetic research, scientists have developed a so-called polygenic risk assessment.
New DNA tests will help create a more effective medication. Pharmaceutical companies can use test results in laboratory studies. For example, to dial a group of volunteers who have risk of development of Alzheimer's disease, for testing new drugs.
The problem with DNA tests is that, in addition to diseases, they can identify traits and even intelligence level. On the one hand, it's good, from another it is unknown how they will deal with this information teachers and parents. How to change the parenting, if the parents discover the low level of intelligence in the child?
10. Quantum computers
Quantum computers. geekinsight.ru
Chemists have been dreaming about effective medicines on the basis of new protein, powerful batteries and connections that can turn sunlight into liquid fuel. We don't have all these things because to simulate molecules on modern computers is very difficult. Power is not enough.
Try to mimic the behavior of electrons even in a simple molecule, and you will face great difficulties. However, soon everything will change. Recently, IBM researchers have modeled the molecule via a 7-kubango quantum computer. Over time, researchers will be able to simulate more complex molecules on machines with a large number of qubits.
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