1. Peculiarities of activities of ISIS to recruit new supporters
In the course of their terrorist activities, ISIL is affecting Muslims as well as representatives of other faiths who are seeking a modern, imperfect, in their opinion, the world justice. Very often their network gets youth, which tend to search his own way in life.
These organizations join, and those for which acts of terror there is a way to make money. It's unscrupulous people who are able to murder innocent people for personal gain.
Radical Islamist organizations jihadistas sense, and in particular ISIL, and use methods of psychological influence, using the human desire to tanatus, based on the theory of Sigmund Freud about the subconscious desire of every person to death. It should be noted that in the ranks of this organization are professionals in various fields, including professional psychologists who are familiar with the methods of psychological influence on personality.
DAYS is very advanced in terms of information organization. To recruit new adepts, she used social networks, Internet sites and different types of media content, which are formed by professional psychologists, PR managers and programmers of the highest level.
Also common religious object processing, which is expected to draw in a network of ISIL on various religious gatherings in mosques or prayer rooms. In these places, special emissaries, recruiters handle their new victims, its own way of interpreting the various provisions of the Quran. For example, "Holy war" to cleanse the heart from sin – Jihad, without which, according to Islam it is impossible to know the Prophet and through him come to God, is presented as a struggle against the infidels . While jihadists slyly omit verses of Scripture that Muslim a Muslim friend and brother. Lawlessness not only against infidels (kafir), but against those Muslims who do not share their points of view.
Recruitment to ISIS is happening in confidence, has a strong distinctive structure. It includes a network of working agents, which are divided into: "gunners", "recruiters" and "curators".
"Gunner" define the desired candidate is able to be useful for the "Caliphate", but never in contact with the "victim" personally. It only collects and sends the information on the object of recruitment. Additional data on the candidate, but that is all personal, financial, religious and political aspects on which to assess candidate competence to "gunner".
"Recruiter" – the person who directly participated in the recruitment process. He meets a candidate for a "Jihad" or overwritten in the network, possessing a great gift of persuasion.
"Curator" or agent, often located on the territory of some neighboring state, developing the logistics for the delivery of the candidate to travel and controls the entire operation.
To successfully counter the propaganda and campaigning work of ISIS, we need to analyze the risk that may be exposed to radical elements.
Age group "seekers of happiness" in the "Caliphate" is mainly young people aged 16 to 26 years, because their consciousness is open to perception of new ideas, they often yet have a family and permanent employment, they are prone to fantasies and sense of justice, more suggestible, and propagandists use these factors in their activities. The recruitment of young people to ISIS is happening in the Internet space, in the bars and discos, hostels institutions, in mosques and prayer rooms, etc. They promise all conceivable good is love "to the grave" with the Arab beauties, Paradise after death, just the future in case of victory of the jihadists, etc.
The facts of departure of young Russian citizens on the territory controlled by ISIS, confirmed the efficiency of agent networks of jihadists. In November 2014, the future hairdresser Maria Pogorelova from St. Petersburg moved to the Iraqi city of Mosul, where there is an information center for terrorists. She now has a new name − Mary Maryamov. In Russia, the girl are unable to realize themselves. Inclined from the extreme right-wing views to Orthodoxy. And finally became a Muslim.
Registered on a Dating site for Muslims, and soon went to ISIS to the future husband. Maria worked in the Internet recruiting Russian girls to the ranks of the terrorists. To it in Russia opened a criminal case under article "Organization of illegal armed formation or participation therein". If she returns to the country she faces a prison sentence
In February 2015, a Moscow actor Vadim Dorofeev also went to Syria to serve ISIS, leaving Moscow, his wife and small child. He later died at Damascus .
The reasons for the popularity of radical terrorist organizations among young people is not only a desire for a possible material goods or the pursuit of social justice for Muslims around the world, but also the presence in the subconscious desire to participate in revolutionary activities with the aim to radically change the system of government. This is especially true in countries with high development of corruption in public administration, where people lost confidence in the government. And in countries where there are no mechanisms to counter the work of the Islamic emissaries.2.
2. Advocacy impact LIH
Some people with paracrine consciousness attracts the maniacal brutality of the ISIS militants. However, in most cases, this does not apply to wide circles of youth. And yet, there is a lot of guys and girls from wealthy families who are changing their prosperity on the romance of Jihad. Why is this happening? What pushes them to leave relatives and friends and resign ourselves to the unknown test? It is imperative to find, to isolate the mechanism of impact on the minds and hearts of the youth who decided to join ISIS. Often, this mechanism is accompanied by loneliness, which is the one, or the other young man or woman. Partly to blame and that the cause is the lack of ideology in the state and, as a consequence, organized and planned youth work by type of the pioneer and Komsomol, in the past, organizations.
Particularly active in the agitation and propaganda machine of the IG works on the controlled territories and in those areas in which they are actively fighting. In one August 2015 IG has organized 38 the provincial or regional media, as well as the 6 Central. Thanks to new information resources in just 30 days the militants managed to release 1146 various promotional materials, such as theological treatises, posters, brochures, magazines, text overviews, summaries of radio news, various audio recordings, videos, photos and more. Noticeable was the fact that during this period of time, information and propaganda material in the amount of 892 different samples were highly professional and in great detail translated into 6 different languages.
