Consideration of historical aspect of information warfare, this study allows to understand their risk, gives answers to the question of the extent to which it may be compared to wars of the physical costs and possible prevention.
Extremely relevant are the questions of how information exposure and confrontation affects the ideology that activates citizens to achieve the goals of those who introduces ideas into society, and, therefore, can the ideology be depressed and lose their power to undermine the unity.
Conceptual and historical aspects
The appearance of the information space leads to the appearance of those who wish to control it and manage it. Despite the fact that at present there is no universal concept of information warfare, it is possible to allocate the basic definition. Of course, this is impossible without prior definition of the information society, which is the "the Latest political dictionary" is defined as "existing in modern science the concept used to describe a qualitatively new stage of social development, which entered the developed countries since the beginning of the information-computer revolution"..."the Characteristic features of information society are: the increasing role of information and knowledge in society;...the creation of a global information space providing efficient access to various information resources to meet needs of information and information services. The creation of the concept "information society" was intended to provide a theoretical tool to explain the essence and content analysis of the deep social processes taking place in the West in the mid - late XX century"1. It is obvious that this definition is closely linked to the definition of information warfare as "actions taken to achieve information superiority in support of national military strategy by affecting information and information systems of the enemy while strengthening and protecting our own information and information systems"2. Noticeable General conditions and principles of both terms, chief among which is the particular status and stage of development of society. Together other definitions of information warfare give her the key and the original principle, namely the act of disinformation, which is an integral part of the war, along with the security, psychological operation, etc.
During the second world war, propaganda is used with a wide meaning and scope. The success of advertising campaigns may explain the sometimes weak morale of the enemy, which is easy to break, including false information. However, during the war she worked briefly, until another radio frequency are covering the truth. For example, the reception of Soviet specialists synchronous broadcasting allowed them to invade German radio broadcasts to Express their point of view and thus to influence the listeners.
To understand the concept of propaganda refer to the explanatory dictionary. Propaganda is "the Dissemination and explanation of any views, ideas, knowledge, teachings and propaganda"3.
The study of it began with provisions and events of world war II, when a new level is applied radiographed. One of the first theoretical developments in this field of study held lazarsfeld P., and G. Lasswell. The media through advocacy action assign a specific status to the pressing problems, personalities and issues. So, legitimacy may be questionable to the person or organization which subsequently will proceed and further ‒ to a legal status that can lead to serious results, negatively affect the mood of society, and in case of war, to decide the fate of the whole country4.
Generally, the term war means "armed struggle between States and Nations, between classes within the state"5. One of the differences of the information war ‒ weapons, that is, methods that have several advantages: it does not, what is important to the physical destruction of people, has a relative low cost, often proves to be effective.
Important information the attacker admits weapons: computer viruses, backdoors control information exchange in telecommunication networks, falsification of information in the government and military control, neutralization test programs, various kinds of errors deliberately introduced into the software of the object6. So, the task of information weapons ‒ a consistent offensive actions to achieve the goal. The amount of information transmitted becomes a measure of the aggressiveness of which will depend on our response.
Another weapon is the peace propaganda of his own lifestyle, its advantages. Promoting the virtues of Western civilization and the Western way of life, including selfless assistance to non-Western peoples of the world in their voluntary development towards the Western model of social organization, Zinoviev defined the term "Westernization".
If armed, aggressive war the winner was the one who surpassed in power, the number of soldiers, etc., then become the winner in the information war is to understand what kind of information processing upon receipt, some not. S. Rastorguev calls this process the input data.
The relationship between the concepts of "information warfare" and "ideology"
As mentioned, the information war is always a clash of interests and rivalry. The essence of this encounter reveals the period of the Cold war 1946-1989 the years between the USSR and the USA. The main component of the confrontation was ideological struggle ‒ socialist system on the one hand and the capitalist on the other. Was racing of a different sort: from political to armed.
To better outline the role of political ideology, it seems necessary to refer to the notion of ideology as such.
In modern political science under the ideology (from the Greek. Ιδεα – concept, performance and λογος – the word, the doctrine) is understood as "the system of conceptual feature representations and ideas which expresses the interests, Outlook and ideals of different political entities – classes, Nations, companies, political parties, public movements and is a form of validation or existing in the society of domination and power (conservative ideology) or their radical transformation (ideology of the "left" and "right" movements). The ideology and form of social consciousness – an integral part of the culture of intellectual production".
In the context of this study it is important to note the specifics of the functioning of ideology, based on the definition above. Ideology, on the one hand, occurs due to the need to enlist the support of the greatest number of people to involve in the ranks of its adherents. However, the formation of ideology is impossible without the awareness of the power of sentiment, of public and political interests and ideals prevalent in the society. Thus, the operation of ideology is bilateral.
