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The birth and life of computers
Material posted : Administrator Publication date: 23-03-2020

Edward M. projdakov — a specialist in information security of the Federal resource center, member of the Union of journalists of Russia, the founder and Director of the "Russian virtual computer Museum", a translator of books on programming, articles on electronics. He recently gave a lecture for students of the Gubkin University of oil and gas about the history of computers "Today, with the speed of the wind changing computer technology. Following them, we are changing the design of computers and add them with new opportunities, - said Eduard projdakov. - In Moscow there are five or six computer museums and their sites on the Internet, in particular - the Museum of Apple computers. In Europe I have these museums not seen."

Near the metro station "Park of culture" the Museum of Yandex company. It is widely represented old technology that you can see to work on it and feel the spirit of a bygone era.

The Polytechnic Museum will open its doors after the restoration. It will be presented the samples of the first large machines, which are not in small museums, will be organized related large-scale projects for production automation, in particular, the AZLK plant.

Young professionals should be a holistic view of the development of things. Therefore, it is interesting to look at the history of computing, as the successive stages of its evolution.

The history of the computer – a history of the calculus.

The Roman number system (Roman numerals), which I was learning in school, has a history, originating from Sumerian scribes. From Sumer this system came into Egypt, from Egypt to Greece, from Greece to Rome and then blessed the whole world. It is very simple, it is very easy to carry out many operations. Basically, this operation account. The scribes took into account all sorts of taxes, revenues to the Treasury and so on. Were in Egypt and their institutions. They were called the "House of knowledge". These institutions were the temples. The results of estimates belonged to the pharaohs.

Many European scientists, such as Pythagoras, studied in Egypt. Scientists gave a subscription that will never publish their works. Pythagoras kept his word. Written evidence of his labors there. His disciples spread knowledge around the world. It was the people who were ahead of their time. For example, the enormous achievements of the time in mathematical physics and beginning calculus.

First Chinese abacus, then Russian. Then in the 17th century - mechanical counting devices. The first car I could subtract and add, and the multiplication is the repetition of these operations.

The early era of computers is the history of invention and creation of mechanical devices and accounts, adding machines, analog machines, all that is now in museums.

The story began in the 19th century English mathematician Charles Babbage, or rather three difference machines. They can be seen at the science Museum in London: differential, arithmetical and analytical. Machine – mechanical. To scroll through the mouth of the machine and run the generator, there was a powerful steam engine. Bibbig a century, anticipated the creation of computers.

He was helped by Ada Lovelace, the world's first programmer. She first realized that programs should be go to, and came up with routines. In her honor called the programming language, and it has become the standard language of the Ministry of defence. Most military systems written in this language.

In 1938, German engineer Konrad Zuse built the first programmable computing relay machine, model Z1. It was a binary computer with data entry keyboard in the decimal numeral system in the form of floating point numbers. Until the end of the war he entered four cars. They all stand in the German technical Museum Berlin and the Deutsches Museum, Munich.

In 40-ies of XX century there was a vacuum tube computing machine.

The machines transistors, cars on circuits of low integration (up to ten transistors in the chip), medium integration (one hundred and above), large integrated circuit (1000 to 10 thousand bits). Then I went to the very large scale integrated circuits (100k bits). Then ultra battery and now what we are dealing with a Pentium, and others. This – cyberbullies integrated circuit.

Each generation of machines, increasing the size of components and greater reliability.

In parallel, since the late 60-ies began to develop the computer network, and there was a huge Internet and social networks, etc.

Since 2012 is a new phenomenon, the third wave of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence (AI) has evolved in waves. In 50-ies of the said computer can perform a variety of functions: to translate texts, to solve mathematical problems, but to reach the level of human intellect has failed.

In 2012, a so-called deep machine learning. Here, AI has made tremendous progress: the implementation of Advisory councils in different areas, speech recognition, etc.

Today, the most urgent is to move to the next phase, a controlled learning AI, and it is necessary to prepare large data sets. And it is important to emphasize the following: artificial intelligence is used not only good guys but also bad. Now many attacks on computer systems are produced through AI.

The idea of the basic elements has evolved into what we now call the von Neumann machine, or a von Neumann architecture (the concept of architecture of computers).

Now digital technology has replaced analog, but in the beginning of the last century, the first century is very actively developed analogue machines, processes which are third-party processes: the change in the level of current or voltage, the change in water level, etc.

But analog machines have a disadvantage. It is difficult to separate the useful signal from outside, because any signals are subject to noise from the outside. Much easier to do it digitally. Extraneous layers of signal to clean up and get the signal clean.

The digital signal can be transmitted over longer distances. The analog signal is distorted during transmission by cable. Digital can be on any stage again to clean up, amplify and forward.

For a long time, electronic computing machines in the world operated a binary system of estimates.

Soviet designer Nikolay Petrovich Brusentsov invented a more efficient ternary computer "Setun", which never made a mistake in rounding.

In the mid 40-ies of the last century made the first vacuum tube machines. They were used for scientific and military tasks. For example - "Enigma" (from it. Änigma mystery) — a portable cipher machine used to encrypt and decrypt secret messages. This is a whole family of Electromechanical rotor machines were used in many countries, but the greatest distribution was received in Nazi Germany.

Work on the creation of cars has always been strictly classified.