Conducting detailed sample campaign materials for 30 days routine work DAYS, we can observe not only the usual news stories about the exploits of ISIS on the fronts, but materials on peaceful civilian life. Published materials about that in ISIS controlled areas flows quite peaceful life, the children go to school, repaired houses and roads. Happy girls come together and discuss their questions, we are all convinced that the Arab "Caliphate" is peace for those who live in it.
The Central ideas of this work are the militant ideas of the so-called religious "purity", constantly growing and evolving "Caliphate", the idea of social justice, as well as ideas are really working the Sharia economy.
And yet we should recognize that propaganda is a multistage character. For example, every day, news of militants of different ideas. For example, the 23rd of the month of Shaval media LIH chose in their work, the military, and it showed footage of offensive operations in the North of the Syrian Arab Republic, and praised those killed under Salah Ad-DIN their fighters. This ordinary day was released 50 different information and propagandistic materials ranging from photos to video materials, among which stood out the pictures of "atrocities" so-called "crusaders" of the Western Coalition, which depicted killed by air strikes women and children. And the next day, the same media can tell about the celebration of any event.
The emphasis of the advocates of DIS sent, surprisingly, not the military, but still more peaceful life. 32 of 50 campaign materials demonstrate the successes of the insurgents in the construction of the so-called "Caliphate of social justice." In the news footage is shown of the following events: 1. The system of training of working professions, and in particular plasterers in the workshops of Mosul; 2. The work of the residents of the "Caliphate" for the dissemination of printed press in Fallujah; 3. Installation of telephone lines in cairate; 4. Asphalt repair in Talavera; 5. Seizure and destruction of illegal cigarettes in LIH; 6. Grazing of cattle in the bir al-Kasaba.
When a more detailed analysis of the activities of the militants and divide it by topics, from 17 July to 15 August, we can observe the following picture:
- 469 of promotional items dedicated to the civil life in the occupied territories;
- 331 propaganda element covering military events and victories of the insurgents;
- 61 advocacy element of praise the sacrifice of the martyrs, their willingness to die on the path of Jihad;
- 19 promotional items demonstrate sverzellati ISIL militants;
- 8 promotional items say about the affiliation of certain groups or movements to the ideology of ISIS;
- 1 promotional item showed mercy martyrs, speaking of amnesties IG.
Separately, you can highlight the advocacy work on vital topics in the so-called Islamic state of Iraq and the Levant:
- The activities of local services – 136 items;
- Religious activities – 115 elements;
- Economic activity – 99 items;
- Justice – 41 element;
- Nature – 31 element;
- Social life – 30 items;
- The other 17 items.
A key element in outreach fighters DAYS is the reliance on the news about the Armed forces and news from the fields of fighting. This is more interesting and, conducting her analysis, we see that news threads of the IG on military Affairs are also divided by topics:
- Related news from the fields of fighting – 84 element;
- The brokenness of sin – 78 elements;
- About the success of the offensive – 52 element;
- The praise of the martyrs – 48 elements;
- The consequences of the fighting - 31 element;
- Preparing for combat – 30 items;
- About the success of the defense – 8 elements.
ISIS in its propaganda work is an extremely successful organization that produces a large volume of quality media content. In its activities, the militants operate on the principle: "to produce as much as possible". This strategy allows you to make it impossible or extremely difficult the process of surveillance of performance media services DAYS. Also it is not possible to produce a clear analysis of what ISIS does to create counter-measures. This policy allows the IG as to disorient their enemies and also to attract those who are interested in the lives of the fighters.
In the first days of the month of Shaval, for example, in the media ISIS was not shown any violence. The reason for this was the fact that this month starts with the feast of Eid al-Fitr, or "Feast of breaking the fast", dedicated to the end of the Holy month of Ramadan. Media DAIS was to show that, as in the "Islamic state" and beyond with the IG can not do anything even close to compare. To achieve this it was necessary to focus on two main spheres of life – spiritual and social. Active was shown footage of almsgiving to those in need in Libya and Syria, and was shown video footages with festive prayers. Created General atmosphere of the holiday. To enhance the effect, the rebels aired footage of children playing on the rides, and distribution of various sweets and toys to the children left without parents, militants, tourists calmly drinking tea and laughing among themselves. In this period started to act the official radio DAYS "al-Bayan" which aired an interview with the so-called happy "accidental" passers-by.
Gradually, after Ramadan, paintings, broadcast by militants ceased to be exclusively peaceful in tone. In footage from the cultivation of melons, the activities of various enterprises and workshops have started to integrate photos and videos from the combat positions of ISIS – bullying over the dead bodies of enemies, the demonstration of captured militants artifacts and footage of people in masks, firing mortars at enemy positions.
In addition to carefully selected photographs, which was 696, the IG released 64 different videos, among whom was peace (the registration of marriages, the work of the officials), and only the aggressive actions of the so-called "religious police" (the destruction of "idolatrous" monuments, and the destruction of people who are not supporters of the militants).
LIH have made two videos about the peace of life, to release one on the war – training fighters in special camps, carefully prepared and beautifully filmed attack on the enemy positions, rousing speech suicide before his departure on the last job that they will have to meet the cost of his own life, undermining or herself, or the car in which you ride.
Terrorists are actively using the tool of victimization, which is the process that turns the militants themselves in the unfortunate victims in the eyes of the public. Footage, which show the "victim" is usually staged, smeared with ketchup children and women who were subjected to "barbaric RAID of Russian VKS" or air strikes of the coalition, or artillery fire from Syrian armed forces.
