The modern stage of society development is characterized by an increasing role of information technology in all spheres of life and human activity. Information - new resource, the only product not decreasing, but growing with time. The more faster and quality information is embedded, the higher the standard of living of the people, economic, cultural and defense potential of the country. Transformation world space: along with the geographic space is formed, in particular space information.
As forming of biosphere and noosphere, today is the formation of information sphere, which is seen as a set of information, information infrastructure, subjects carrying out collection, forming, dissemination and use of information, and also system of regulation of emerging social relations.
Already it is clear that the information sphere, being the core factor of modern society, actively influence the state of political, economic, defense and other components of the security of States, including Russia. It is obvious that the integrity of the modern world as a community is mainly due to the intensive information exchange. The suspension of global information flows even for a short time can lead to not a lesser crisis than the gap of inter-state economic relations. As noted in the Doctrine of information security of Russia, the national security of the Russian Federation significantly depends on ensuring information security, and in the course of technical progress this dependence will increase.
In the works of some authors it is noted that at the present time in the struggle for spheres of economic and political influence in international relations focus on the use of military force increasingly shifted to using more subtle and flexible funds, the main of which is the control and management of information resources of the States. Informational influence is therefore regarded as a new type of weapon, which to some extent is a more effective means of influence than traditional weapons and military equipment.
The transition information in the category of most important resources of humanity brings to life and the problem of the struggle for the possession of this resource. Information resource is a very specific component in total resource development of the state. Its objects and unifying their information infrastructure have a kind of special spatial-temporal characteristics beyond the limits of national territory. In addition, the information itself has unique properties of separability and reproducibility. All these factors have a marked impact on the overall assessment of the potential of a geopolitical entity, on its ability to sustainable development, the opportunities to influence it from the outside, susceptibility to hidden redistribution information resource of the enemy special forces, means and methods of information warfare. It is believed that around ongoing information resource rivalry, the struggle for the possession of this resource, achieve and maintain information superiority today occupies a significant place in the geopolitical competition of the developed countries.
Many recognize the fact that in the modern world, and especially in the future, the status of "great power" will be determined by the ability to develop, leadership in the priority areas of knowledge, Informatics, technology and everyday impact on ordinary lives of millions of people worldwide through consumption of their products, goods, services and culture.
Russian Federation, with significant military and economic potential and for representing Western countries is a serious obstacle to world domination, is the object of close attention of special services of foreign countries involved in information warfare.
A variety of information weapons, forms and methods, peculiarities of appearance and use has created complex task of protection against him. Unfortunately, foreign specialists were the first to understand and appreciate the value of information weapons that gave rise to the doctrine of building the armed forces of NATO countries in the first decade of the twenty-first century, "joint vision 2010" (Joint Vision 2010) - which is based on information superiority over the enemy at all stages of development of the conflict. In the understanding of the authors of this document, the information antagonism consists of actions taken to achieve information superiority in support of national military strategy by affecting information and information systems of the enemy while strengthening and protecting their own information and information systems and infrastructure. Information superiority is defined as the ability to collect, process and distribute a continuous flow of information about the situation, preventing the opponent to do the same. It can be also defined as the ability to designate and to maintain this rate of operation, which exceeds any possible rate of the enemy, allowing you to dominate all the time, remaining unpredictable, and operate ahead of the enemy in his response promotions.
The us military believes that the advantage of information weapons should enhance the USA's world leadership in the next century. This explains the great interest and activity of Americans in the study of problems of information warfare. All this is confirmed by the reports and discussions at several international conferences on information warfare, most of the participants of which are employees of the state institutions, the army and the U.S. intelligence community - NSA, CIA, FBI.
Today weapon has become one of the most important components of the military potential of the United States, allowing players to win small wars and resolve military conflicts without the use of conventional armed forces, as evidenced by the number of publications on this topic. Since the beginning of 90-ies in the USA is the organizational structure of the informational forces of the Ministry of defence. Currently each of the armed forces of the United States has its own information warfare Center. In all military colleges and universities introduced special courses on information wars and the production of officers in the specialty of this profile.
The universality, the secrecy, the multiple forms of realization, the efficacy of the impact that a sufficient choice of time and place of use, finally, the efficiency, make the information weapon is extremely dangerous: it is easily disguised as a protection tool and even allows you to conduct offensive actions anonymously.
In the report of the joint security Commission established by order of the Minister of defense and the Director of the Central intelligence Agency (CIA) in the United States in June of 1993 and completed its work in February 1994, States: “...it is recognized that the data network turn into a battlefield of the future. Information weapons, strategy and tactics of application of which have yet to be fully developed, will be used with “e-speed” at defense and offense. Information technology will ensure the resolution of geopolitical crises without producing a single shot. Our policy of national security and the procedures for its implementation should be aimed at protecting our ability to wage information wars and the creation of all necessary conditions to interdict opposing U.S. States to wage such a war ...”
In one of the documents the Clinton administration, released in 1993, which was first defined the concept of "national information infrastructure" (NII), says that the strategic aim of the US is "achieving world leadership in basic science, mathematics and technology". Increasing the gap in the technological superiority of America is steadily moving to the goal.
According to some military experts, the use of modern information weapons reflects the historical trend of transition from war to exterminate the enemy to wars, focusing on the social demoralization and mental debilitation of the enemy, without destroying it.
Even the great sun Tzu said that the perfect war is to defeat your enemy without engaging him in battle.
The information weapon can be used long before the outbreak of hostilities. The fighting may not be planned, while the struggle for the achievement of conflict is implemented by means of information war. This refers, first of all, influence on control systems in the state: the military, political, economic, spiritual, social etc.
The purpose of using information weapons - to win the information superiority over the enemy and inflict defeat information. Using the principles of surprise, stealth, multi-channel, recurrence, and systematicity.
As noted by some practitioners, among the most serious consequences of problems solved with the help of the information weapon, are the following:
- the creation of an atmosphere of spirituality and immorality, negative attitudes to the cultural heritage of the enemy;
- manipulation of public consciousness and political orientation of social groups of the population to create political tension and chaos;
- destabilization of political relations among parties, associations and movements to provoke conflict, fuelling mistrust, suspicion, aggravation of political struggle, provoking repressions against the opposition, provocation of mutual destruction;
- the decrease in the level of information support of authorities and management, are inspired by wrong management decisions;
- disinformation of the population about the work of public authorities, undermine their authority, discredit the government;
- provoking social, political, national and religious clashes;
- the initiation of strikes, riots and other actions of economic protest;
- the difficulty of adoption by the management bodies of important decisions;
- the undermining of the international authority of the state, its cooperation with other countries;
- damage to the vital interests of the state in the political, economic, defence and other areas, (major S. V. Markov, the student of the Military University, "some approaches" to determining the nature of information weapons", magazine "Security", No. 1-2, January-February, 1996).
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