In our life there are two huge magnet, which makes a significant impact on everything around, is the Earth and the Sun. And both of these natural magnets have the tendency to periodic change of the poles. In the Sun, this happens quite often, almost every 11 years. The earth reverses polarity of the internal magnet is very irregular, with intervals in millions of years honey these events. Such dramatic differences are in essence phenomena of the same order are the result of differences of the structure and dynamics of these two celestial bodies.
Reversing the polarity of the solar "magnet" is caused by the fact that the Sun is a giant ball of rotating conductive mass of superhot plasma. As explained by Dr. Ian O'neill (Dr. Ian O'neill), one of the scientists-astrophysicists: "during the 11-year solar cycle dynamics of our nearest star changes dramatically. During the movement from the "solar minimum" to "solar maximum" mass of plasma changes the character of the rotation, the rotation of the masses at the equator of the Sun is faster than the rotation near the poles. This difference "pulls" the magnetic field of the Sun which affects the solar plasma itself, as a rubber band slingshot. And the approach of the cycle to a solar maximum there is a "descent" of this system, located in a highly unstable state that leads to a series of rather complicated magnetic and electric phenomena in the Sun, the end of which is the change of the magnetic poles".
Unlike the Sun, the Earth's magnetic field is produced in the outer layer of the planet's core. A layer of liquid core, with the thickness of about 2 thousand kilometers, consisting mainly of molten iron and Nickel. Thermal convection currents in this liquid, along with the influence of the Earth's rotation, cause the fluid to rotate, which causes the strongest electric currents flowing through the entire volume of the earth's core. This endless cycle is called the electromagnetic, geodynamo, and its existence is the explanation of the causes of the magnetic field of our and other planets. But, occasionally, there may be unique circumstances that change the direction of movement of fluid flows in the earth's core, which leads to a change of the poles of the magnetic field.
In some science fiction works theme is the idea that the change of the magnetic poles is something of a disaster of universal scale, which will erase from the planet's surface all life. This is absolutely not true, of course, at the time of the pole shift will occur some not very pleasant phenomenon, but this should not greatly affect the Earth itself, civilization and even on the strength of your morning coffee. Just at the time of change of polarity of the Earth's magnetic field is significantly weakened, opening access to the surface of the planet to the harmful streams of charged particles from the Sun and from deep space. "Of course, if the magnetic field disappears or weakens, then to the upper layers of the atmosphere will reach a greater number of particles of cosmic radiation. Some believe that this is a problem, but in fact the earth's atmosphere is thick enough and dense in order to absorb these particles and protect the surface," says Kathy Jordan (Cathy Jordan), a scientist from Cornell University.
The fact that the polarity of the magnetic field of the Earth has changed over the history of our planet several times, has long been known to scientists. Proof of this are discovered and studied by scientists-geologists volcanic rocks from different eras. When these rocks in the form of molten lava come to the surface of the Earth, they are cooled and frozen, but all this happens under the influence of the magnetic field of the planet. So the tiny elements of the structure of these rocks, like the hands of a miniature compass, oriented in accordance with the then existing lines of the magnetic field and serve as a pointer to its last configuration.
As volcanic activity was carried out throughout all time of its existence, the volcanic rock was "sealed" so did all of her long and detailed "magnetic" history. Analysis of these data shows that in history there is no evidence of any catastrophic events and disasters, which coincided with the moments of change of poles of a magnetic field.
However, the change of the magnetic poles will have a significant impact on nature, civilization and technology. Fortunately, or unfortunately, according to preliminary estimates the pole shift of Earth's magnetic field may occur no earlier than a few thousand years, so none of the people currently living there is not the slightest chance to see it live.
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