With time, the brutality of ISIS keep up neither the pace nor volume. An example of this is event occurred on the fifth day of the month of Shaval, namely the murder of the Syrian military in the province by a shot in the back and further dropping his body off a cliff. Four days later there was video of beheading in Iraq suspected of espionage against ISIS. A few days later was posted online videos where shot as "enemies" DAISH undermined with explosives, after forcing them to sit on it.
Extremely interesting for us was to understand the motives of such brutal actions, and policies a thousands of organizations in principle. Analyzing the events, we came to the conclusion that the main motive for the atrocities carried out in the occupied territories, is the desire of the militants to warn about what will happen with all those who oppose the will of the "Caliphate". A striking feature of these promises is the desire to be convinced of the inevitability of punishment for all those who are planning to act against ISIS, but the main target audience of these promises are not representatives of the international community and the people subservient to the militants territories. They had a pretty serious choice, which in principle was not a choice – namely, become supporters of the DAIS, live in "heaven on Earth" utopian "Caliphate", or die a horrible death. It is interesting to realize that statements of this level appeared less often on the order of other themes used by the militants. The reason for this was the desire to prevent addiction to this kind of violence against the civilian population, keeping people in constant fear, trying to harden their character.
In contrast to the early activities of ISIS, their primary message, dedicated to the ideas of belonging and relief, are gone. These questions began to rise very rarely. Only a few DAYS tried to bring in its own ranks of foreign recruits ideas of fellowship and brotherhood. Still basically the militants as a propaganda tool used perverted religious ideas and promises. Also notable has been the decline in active campaigning that all repentant opponents of ISIS is waiting for Amnesty, although the militants were proud of this policy. Data conversion is the product of changes in the strategies of indoctrination of the population, is associated with more severe subordination to the ideas of the Central government of the "Islamic state".
Did not pass a single day without a new portion of the distribution best DAYS of campaign materials. It's amusing to realize that the mechanisms of the propaganda machine of ISIS cannot be considered separately. That is, it is impossible, after reviewing several videos about the execution of the "infidels" at the hands of militants, to make a conclusion about the whole system of promotional measures and tools used for the development of the system of recruiting new adherents and control over subordinate territories. The reason for this is the lack of a complete picture of the activities of militant agitators.
When exposed to the complete mechanism of advocacy for a single person, that is, each direction of propagation in conjunction with each other, a wide range of possible implementations, like themselves and their desires. An example is the following ideas, which are used for mind control of a single person:
- Severe punishment used to demoralize opponents, letting them know that further resistance would lead not only to imminent death, namely the terrible agony before death. This factor also plays a part that helps to attract new supporters who want to join a really influential force.
- For people materialistic and greedy, you create separate blocks of advocacy, namely materials showing the successful activities of agricultural and industrial machines, which bring high profit, as most of the IG, and employees of these industries.
- Amputation of limbs for theft, stoning for adultery, beheading and executions of those who break the Qur'an – that the direction of influence on those who are looking for a permanent rule of law.
- The promotion of the rule of Sharia, a return to the basics of medieval fundamentalist Islam, as well as strict adherence to order and rules, established for compliance by all Muslims are so-called "track star" for jihadists from around the world wishing to be part of the Salafi Islam, which is supposedly strictly follows the path built by the prophet Muhammad.
- All the shooting aimed to control human consciousness, are created in a beautiful natural scenic places, which symbolize, as if Paradise on Earth, which also directly affects the formation of a positive image DAYS.
When a more detailed analysis of the outreach activities of ISIS, it becomes clear that the focus of the impact of leverage psychological control affects not only foreign supporters maintain the fascination of those, to whom the organization interesting and influential sponsors, but primarily for internal self-control DAYS.
A major factor in the successful outreach of ISIS is the absence in the controlled territories of possible information resources, which in any way contradicted or opposed recruiting work DAYS. In the occupied territories there is no freedom of information, alternative points of view on those or other questions. In these regions there are only "legal" broadcast news, denounced by militants using improvised media. On the streets exhibited special screens, constantly transmitting the desired jihadists news, and from the loudspeakers regularly hear radiovoice. The population in the occupied territories in direct and figurative sense is under the authority of the information-propaganda machine DAYS. For many supporters of gam and the General population, propaganda was the only possible way to know at least some news on the situation within the state and beyond.
Particularly strong ISIS propaganda on social networks where the person chooses the content they are interested in. If he has the inclination to solidarity or sympathy activities of the ideology of the DAYS, even having the opportunity to choose the subjects of their "groups" in social networks, it will again and again refer to the campaign of IG products, considering them the basis of their own interests. These people become, so to speak, dependent before marketing the product of the action, wanting to get more and more different media components from terrorists.
As mentioned above, advocacy LIH has both intra-regional and international orientation. It should be noted that one of the main areas recruiting work DAYS are the regions of the North Caucasus and Central Asia where the local population traditionally practices Islam. Thanks to their active campaign actions, the number of fighters is greatly increased by the arrival of the new adherents of the above regions.
Serious problems with the increase in the number of militants and strengthen their positions affect the internal state of the Central Asian States and Afghanistan. It is noteworthy that the first cell DAISH appeared in the southern provinces of Afghanistan, the Helmand, and headed them former field commander of the Taliban, sided with ISIS. Rapidly on Afghanistan began to spread the ideology of ISIS militants, an example of this was the fact that soon after the formation of the first cell of the "Islamic state", the impact of this organization has spread already on the border with Turkmenistan territory, and it is in the province of Balkh, where he discovered a large concentration of forces of the is. Evidence of this was the emergence of the ISIS flags over the administrative buildings in the region.