Public moods are formed on the basis of certain ideas, theories, ideals, values, characters. These components are structural elements of political ideology. It turns out that, along with reliable information ideology includes inaccurate knowledge and beliefs. It is known that the term "ideology" was introduced into science by the French thinker Antoine Destutt de Tracy in "Elements of ideology". In the interpretation of de Tracy, ideology is a doctrine about ideas, which enable to formulate the foundations of ethics and politics. This interpretation is close to the interpretation of E. B. Condillac, as well as representatives of the school ideologues. However, it is worth noting the opposite view, according to which the notion of ideology has a negative meaning. This understanding of ideology was reflected in the interpretation of Napoleon, who described the ideology as a set of ideas that cannot be applied to the practice of political reality.
K. Marx and F. Engels in "German ideology" identified with the ideology of developed forms of consciousness that are characterized by: 1) the interpretation of the world as the embodiment of ideas, 2) the illusion of the absolute autonomy of ideas, 3) the imaginary Constitution of reality. The ideology of the Marxists counterposed social science, and the main criterion of ideology considered it inadequate to the actual state of things, it was all an illusion and falsity7.
The Foundation of the ideology of conflictological due to the nature of politics, the presence in it of supporters and opponents (bourgeois and proletariat), that is, the model of "friend – enemy". So Marx and Engels see the essence of politics, state, history. For them, the cohesion of social groups ‒ a detailed study of the ideological enemy. There are a number of understanding of ideology thinkers:
- "the idealistic notion that the world is the expression of ideas, thoughts and principles",
- "type thought process when his subjects – ideology, not aware of their builds with the material interests of certain classes of objective and motive force of its activities, constantly reproduce the illusion of the absolute autonomy of social ideas";
- the "conjugate method of approach to reality, consisting in the construction of the imaginary reality that passes for reality"8.
Marx defines it as "false consciousness, expressing the specific interests of a particular class, outstanding for the interests of the whole society"9.
By analyzing the data definition, you can see that they all share one basic and key concept – the concept of reality. On the one hand, to modify the activity of ideology, but on the other hand it turns out that Marx says about it that "reality appears in the mirror of ideology in a distorted and inverted". Engels transformed the understanding of the ideology of "false consciousness" about which Marxism and entrenched. It comes from the "class interest of the ruling classes, seeking to represent his interest to the whole community."
Marx and Engels presented the ideology as a coherent system, created not as a result of the free creativity of all the people, but rather, forcibly imposed on them. Ideology organizes the relations of people belonging to a particular social structure. Therefore, its content is determined by the interests of the ruling class.
Thus, speaking of the relationship between ideology and information wars, we can say that they always act as a kind of link, common element, whose parts complement each other. If the goal is suppression of the ideology, come to the aid of weapons and methods of information warfare. If the goal is informational introduction to consciousness ‒ "at hand" is always ideological components of motivation.
The question arises, is it possible to resist the implementations? According to some specialists. It is enough to "close their eyes" on data that is served to the input of the opposing party. And, as is typical in many countries this method of protection of the population and the country enshrined in law. "Even in 70-e years when America was mired in the Vietnam war, the us media, criticizing the war, "torpedoing" her, did not allow himself to use footage of the cameramen who worked with Vietnam. Moreover, in the same America as well as England, France and a dozen countries there is a strict legislative ban on the use of any film, photo, video and print materials, shot or written on the side of those who are fighting against the armies of those countries, and even just having a sympathetic "enemies" of intonation or ideas"10.
Manipulation of consciousness as the main element of information warfare
In the work "Manipulation of consciousness" by S. G. Kara-Murza writes about the forms and methods of manipulation of consciousness. It is very capacious and rich work containing many interesting facts, theories, striking examples. Of course, the interesting logic of the author's arguments and style of writing which does not strain when reading and in many ways allows to perceive the text not just as a scientific dry.
Kara-Murza considers the metaphor of manual dexterity when handling objects and transfers it to the dexterous management of a people, thereby defining manipulations where the manipulators – all metaphorical hands. The metaphor of manipulation – programming the views and aspirations of the masses by those who own the means of manipulation.
Let us turn to some other sources the definition of manipulation. In psychological dictionary, it is a manual operation, a manual activity, in particular the demonstration of the trick based on sleight of hand. 2. Fraud, fraud, fraud, fraud. 3. Communicative impact, which leads to the actualization of the object of the effects of certain motivational States (along with the feelings, attitudes, stereotypes) according to the behavior that is desirable (profitable) for the subject of exposure; it does not assume that it must necessarily be disadvantageous to the impact of the object11.
In the Great encyclopedic dictionary manipulation ‒ the action of the hand or hands while performing any complicated work; it's difficult to return to manual work. In a figurative sense ‒ a trick, scheme12.
Analyzing the above mentioned definitions, we can distinguish three sign of manipulation. The first view of the psychological impact; the second ‒ the hidden impact that should not be seen object manipulation and third manipulation is not available to any person, it requires considerable knowledge and skills.
S. G. Kara-Murza also highlights similar indications of manipulation, adding to them some of the techniques. A closer look at them.
1. The language of words. He is the most important means of subjugation. Suggestibility through the words ‒ the underlying property of the psyche that emerged much earlier than the capacity for analytical thinking13. In the course of the arguments and examples the author gives to understand that the power of the word is not an empty place, and the fact that since the beginning of human history, it sets in motion all spheres of society. People always obeyed, and will obey in great measure due to the power of the word.
