Main trends according to the version of mit. Massachusetts Institute of technology (MIT) every year publishes a list of the ten technologies that can change our lives for the better. This time in particular, were uncrackable Internet, medication against aging and miniature artificial intelligence.
Uncrackable Internet (five years)
Photo: Evgeny Pavlenko, Kommersant
This year should see the technology that will forever solve the problem of safety of personal data. Anyway, hope the Dutch scientists from the Technological University of Delft. Now a team of researchers is working to create an Internet network which will bring together four cities of the Netherlands and will be entirely built on the technology of quantum computing. Yet they managed to transfer information across the network at a distance of just over 1.5 km To the end of the year they hope to create a strong connection between Delft and the Hague, and in the next five years — a full-scale network.
Scientists use the technology, which is based on the behavior of atomic particles, known as quantum entanglement. The messages transmitted in this form via the quantum network can't be secretly decrypted and read by someone. Any violation of a condition of at least one of the photons immediately lead to the destruction of all the transmitted signal.
Previously, scientists in China have created an Internet connection using the quantum technology, however they have been used traditional components, making it vulnerable for hacker's attack.
Hyperpersonalization medicine (now)
Photo: Anatoly Zhdanov, Kommersant
Genetic engineering has reached the stage of development when scientists can detect the violation of human DNA and to develop a medical tool that can help to correct the disease within just one year. And we can talk about diseases that are "boxed" and the treatment of which until now no one did due to the lack of finished drugs. Now at the disposal of physicians have all the necessary technology to create a cure for one specific person.
While cases where such drugs were created, very little. But over time, sure MIT, this practice will be more common. The only obstacle to the spread of hyperpersonalization medicine is its high cost, given that the drug will be developed for one person, and the work on its creation will continue their laboratories.
Digital money (this year)
Photo: Evgeny Pavlenko, Kommersant
This year should start the world's first government digital currency. For the right to be the first fighting several countries, and mark Zuckerberg actually wants to create one digital currency for everyone. But his project while openly stalling because of the many complaints of the regulators of different countries. But the Bank of China have all set to launch the digital version of the yuan. Slows down the process while only the spread of the coronavirus, which, according to the statement of the Central Bank, had disrupted the work of many government agencies.
This week on the early testing of the national electronic currency was announced and the Central Bank of Sweden. He became the first in the world, issued banknotes, and now wants to become a pioneer in the digital age of money.
Drug anti-aging (less than five years)
Photo: Alexander Petrosyan, Kommersant
Medicine that live forever, not yet invented. But the drugs that fight diseases caused by aging process, are already undergoing human trials in the next few years can be on the market. It sinaitici — drugs that are able to identify the dead old cells and remove them from the body. Usually this process takes the human immune system, but with age she copes with this problem worse, and the accumulation of dead cells causes inflammation that causes including cancer.
Tests of Sinaiticus on the people now, for example, is engaged in a U.S. pharmaceutical company Unity Biotechnology. And the company Alkahest trying to cope with aging in another way — introducing the elderly cellular components in the blood of young people. Thus experts of the company expect to win or at least to slow down the development of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's and dementia.
AI detecting molecules (3-5 years)
Photo: Dmitry Lebedev, The Businessman
Scientists have learned to use artificial intelligence to search for molecules that can then become part of the new drugs. Trained neural network can now explore the vast database of existing in the world of molecules to detect those that may have useful properties for the treatment of certain diseases.
So, in September, a team of researchers from Hong Kong and Insilico Medicine at the University of Toronto with the help of artificial intelligence found about 30 thousand new molecules with the desired properties. And recently, scientists of the Massachusetts Institute of technology became the first in the world who managed to find with the help of artificial intelligence new antibiotics.
Satellite megasize (now)
Photo: Kristina Kormilitsyna, Kommersant
Tens of thousands of communications satellites in Earth orbit and broadband Internet anywhere in the world if not our present, then future. And to make this idea a reality Elon Musk and his company SpaceX, the company also plans to launch 4.5 times more satellites than in the entire history of space exploration up to the start of the project Starlink.
The first 60 Starlink satellites was launched in may last year. Now in orbit are about 300 of these satellites by that measure, SpaceX took the first place in the world. All in all, the company Elon musk has received permission to launch 12 thousand such satellites and may seek permission to run for another 30 thousand President and chief operating officer of SpaceX Gwynne Shotwell promisedthat the satellite network will be launched in the middle of this year.
Quantum supremacy (5-10 years and more)
Photo: Dmitry Lebedev, The Businessman
In September 2019, the company Google announced the creation of the quantum computer, which could exceed the capabilities of the most powerful modern computer, running on silicon processors. The company said that its processor will be able in 3 minutes and 20 seconds to calculate, which is the most powerful computer in the world — Summit from the American company IBM — it would take about 10 thousand years. Thus, the company managed to achieve a "quantum supremacy".
IBM questioned the authenticity of numbers submitted by the competitor, saying that Google is probably able to increase the speed of calculations thousands of times, but not in the claimed 1.5 billion times. In any case, the achievement of Google was a historic moment. Now the producers of quantum computers it is necessary to create vehicles that will not be solved by conventional mathematical problem, and perform really useful tasks. But this is problematic — because the more qubits in the computer, the harder it is to maintain them in desired condition. Google are confident that their use of technology will allow them to create the computer 100, and 1000 qubits. This computer in theory is already able to perform some useful for ordinary user tasks. However, nobody knows which and how many qubits need in principle to perform quantum computer of the same tasks that are now able to perform normal PC.
Miniature artificial intelligence (now)
Photo: Anatoly Zhdanov, Kommersant
Traditionally, the creation and training of artificial intelligence associated with huge amounts of data and need a constant connection to the cloud server. But technology companies and scientists have learned to create specialized microchips for AI that is able to combine great processing power with compact size.
In addition, the AI now doesn't need constant contact with the remote server. Virtual assistants Google and Apple do not require any network connection. This means that they respond to voice commands is faster (as it has disappeared the intermediate stage of the connection with the remote server and receive a response), and the data user do not leave his device that increases the level of security in handling personal data.
Differential privacy (now)
Photo: Alexander Koryakov, A Merchant
The term "differential privacy" was introduced in 2006, the American specialist in the field of privacy Cynthia Dwork. It means a set of mathematical methods which allow to determine the degree of loss of confidentiality of data in their partial opening to create an information product.
For example, the Bureau the U.S. census collects information about 330 million people in the country, and then transmits these data to the scientific community and the authorities for analysis. However, to convey them in a clear form, as it will lead to the disclosure of all personal data of citizens. Because the database is added to "white noise" — some of the information shuffled between the citizens, impossible to de-anonymize. The accuracy of a statistical sampling of groups should not be reduced as a result of such fraud. Differential privacy is a mathematical model that allows to establish to what extent it is possible to mix data in order of sampling remained useful and truthful. Such models are already using Facebook, Apple and will be used in 2020, the census Bureau of the United States. Now to this technology and are looking at other countries.
Attribution of climate change (now)
At the beginning of this decade, scientists could not accurately answer the question whether these or other natural disaster effects of global climate change. But in recent years, with the development of computer capacity and the ability of satellites to track the details of natural phenomena, scientists have more opportunities for a more clear answer to this question. For example, the World Weather Attribution project launched two computer simulations of the world: in one case, global warming was another. As a result, scientists have found that tropical storm Imelda, collapsed last year in Houston, was a direct consequence of global climate change.
The definition of the role of climate change from other factors influencing weather, will help to predict what natural disaster where the power of what can expect of humanity. So, people will be able to prepare for future shocks and to avoid many victims.
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