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Big data. What kept Edward Snowden
Material posted: Publication date: 07-11-2014

In any RAID all directly and indirectly involved actors strive to realize their own goals. Is no exception the Saga of Edward Snowden. It is quite obvious that Edward Snowden wanted to open the eyes of the American and world public opinion on the illegal practices of the NSA, total surveillance and wiretapping. At the same time, it should be noted that most of the revelations of Edward Snowden, for all their sensationalism, not opened something new for experts and specialists in the field of intelligence. Almost all, about what I told Edward Snowden was known to him. Although no details, the details, the names of specific programs, the size of the amounts allocated, etc. of Course, these details are transferred assumptions of experts of the rank of hypotheses in the field of concrete facts and documented opinions.

However, it is interesting to see what topics concerned the revelations of Edward Snowden. Mostly it was about the violation of privacy not only foreigners but also U.S. citizens, listening of telephone conversations of not only ordinary Americans, but also the heads of the countries – allies USA, monitoring by the NSA for financial transactions on a variety of threads, programs, development of cyber arms, and so left a very big impression and has still serious implications for the prestige of the United States and interstate relations. Undoubtedly, this had a negative impact on the revenues of the companies mentioned in the revelations of Edward Snowden.

However, there is a steady impression that the NSA used the Saga of Edward Snowden, so as soon as it happened as standard a cover operation against really major, still carefully hidden tasks of the National Security Agency and other state structures of the USA with his assistance. It is about developing and using practical technologies of management of group and mass behavior in other countries, as in countries-allies and adversaries of the United States.

It is easy to notice that in materials of Edward Snowden do not contain information on this subject and accordingly, it may be assumed that the thesis about the management of group behaviour of arbitrarily large dimension is related not to the actual state of Affairs, and to the conspiracy. Moreover, the conspiracy, understood not in the sense of scientific, factual investigation, as in traditional interpretation, as the fruit of the exercise of an immature mind and unstable psyche.

Today there are quite a number available in the press and in specialized publications data and facts expressed above thesis about the transition of the U.S. to the hidden control of group and mass behavior. Denote them.

First. To start, undoubtedly one with the most obvious, what is called a materialized evidence of the practical problem of controlling the behavior. It comes just built, equipped and is currently surrendering in practical operation cyclopean the new NSA center in Utah. It is clear that for the purposes of espionage, electronic surveillance, cryptography and so on. requires a gigantic volume of data warehouses. However, they don't need storage capacity in one yottabyte, which is located in the new data Center in Utah. To clearly understand what is at stake, note that the whole annual Internet traffic, including the Internet, the Internet of things, etc. coming now to a single zettabytes. Thus, in Utah there is storage for the 100-year global Internet traffic. However, the dimensionality is reduced immediately in the event that if not just store traffic, i.e., data of all types, and process them in various ways, for why will present the data in various classifications. In other words, for no other reason other than for mining very large volumes of data storage such capacity is simply not necessary.

Second. In the U.S., unlike other countries in 1994 was established a broadband network for joint use of resources (hardware and software) supercomputers. In fact, in the United States, unlike other countries supercomputer network is not partitioned departmental and corporate barriers, and functions as a whole. Moreover, in the beginning of zero years the Americans have agreed with great Britain to that network connect and UK supercomputers. This is very important because according to international estimates, the leader in efficient use of supercomputers in secret projects is the UK. Data on this network is nowhere to be found, but various indirect calculations suggest that the capacity of the network will reach from half to two thirds of the total power of all 500 supercomputers included currently in the world rankings. The most powerful supercomputers included in the network belong to the NSA, the U.S. Department of energy, British intelligence and American universities, working closely with the military-intelligence complex. From 2014 the overall management of the network carries the U.S. cyber command.

Third. Over the past four years the United States has spent several hundred million dollars for development programs mining is not just Large, and extra large arrays of data. It is noteworthy the following circumstance. In the commercial sector for Big Data Analytics mainly uses the methods of mathematical statistics. At the same time, analyzing the grants from agencies such as DARPA and IARPA, you can see that the money was spent on the development of programs for analysis and forecasting based on Big Data, based on a fundamentally new branches of mathematics, like the theory of categories and transformations, pattern recognition systems, neural computing and so-called deep machine learning. All of these methods on the orders of superior from the point of view of identifying non-trivial dependencies and relationships, power and predictive accuracy, standard methods of mathematical statistics, which are described as the main tool throughout the literature on Big Data.

Fourth. In recent years, the U.S. is taking organizational and legal measures to ensure the needs of the intelligence community of Big Data. First of all, it should be borne in mind that in itself, the National Security Agency is the owner of the largest Big Data that it receives as a result of his espionage activities, which the world today are well-informed thanks to the revelations of Edward Snowden.

Much less known organization of the FSD. In translation into Russian it can be called a Federal Data. Its main purpose is the concentration of data about Americans collect almost all Federal departments, ministries, agencies etc. it is No exaggeration to say that no country in the world this is not a detailed database on its citizens, both in the United States, and contains the database not in the NSA and in an inconspicuous organization with the above name. It must be borne in mind that this organization additionally flocking all data from insurance companies, banks, pension funds, airlines, etc. under American jurisdiction. Accordingly, if the foreigners insured by an American company, flown by American airlines, to buy goods in us online stores, etc., all of their data also fall into this organization, and from there to the Center of Big Data by the NSA.