The rise of DAISH in Afghanistan was the result of the split the Taliban into two main parts, the catalyst for which was the two main reasons, namely:
- Disagreement is much of the motion search process of the manual movement of the solution of the conflict with us forces permanently stationed in Afghanistan;
- The extremely low success of the Taliban in the capture of the territories controlled by the government troops for a fairly long period of time. ISIS for a relatively short time has achieved significant success in this direction, established the rosary Sharia law in the occupied territories.
These factors have played a crucial role in the transition process not only of individual fighters on the side of ISIS, but even entire groups under the command of experienced commanders.
A fairly simple mechanism of recruiting ISIS uses in areas outside the control of the Middle East and Central Asia. On the basis of their work in this area they use a simple populist slogans, which spread among the local population, luring him into their ranks a variety of tempting offers. Also one of the critical success factors in the promotion of DAIS is weak secular education of young men and women and their extreme poverty. For these reasons, the revolutionary romanticism of ISIS, agitating the masses, it becomes so attractive to new young adepts seeking to go to territory controlled by the rebels.
In recent years, the situation for ethnic-based ISIS is beginning to radically change. If previously dominated the organization by immigrants from Yemen and Iraq, it is now possible to observe the trend of increasing the number of followers of jihadists from relatively prosperous countries of Central Asia, such as Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. This is due to the success of creating DAISH militants of a certain positive image, so to speak liberation, the only true and fair organization seeking to create a "Caliphate" with universal social justice. These pseudorotations ideas make ISIS a particularly interesting movement, which at the moment is superior on all counts its parent organization al-Qaeda.
Speaking about the basics of recruitment, we should not forget that fighters use completely different methods of propaganda, about which we spoke earlier. Knowing that ISIS is focusing on the religious dimension in its work on advocacy, we must ask the following question: "Why are the militants so successfully managed to distort the basic pillars of Islam, to change, and in his interpretation of the Sunnah and Surah of the Holy Scriptures, so as to influence the religious feelings of Muslims, calling them anti-human and anti-Islamic Jihad?" The reason for this was the weak theological and religious education of ordinary citizens of the countries of the Middle East, Central Asia and North Caucasus. Many of them after the recruitment, just didn't know their own faith, blindly trusting so-called "Muftis", who used a huge number of lies, adding only a little bit of truth from, for example, the Koran. This mixture allows for an untrained person to create a veil of false truth that many, not having the necessary knowledge, you begin to believe and blindly follow it.
A separate system impact on the propaganda ISIS militants are in the territory of the North Caucasus. For example, in Karachay-Cherkessia was the dissemination of propaganda video with the alleged footage of the oppression and extermination of the Circassians in Syria, Assad's troops. These videos are aimed primarily at discrediting the ruling regime, and sun cap. Using the mechanisms of the psychological impact of this type, fighters, first of all, I want to inflame members of a single ethnic group hate for the "torturers" in order to further make the proposal to organize the fight against "oppressors" of their people abroad. Another way to influence people is to find families with difficult financial condition or high credit debts. Boeviki offer the younger members of the families to solve the problem, but in exchange for service in ISIS. Quite often young and immature minds agree to these terms, are not fully aware of what they faced.
After arrival in the training camp of militants on a newly minted jihadist is a powerful moral and psychological pressure, the purpose of which is to make a new adept to marry. This is done to establish the relationship of the chosen victim from his or her spouse. But if the victim changes his mind to serve as a "Caliphate" and it will not stop even the existence of marriage, the propagandists begin to apply the methods of psychological pressure, namely, to intimidate those wishing to leave the criminal prosecution on the territory of the country for participation in the activities of a terrorist organisation.
LIH perfectly divides the newly arrived recruits for replenishment of the designated groups to define their future role in the functioning of the Caliphate. Replenishment is divided mainly into two main categories: 1. Those who need a peaceful life; 2. Those who needed in the war. Fighters now DAYS are looking for people able to assume control over the occupied territories. This activity really gives the IG a particular shade of statehood. Rather it is even an attempt to create his own country with understandable only to its government laws. Particularly active in the recruitment is aimed at people professions such as: doctors, accountants, engineers and many others. These people extremely necessary for stable operation controlled by ISIS in Iraqi and Syrian territories. But we should not forget that the militants also engaged in propaganda against children, promising them an unforgettable adventure and a real military training, the reason for this is the desire of the IG to expand their illegal, criminal activity.
A separate article in outreach activity of LIH, the process of Subversion of the Central Asian countries. On the personal order of the so-called Caliph of ISIS, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, from the budget of the organization allocated 70 million dollars to conduct subversive activities to destabilize the political, economic, social, and spiritual state in Central Asia. This work already has the results. For example, in DAYS created a battle group called "Transoxiana", the members of which are natives of Central Asia – namely, the Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Uzbeks, and many others. Also, an example of the success of jihadist emissaries began the process of infusion of the terrorist group "Islamic movement of Uzbekistan" in the ISIL 26 September 2014. The leader of the IMU swore allegiance to al-Baghdadi, saying that he was ready to conduct a series of terrorist acts on the territory of Uzbekistan.
An additional example of the success of the militants is that the leaders of the Tajik branch of the ISIL declared that for the DAYS of fighting more than 2,000 people from Tajikistan and this figure every day is only growing.