2. Language of images. "Nature manipulation is the presence of dual effects: along with the sent message open the positioner sends to the addressee "coded" signal, hoping that this signal will awaken in the mind of the recipient the images that right arm. This covert influence is based on "tacit knowledge" possessed by the recipient, his ability to create in his mind the images that influence his feelings, opinions and behavior. The art of manipulation is to let the imaging process on track, but so that the man did not notice the hidden impacts"14.
So, the images trigger a chain reaction of imagination. Examples are comics, which at the time had the highest percentage of capture readership and maps used Nazi Germany as an ideological reception.
Today this language has the image of advertising, whose main goal ‒ the manipulation of consciousness.
3. Other sign systems. This item includes Music, numbers, which, as is commonly believed to have magic powers, akuseru ‒ the world of sound forms of culture that influences the feelings, not the mind. Example: a friend and familiar voice of radio in the USSR. Training leading the school radio has become a special kind of culture, creates and promotes its own rhythms and tone, the evolution of which is observed in modern television and other media.
4. In a separate reception the author brings the silence. "On thinking, consciousness and subconscious of the person acting is an alternation of sound and silence - with its rhythm and intensity. Nietzsche repeatedly returned to deep thought: "great things happen in silence" ("come to pigeon legs"). If we are talking about the relation between life and politics (and here lies the problem of the manipulation of consciousness), the role of silence grows even more. Heidegger, and continuing the thought about Nietzsche's aristocracy is strong, dedicated, designed to manage weight, even raised the question of creating shigetoki ‒ technology of silence. It is "quiet", more or less subconscious communication among the initiates by default. On the contrary, to prevent the possibility of the birth of private groups of the elite (intelligentsia) to the mass of the governed, it should be completely deprived of silence"15.
5. Metaphors and social stereotypes. "Metaphors are a ready-made cliches of thinking, but stamps are aesthetically appealing. It is expressed artistically stereotypes. One of the main "materials", which are operating the manipulator, are social stereotypes.
In the dictionary States: "a Social stereotype is a stable set of ideas, emerging in the mind as on the basis of personal life experience, and with the help of diverse sources of information. Through stereotypes of the perceived real objects, relationships, events, characters. Stereotypes are crucial components of individual and mass consciousness. Thanks to them, we care for the reduction of perception and other informational and ideological processes in the mind...".
Stereotypes usually includes an emotional relationship of man to some objects and phenomena so that in designing them, it is not only about information and thinking, and about the complex socio-psychological process"16.
6. Feelings. Feelings ‒ the first area affected by the manipulation. As they are closest to the outside world, and react faster, and less indirectly than thinking. "Therefore, the General statement of principle in the manipulation of mass consciousness is a pre - "swinging" of the emotional sphere.
The main vehicle for this is the creation or use of crisis abnormal situation, having a strong impact on the senses. This can be a major technological disaster, bloody violence (terrorist, criminal, maniac, religious or national conflict),a dramatic impoverishment of large groups of the population, a major political scandal, etc."17.
7. Imagination. Is "...to control the behavior of people is very important to influence both processes ‒ the generation of images on the basis of reality and to develop the strategy and tactics of behavior on the basis of which arose in the minds of images of"18.
8. Memory. In order for a manipulator to better coped with the task, pre-given information with the aim of remembering the object of manipulation, the belief of that object are correct and necessary information, and in the future ‒ remember and works under the slogan "clearly that remains in memory".
9. Attention. The process is the same with the memory.
In addition to the above methods of manipulation, S. G. Kara-Murza added that can enhance the effects of the media fabricating facts, the selection of events of reality to reports, black propaganda, large psychosis.
The author stresses that his work is based on the example of the school of Russian, where there are special people and the culture. Unconditional positive trait is resilience, the human desire of the masses to become part of the mosaic culture. Roots that went far deeper, long will it be to pull out, what methods of struggle against the manipulators.
The book concludes with interesting advice from the author: "the Main advice is to think. And think hard, hard as the digger is digging heavy clay"19.
The study confirmed the necessity of studying such a phenomenon as an information war. The obvious importance of a professional approach to the issue with the aim of early recognition of the signs of the onset of the process of confrontation.
Different aspects of this concept showed how many areas of public and political life are associated with elements of information confrontation. Unquestioned existence of modern society in conditions of total information space.
A consideration of the historical component of the study has allowed to reveal regularities of the origin, development and the fight against wars of information of the type that is certainly true today in a confrontation in the international arena.
A special place in the study was devoted to the study of the concept of "manipulation". It drew attention to the fact that every person in one way or another can be subject to manipulation, but at the same time in his possession all the means of resistance to it.
Thus, the existence and prevalence of information warfare today is undeniable, however, is not fully understood.
Many in the field of development research has already been done. It is clear that they will continue to be, to multiply, to evolve, to change in the direction in which to change society itself.
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