The Americans were credited with creating the first computer myself, even though Churchill asked Roosevelt to recognize the merit of the British.

The first publication that reached Stalin of computing machines, was in the newspaper the "Union Herald". This is a short note about a car like the Americans. In 1947 came the famous decree on the establishment of the Institute of computer technology on Leninsky Prospekt in Moscow. Was formed special design Bureau SKB-245, and NII "Schetmash" for the development of domestic computers.

Since 1948 began development in Moscow and in Kiev, and in December 1951 there was the first Soviet electronic computing machine M-1 in Moscow. In Kiev there was an electronic computing machine SECM-1. On these machines the memory was less than a kilobyte. Word is 2 bytes approximately, and only had 21 teams.

In 1947, IBM has commissioned the German engineer Konrad Zuse report on how he sees the development of computer technology. This report is still classified. There are suggestions that this report, IBM has decided to invest in the development of a particular area.

The first tube computing machine American serial was made for defense. In those times the most talented developers put into the development of processors. Engineers are weaker than the engaged peripheral device. The others were engaged in development of power supplies. And for tube machines, the weakest thing is the power supply.

At the Kurchatov Institute made two cars, and developer of these machines noticed that the lamps fail when going voltage spikes when turning on the machine. He did such a power supply, which worked ten times longer, i.e. up to 350 hours. By the time the enormous amount of time.

The "Lomonosov" supercomputer, built by the company "T-Platforms" for MSU. M. V. Lomonosov to 2014 was considered the most powerful computer in Russia, which consumes enough energy to illuminate a small city, type of Istra in the Moscow region. Currently the server factory creates more powerful computers.

The computational power of the computer (computer performance) is the measure of the execution speed of certain operations. Processing power measured in the Flopsy (the number of floating point operations per second). It is believed that to power a supercomputer, the performance of one teraflops power is required from one block of a nuclear power plant. At the moment it is accepted to classify the supercomputers of the system with the computing power of more than 10 teraflops.

It is known that American computers eat up to 10% of produced in the country of electricity. And this is a huge problem for all countries. Today one of the urgent tasks is to make a computer that would consume energy 10 times smaller.

Special attention deserves the first domestic production car "Arrow". Launched it in 1953 SKB-245. Was built a series of seven cars that provided a good service for nuclear and missile projects of the time.

Such projects were duplicated and entrusted to other institutions. There are special competition. Began to appear new families of Soviet digital machines. For example, "Minsk" for use in higher education and science. "Ural" — General-purpose electronic computer. These machines were produced until the mid 1960-ies.

In 1964 IBM announced a family of IBM System/360. It was the first universal computers with byte-addressable memory, etc. Compatible with System/360 the IBM System z are available so far. This is an absolute record compatibility.

In the late 60's there was a great turning point. Although the Soviet Union appeared a line of cars, but they appeared randomly and some systems have been unexamined.

The Americans have their cars worked on more systematically. System analysis helped design the idea of compatibility of the machines with each other. In our country for the Ministry of defence had developed about 250 types of machines. The problem of unification of the cars was in the West, and we have. First I was able to reduce the variety of types to three dozen. The unification dictated different requirements: the military, industrial, scientific, civil, etc.

The idea of unification required the copying of computer development.

The practice of copying Western models arose not from a good life. We don't have enough developers. Up allowed to learn new technologies and develop their own. By copying went the Chinese. Today many things in the world.

In addition to the unification in the development process there were also practical difficulties: limitations in materials and metals, the quality of the contacts.

As a result, despite the difficulties, has ensured that a large lamp car could do one hundred thousand operations per second. Then there was a solid state machine. Semiconductors has allowed to increase speeds of up to one million operations per second. The performance of today's mobile - billions of operations per second.

One of the presidents of IBM, said, I will do 5-6 cars, and the world enough, recalculate all tasks. Did several generations of cars, and they are not enough. Today the task so much that needs millions of computers.

Moore's law (Gordon Moore), which in 1965 was proposed, is the concept of technological standards in the manufacture of processors: doubling the number of transistors every two years. Has been enormous progress in the development of the computer industry. It became profitable to do not one processor in the crystal, but several. Started to do core.

"I have 20 years of development experience, said Eduard projdakov, and I talked with the developers of the first machines. This time the mid-1970's, the era of computer romanticism. Was a huge, often very high expectations. It was expected that the computer will be the friend and helper of man, will replace many of the things that will bring happiness in the society. The computer is, but there is no happiness. Technologically, humanity has advanced, but social problems remained, and there was a lot of new. Like any great event, the computer has many facets, positive and negative. Appeared computer crime, there was a cyber-weapons and other threats associated with computers and cyberspace."

"Today there is a crisis of ideas in the computer architecture you are trying to solve in different ways, - said Eduard projdakov. - We live in an era full of uncertainty. To say WHAT will happen to computer technology in 50 years, no one will dare. My only comment is that a return to quantum computers is, in fact, a return to analog systems. The impression that modern experts do not know basics of structure of processors. In my life I had to learn many programming languages. I know 25".

Konrad Zuse invented the first programming language of high level. He described the use of computer technology in various fields. Strategic decisions IBM was justified. Today is a new stage in the development of electronics and developing it with IBM. It is - electronics of the future, which will be built on the principles of neural networks human. To understand how the human brain works, and try to reproduce the daunting task of mankind.

Marina Korneeva

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