3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the outreach activities of ISIS
To determine the actual level of effectiveness of advocacy DAYS in attracting new followers into their ranks, we must turn to the statistics of inflow of foreign citizens into the service of the terrorists. The most professional work of this type was carried out by private research firm The Soufan Group (SG). This non-governmental organization that has serious analyses of issues relating to geopolitics, including the increase in followers of ISIS through the influx of foreign mercenaries.
The first study Soufan Group on the issue of foreign fighters in DAYS held in June 2014. The results of this study was to obtain expert estimates, giving us a pretty clear idea of what the number of foreign recruits at the time of the study amounted to about 12 thousand people from 81 countries. It is only in Syria!
Only a year and a half repeated study of this type showed a very negative picture of the situation in the middle East. Despite many preventative measures a number of States to prevent the propaganda influence of the militants on the local population, as well as blocking various channels the flow of volunteers-the jihadists, the number of foreign mercenaries in only one SAR increased from about 27 to about 31 thousand, and already from 86 countries. According to the CIA , for September 2015, the number of foreign fighters in Syria was equal to approximately 30 thousand people, and the number of countries to 100. In this regard, we can conclude that efforts at mainstreaming deter flows of foreign mercenaries have only limited.
One of the achievements of SG research was to determine characteristics of the distribution of flows of foreign mercenaries. Data flows in scope are uniform. Certain regions show low levels of the influx of new adherents into the camp of the insurgents, and others – on the contrary, quite high. The second is the Russian Federation. The increase in the number of foreign fighters during the study period of Western Europe has almost doubled, flows from North America remained at approximately the same positions, and the number of fighters coming from Russia and Central Asia in DAYS showed an increase of almost three times.
Features of call under the black banner of Jihad in every region are different. For example, in the USA a crucial role in the formation of new fighters plays agitation and propaganda through social networks. And in the countries with the largest percentage of the influx of militants of the crucial role played by family and friendship relations in recruiting new adherents. Today, the estimated average percentage of fighters who fought on the side of ISIS and have already returned to their countries is around 20-30%. This constitutes a serious threat to the security of these countries.
Using open data of UN reports on the number of foreign militants involved in the fighting on the side of the ISIS from different parts of the world, we can see the following data on the numerical composition of mercenaries:
- Western Europe – 5 thousand;
- The CIS and former Soviet Union – $ 4.7 million;
- North America – 280;
- The Balkans – 875;
- The countries of the Maghreb – 8 thousand;
- Middle East – 8240;
- South Asia – 900.
By country the largest groups of foreign fighters in ISIS have given:
- Tunisia – 6000 (official.) October 2015;
- Saudi Arabia – 2500 (official.) October 2015;
- Russia – 2400 (official.) for September 2015;
- Turkey – 2000-2200 (official.) November 2015;
- Jordan – 2000 (official.) on September 2015.
Next, we present information on the countries of the CIS and former Soviet republics:
- Azerbaijan – 104 (official), 216 (unofficial.) may 2014;
- Georgia - 50 (official.) July 2015;
- Kazakhstan – 300 (official.) January 2015;
- Kyrgyzstan – 500 (unofficial.) November 2015;
- Moldova – 1 (official.) January 2015;
- Tajikistan – 386 (official.) for may 2015;
- Turkmenistan – 360 (unofficial.) for January 2015.
Analysis of these figures gives us a pretty clear picture of the ethnic composition of the greater part of the group DAYS. We see that the influx of new fighters in the most part comes from countries of the greater Middle East. Still, the Tunisians, the Jordanians, and the Saudis are the dominant nationalities among the militants.
Separately, Turkey stands apart as one of the largest suppliers of personnel to terrorists. For example, according to the report, the Turkish intelligence services from November 2015, 500 of the citizens of this state were imprisoned on charges of aiding and abetting ISIL and another 100 for his work on Jabhat Fatah al-sham.
Unfortunately, the tendency of growth of number of recruits from Western Europe and Russia, but, unlike their middle Eastern counterparts, the European recruits are going on a "Jihad" for personal reasons, not political, not initially planning to train there terrorist activities for its implementation on the territory of their country, but only wanting to participate in the war on the territory of Syria and Iraq. But there are exceptions, an example of this was the terrorist attack on 13 November 2015 in Paris, perpetrated by the Mass and Salah Abdelhamid Abouda, who had experience fighting on the side of ISIS in Syria. It is because of the possible creation of threats to the national security of the country is necessary not only to conduct activities to prevent the departure dzhihadistky volunteers, but also to keep a careful monitoring of all returns from the territories controlled by ISIL.
The areas from which the recruits are called DAIS, are different in size and volume directed fighters. For example, a small centre rekrutingovaya is a district Lisleby in Fredrikstad in Norway. This town, population of only 6 thousand people sent in the LIH 8 of their recruits, if this ratio applied to the United States, the number provided by the recruits would be close to approximately 413 thousand. Most likely, the reason for such successful activities in this small area is the presence of a charismatic person, engaged in advocacy activities.
Examples of large supply areas recruits are Bizerte and Ben Gardanne in Tunisia, Derna in Libya, Pankisskoe gorge in Georgia, the Molenbeek in Brussels. Producing analysis of the origin of Tunisian recruits, we will come to the conclusion that most of them comes from only three regions of Tunisia: 1.Ben-Gardana By 15.2%; 2.The Bizerte – 10.7 percent; 3.Tunisia is 10.7%. An example of the same law is the district of Derna in Libya, a large part of the Libyan insurgents is precisely from these areas. The cause of these events was the fact that these wide regions initially had some confrontation with the state power, as most of the population of these areas were inclined to cooperate with the Wahhabi movements.