Edward Snowden not only told him and even showed on the slides the NSA connection to the largest Internet companies and telecommunications giants. The result was a big scandal. The company first protested, then said that implement relevant requirements in the U.S. Congress to end the practice of using their data for the NSA. However, from the public, and even most experts hid a very important fact. A speech in the protests goes on personal data, i.e. data that can be used to identify the user as Ivan Ivanovitch Ivanov, or John Smith the Third, and so on. Big Data is not personal data. In principle, personal data can be Big Data, but may not be. Moreover, for Big Data by itself, the recognition of a particular individual is not important and not interesting, because patterns and relationships detected using Big Data have statistical nature and do not relate to the specific fate of an individual. About the Big Data referred to in the revelations of Edward Snowden didn't go at all.

Almost all of the major providers of Big Data, in addition to government agencies and structures are Google, Facebook, Twitter, Amazon, eBay, etc., have American jurisdiction. Meanwhile, anti-terror law of the United States, referred to as "the Act of 2001, unifying and strengthening America by providing appropriate tools required to intercept and obstruct terrorism and him" and the Decree number 13603 dated March 16, 2012, signed by President Obama entitled "About the readiness of resources of national defense" clearly the responsibilities of American companies from the point of view of national defence.

Among these responsibilities is the provision of the data required to perform the tasks of national defence. It is known that Big Data fall under the jurisdiction of these ordinances. Moreover, if in relation to personal data in General and Americans in particular, provides for some limitations related to the need for solutions Secret Court to obtain such data, Large anonymised Data should be provided that is called in your order on demand.

It is important that such data should provide not only an American company – Big Data providers or data brokers, but also companies that are traded on the American stock market. The last two points need some explanation. In the United States there are several major companies that buy data from around the world from others, as a rule, trading companies and resell them transnational corporations to target, or as it is called targeted marketing, etc. In the end, the biggest broker of this data, the company Acxiom is now fully digital dossier on more than 600 million people, of which only 200 are Americans. Slightly fewer dossiers have data brokers such as Experian, Epsilon, etc.

In addition, almost all major international Internet companies listed on the NYSE or the Nasdaq. Accordingly, these companies upon receipt of the request under the threat of losing the listing must also pass anonymised Big Data to the American government, and in other words the NSA. Thus, it is possible that they may have a different jurisdiction and operate in far from the regions of America, is not an obstacle for these obligations.

Summarizing we can say that the NSA now has access to the vast majority of Big Data, existing in the world. Some have expressed the view that the exception is China. However, the other part of experts not without reason believes that the Chinese Big Data to a large extent be in the USA using American and British data brokers and founders of many of the largest Chinese Internet resources.

Fifth. In the last year and a half in the United States has passed a number of scientific conferences, round tables and meetings initiated by various "think tanks", among which the Institute of complexity in Santa Fe. These events were attended by leading researchers and developers in the field of Big Data, heads of departments of behavioral marketing and targeted advertising, experts in the field of forecasting based on Big Data – on the one hand, and senior government officials, representatives of the intelligence community and members of the British and American government programs of the barrel. For example, one of such kind of conferences with the main report of the Strategic potential of big data for National Security by the Executive Director of IARPA Katherine Marsh.

As a rule, in the majority of such events have you participated in one of the closest advisers of Barack Obama, the party's group on reform of the NSA Cass Sunstein, Richard Thaler, co-author of the book "the nudge" and Alex Pentland. Alex Pentland recently included by Forbes magazine among the seven most influential researchers in the field of information technology. He leads several laboratories in the famous MIT, is among the advisors of several companies from the fortune 500, advises the U.S. government.

To understand about what was discussed at these events, suffice it to quote one of the articles Alex Pentland. "I am confident that the value of Big Data is that they provide information about human behavior, not about their beliefs... the Concept of Big Data and the science of networks are well beyond the ordinary approaches to the design of social structures... Adam Smith and Karl Marx were wrong, or at least offered only partial solutions. Why? Because they built their theories on the basis of the average of market concepts and classes. And although, of course, reasoning in such terms can also be useful, but it is obvious that the social phenomena in fact consist of millions of small transactions between individuals. There are some examples of interpersonal interactions that do not just do not fit in the average, and the cause of social outbreaks and upheavals such as the Arab spring. Have to stoop to these smallest examples of these micropreemies, because they allow us to understand the social structure outside of average. We are entering a new era of social physics, where a decisive outcome will depend on the smallest details, these details, how are you Yes I...the fact that we will now be able to track the dynamics of social interactions and their origins that we are no longer limited to averages like market indices, makes me all tingly. Will we be able to predict and control the behavior of markets and the emergence of revolutions".

At these conferences was born is still not widely recognized, the term "hidden power" or "invisible force".

It is quite obvious that the facts as presented are complementary, i.e. complementary in nature and show a complete picture of the final phase of creating the technical system of management of group and mass behavior in any dimension in foreign States to implement U.S. interests.

The result of this management should be the transformation of the actors of world politics, Economics, etc. in objects under external, unperceived, a guiding influence. To ensure that this does not happen, it is necessary in a very short time to implement a set of highly intellectual, high-tech measures, bolstered by a range of enabling activities that require resources and the adoption of new legal acts at the state level. About Tom – in the final article in the series.

E. Larina, Vladimir Ovchinsky


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