According to various sources, analytical agencies, around 5 thousand people travelled to Syria from countries in the European Union:
- France – 1800 recruits.
- UK – 760 recruits.
- Germany - 760 recruits.
- Belgium – 470 recruits.
These four countries account for the largest volume of recruited fighters people. The reason for this was the strengthening of marginal ideas in the immigrant community who arrived mostly from North Africa. Often people who went to the middle East to join terrorist struggle, in ordinary life, nothing significant was achieved, and often even had a criminal record. DAYS gave them the opportunity to start life anew without looking back at the past, and just seeing what it would be to expect in the future in the case of the triumph of the ideas of the "Islamic state". The age contingent of European fighters is around 20 years.
Is actively campaigning in the Islamic communities of Europe through certain kinship and friendship relations. Referring to the above, the militants who committed the attack in Paris, lived in Molenbeek, Brussels and came from the same community.
In Russia and countries of the former USSR there are several key areas of recruitment of new adherents and followers of ISIS, becoming a fighting way protect Salafi jihadist ideas, as in his Homeland, and in Syria and Iraq.
In Russia of such areas are the regions of the North Caucasus, especially Chechnya and Dagestan. In Azerbaijan, the recruitment of new fighters of IG occurs in three main cities of Sumgayit, Shabran and Quasar. The radicalization of Islam in the North Caucasus is quite stagnant problem. For example, fighters of the terrorist organization "Caucasus Emirate" move EN masse to Syria, seeing there is a more serious perspective in their activities, rather than on the territory of the Russian Federation, even given the fact that the infrared swore allegiance to DAISH.
Central Asian countries are also faced with the strengthening of the outreach activities of the militants in their territories. A United group of supporters of the DAYS of the CA region in Syria and Iraq has about 2,000 people and includes representatives of such countries as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
The Arab Maghreb region, i.e. North Africa, put the largest number of supporters of ISIS. According to the 2015 year, about 6 thousand fighters crossed into Syria from Tunisia, among which were about 700 women. The authorities of Morocco were provided to the world community the figure of 1,200 volunteers who went to search for his happiness in DAYS. This figure seems underestimated, as the data of the Libyan authorities that about 600 fighters of ISIS originates from this country. Data of Algeria about 200-500 volunteers-Wahabi also seem implausible. Each region of the Maghreb, which decrease the recruits for "Jihad", has its reasons for this, although there are General provisions, such as mass unemployment, high population density and low standard of living. Private reasons, though, are: 1.In Libya, the areas of Benghazi and Derna is known as a hotbed of jihadism; 2.In Tunisia, the Ben-Gardanne with naseleniem about 80 thousand people gave the maximum score of the jihadists; 3.In Morocco, slum, Sidi Moumen are not just the abode of a large number of potential terrorists, but also a place of maximum concentration of suicide bombers.
Particularly acute problem of terrorism is felt in Libya. The ISIS uses the state as a hub for travel from Syria and Iraq. The consequence of the free movement of jihadists through the once stable Libyan country was a complete closure of the Tunisian border, which is a direct proof that Tunisian jihadists are returning Home through Libya.
Without participation in the Syrian war left the country, the so-called "horn of Africa", although the actual data on the number of participants is extremely limited. January 2015 70 militants Somalia fought on the side of ISIS in Syria. The reason for this was the process of strengthening the jihadist organization "al-Shabaab", which is part of al-Qaeda in Somalia. In September 2015, the official representative of the Sudan announced the participation of 70 of its citizens in the fighting in Syria and Iraq on the side of ISIS. Also in Syria fighting militants from Eritrea.
After the devastating Yugoslav wars, the Balkans became a place of consolidation of Islamic extremists. The main countries that were particularly strong propaganda attacks DAIS were: Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo and Macedonia. The reason for this was a large percentage of Muslims living in the area and are loyal to the ideas of ISIS. In total, in 2015 the number of militants from the Balkans amounted to 875, which is three times more than in 2014.
A significant amount of howling fighters Syria is of South-East Asia. The government of Indonesia announced in November 2015 that 700 Indonesians have joined ISIS. In August 2014, former President of the Philippines said that about 100 citizens of this country sided with ISIS.
In America, the rate of flow of recruits to ISIS consistently low, if you look at the ratio of population. Of James Comey, the FBI Director stated that by September 2015 on the side of the DAIS stood only 150 Americans, although to get to the territory controlled by the insurgents tried 250 people. In October 2015 the government of Canada has announced that about 130 Canadians have gone to participate in "Jihad" in Syria and Iraq. Recruiting well in Latin America is extremely low so that it is absolutely not affect any areas of life as a state and society, and results of the fighting in Syria.
Returning to the methods of recruitment, we recall two main areas of ISIS militants: 1. Campaigning in the Internet space. 2. Campaigning through personal contacts.
Campaigning via the Internet is particularly successful in developed countries, where citizens increasingly have a financial income that allows them to live in decent conditions, but there is no specific life goals. On the formulation of ideas, the creation of the premeditated meaning of life directed propaganda and psychological treatment of the militants. Professional psychologists reveal the idea of social justice in the occupied territories, forcing their victims to think about the superiority of the "Caliphate" over its own government.
Propaganda through kinship and friendship ties are particularly strong character. Previously recruited by close person begins to talk about all the "charms" of life in the Caliphate. To mention the fact that it is their own experiences, their own memories make him return to where he was really good, where he felt needed and loved. These false speech, pre-prepared by experienced recruiters DAYS, bring in the heads of opponents a certain cognitive dissonance, the consequence of which is the adoption of the ideas of "Jihad" and joining the so-called "righteous path" of another recruit.
4. The main ways of combating the advocacy activities of ISIS
Modern historical reality, namely, a large number of Russian citizens, have accepted the truth of ISIS and embarked on a military path with this group, arriving in Syria or Iraq, forcing us to address the issue development of counter-propaganda measures, as an essential element of strengthening national security.
The reason for this was that, returning from their terrorist "trips" on the territory of the Russian Federation, recruited militants pose a threat of carrying out possible terrorist acts. They are also engaged in active dissemination of jihadist ideas among his entourage. This process creates precedents to new followers of the ideologies of the militants.
Russia is a multinational and multi-confessional state had a certain experience of the clash of Christian and Muslim traditions and cultures. This was clearly evident during the Caucasian warrior of the 19th century, where it was opposed by the Russian Empire, the Sunni Imam, who became a bright representative of Salafism – Shamil .
According to a prominent analyst of Russia, Lieutenant General of the FSB Sergei N. Leonov, "the current forms of the fight against terrorism has clearly shown their lack of effectiveness... the Fight against any militant ideology needs to be supplemented with political, ideological struggle."
Not addressing fundamental political and social reasons for the war in the North Caucasus of the 19th century, we will only discuss a possible way of solving this type of conflict through the introduction of Sufi ideas in the system of moral values of the Caucasian Muslim of that period, as a possible way of countering the advocacy activities of ISIS today.
تصوف (tasawwuf-Sufism) and mystical teachings to the Islamic religion based on asceticism in everyday life, arose at the turn of VII-VIII centuries It is called "folk Islam," as this trend emerged in the poorest, socially vulnerable part of Islamic society.
The reason for the relevance of the study is Sufism as a counter to the ideas of Salafism in the North Caucasus regions due to the fact that approximately 75% of the population of Chechnya, Dagestan and Ingushetia are committed to exactly the ideas of the Sufis, negatively referring to the attempt by the special services of the USA and Europe, to impose an alien "sudilovskiy" the ideas of jihadism.
Today many theologians and religious leaders of Islam, comes to the front position in the fight against jihadist Sunni interpretation of the role of Sufism as a tool of humanistic fundamentals to the solution of a number of religious and ethnic problems in the North Caucasus, and inside, a blazing fire of civil war, the Middle East.
In the formation of their modern identity, Sufism has undergone three major stages of development, namely:
- Stage of zuhd – godliness, piety, asceticism (VII-VIII CC.);
- Stage tasawwuf – Sufism itself (IX-XI CC.);
- Stage tarikats – obedience (XII-XIII century).
Sudha became a kind of answer and social protest of the poorest of the Islamic society on anti-people actions of the Islamic rulers. The main distinctive sign of zuhd was the proclamation of the way to the ascetic way of life of every Muslim. Known in the middle East, scientific and religious figures of the middle ages once said the following words, describing the concept of the term "ascetic", "Who, having property, dissatisfied with it, wanting to take him, hates him, cautious of his evil and distraction, the true Sufi".
Tasawwuf is a term which is neither in the Quran nor in the Sunnah, but is believed by many Islamic scholars that the foundations of Sufism were laid when the prophet Muhammad through the development of the ideas of asceticism and complete dedication in the service of Allah. This confirms the statement of the Arab scholar Ibn Khaldoun: "Sufism is one of Sharia Sciences, which arose after the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi and welcomed him). It is based on the revival of the old ways (righteous people) of our Ummah... Its core is in worship, turning to Allah, detachment of worldly temptations and denial about just what chases most people – power, wealth, enjoyment."
Muslim theologians in the confirmation of the true Islamic origins of Sufism there are two main steps that are the Foundation of this religious doctrine:
- Sharia – a set of Muslim laws;
- Tariqat is closest in Christianity to the term "obedience";
- Hakikat the truth. Emerging the result after merging the Sharia and Tariqa.
Tariqa includes not only such a thing as "obedience" in the broad sense, but also unique to Islam and Sufism is unique to the phenomenon of Association of murids (disciples) around their Sheikh-Murshid (teacher and mentor) to a closed order with its own Charter and rules. Tariqa in traditional Islam does not play a mandatory role, and does not exempt Muslims, following him from hardy – the basic precepts of the religion.
In the most part to trikatu must be treated, not as to the methods of obedience, but rather as a community of Muslims-minded. The main and most massive trikatu are Rafa Yai, Kadiria, Nakshbandiya and Badawia. Although there are currently many other tariqahs with their specific features and differences.
Returning to the North Caucasus regions, it should be noted that there has long been there are two main Sufi tariqa – Nakshbandiya and Kadiriya.
The founder of the order Kadiriya in the North Caucasus, which first appeared in Iraq, became Kunta-Haji Kishiev born in 1829 in the village Malca-Hee, Chechnya. From his youth he believed that Jihad as a primary religious processes all Muslims, should be directed not against the so-called "infidels" and should be focused on struggling with their vices and sins. Kunta-Haji believed that the best way to implement these ideas is the process of following Sufi wisdom as the ideas that contains are truly humane and philanthropic views.
The most basic and important elements of the teaching Kishiev steel repentance, prayer, dhikr (praise of God), the presence of fear of Allah. To implement these elements, according to the Kunta-Hadji, it was necessary to follow the seven basic principles:
- The Murid with his Murshid-ustaz (the master) are sacred, strong and unbreakable spiritual connection.
- In the heart of the mureed should not be any manifestation of envy.
- Murid have to treat all people, including strangers and people of other faiths, with respect. He also prohibited anyone to be condemned, because it is a grave Haram (sin).
- Mureed prohibited the use of negative words in relation to other representatives of Islam, in violation of this, the student must correct the perfect.
- Despite the potential for friction or hostility between the ustaz, the mureed shall be treated with a deep respect for each Murshid-ustaz, as if it was his teachers and mentors.
- Mureed should always follow their ustaz and ustaz in turn, is fully responsible for the acts of his disciple.
- After the death of ustaz needs to be with his Murid, even in the underground interrogation with a formidable angels.
Based on the ideas of the great Arab scholar Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, referred to previously, and said that if the heart is clean, then maybe he brought the Truth, Kunta-Haji Kishiev in its activities had not violated the ancient traditions of the Vainakh peoples (laws of the Chechen and Ingush peoples). He publicly criticized the vices such as greed, pride, lack of respect for people, especially for elders, and also condemned the activities of all those who tried to sow discord among the Caucasus peoples.
Open confrontation between Sufism and traditional Islam led to the process of division of society into two parts. To prevent this event as a peacemaker, a philosopher, addressed Abu Hamid Ghazali, releasing his work under the title "the Resurrection of the Sciences of faith." This work helped to bridge the gap between traditional and Sufi teachings, having redeemed in the eyes of many in the Islamic world mysticism of the Sufis.
Despite the development of society and the resulting process of modernization of world religions and Islam in particular, Sufism retained its basic dogmas and tenets, defending ideas is peaceful and "prochlorococcus" of Islam. This increases the tarikats and the number of their members. For example, according to a Western expert in the study of Sufism John. Treemama in the Chechen Republic and Ingushetia today there are about 32 of the Sufi orders, with about 20 thousand people involved, as in public administration and law enforcement agencies.
From the above we can conclude that Sufi ideas and views can be used as a tool of counter-propaganda against inhumane ISIS views showing the public, and especially individuals who are vulnerable to possible terrorist and Wahhabi influences, the true face of Islam and its role in the development of humane personality of a Muslim. Sufism is an example showing the true essence of one of the world's great religions – Islam. This entity consists of ideas, which call for respect from Muslims, people of all beliefs and all faiths, respecting their right to choice of religion. An example of this is Sura 109 of the Qur'an "al Kyafirú", which reads as follows: "in the Name of Allah, the mercy Which is eternal and infinite. Say: "O unbelievers! I am not inclined to what you worship and you worship that Whom I worship! You have your belief and I have mine!""
Largely Sufis is based on chelovekami ideas and views which they embody by performing various good deeds and strict adherence to the Quran in its true form. Because of this, we can confidently say that the introduction of Sufism to the regions with dominant Wahhabi views will not only reduce the level of aggression of the local population towards representatives of other denominations, but will also reduce terrorist activity to minimum, that will have a positive impact on all sphere of life not only these regions, but also the world community as a whole.
Thus, it can be noted that at the present stage of development of the military-political situation in the world, much active terrorist organization, which is a sustainable associations that pursue political goals of global or regional scale, the achievement of which involves not only the use of terrorist methods, but also information and psychological. All of this suggests that the specialists and analysts is a complex set of tasks for the collection, analysis and compilation of data for timely opening alarming trends, their focus and definition of military-political activity in the interests of ensuring national security of the Russian Federation and its allies.
List of used literature
- I. L. Alekseev, D. Yu. Arapov, Bobrovnikov V. O.,T. K. Ibrahim;. T. Starodub // Islam/ plasma Radiation, the Islamic salvation front. — M.: Great Russian encyclopedia, 2008. S. 741. — (Big Russian encyclopedia: [35 T.] / chief editor Yu. s. Osipov ; 2004—, vol. 11).
- The statement of the chief of National intelligence John. The clapper, made for the world's media, 28.02. 2016.
- Borisov, Timofey, "to Whom in Russia to live", Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 08 .08. 2006.;
- Polyansky, D. S. Terrorism as a political phenomenon in modern Russia, thesis of candidate of political Sciences, 23.00.02, Stavropol, Stavropol state unver., 2006.
- Sokolov V. V. Medieval philosophy/ V. V. Sokolov. – M.,1979
- Popenkov O. N. // The origins of Islamic extremism in the Caucasus. What is Sufism? Tariqa qadria Chechen Sufi ustaz Kunta-Hadji.- Herald of the Voronezh state University. 14.02.2017 – p. 83
- Tape.ru. from 14.07. 2015
- An interview with Fox News That Laszlo, January 2016.
- Y. Kedmi . Interview with mark Sorokin, "the eye of the world", on 27.1.2016 g;
- Giuliani, R., Fox News interview, 18.07.2016 g;
- Ganiev T. A., Hai, A. N., Shur V., Modestov S. A., Zhornik A. E., Cooper, S. M., Karyakin V. V., Torcunov E. G. // Special studies. The factor analysis. Tutorial. M: WOO, 2017
ISIS is a terrorist organization whose activity is prohibited in Russia.
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