The passing twentieth century leaves to humanity a huge mountain weapon, capable of more than one time to destroy life on Earth. People increasingly undertake joint efforts to reduce stockpiles of weapons or at least to reduce the risk of their use, to give the newly developed weapons more “humane” appearance by increasing selectivity of targets being hit, reducing negative impact on unplanned objects and the environment.
Hence the origins of the observed commitment to the development of non-lethal and other means of influencing the enemy, forcing him to accept the opponent without large-scale use of military force. And among these tools, often referred to as tools of information warfare.
Despite the variety of weapons, all of them have a damaging effect primarily on manpower, different objects, the natural environment by using some form of energy, which lies at the heart of any kind of weapons. Thus, all means of warfare, including the ISR, depending on the type of effect used to engage manpower and facilities can be divided into four groups: physical, chemical, biological and social .
The physical group includes all types of weapons, based on the principle of explosive action: it is a nuclear weapon, as well as a wide class of munitions at the base of explosives, particles and radiation (missiles, shells, bombs, mines, landmines, etc.). Among them the most dangerous nuclear weapons - weapons of mass destruction, based on the use of intranuclear energy released during chain reactions of fission of heavy nuclei of certain isotopes of uranium and plutonium or thermonuclear fusion reactions of light nuclei of hydrogen isotopes (deuterium and tritium). The main striking factors of nuclear weapons: shock wave, light radiation, penetrating radiation, radioactive contamination, electromagnetic pulse. The use of nuclear weapons would have catastrophic consequences for all mankind, so efforts are being made to restrict its distribution, reduce inventory and delivery systems. However, the number of members of the “nuclear club” has been steadily expanding, which objectively increases the likelihood of nuclear conflict.
Chemical weapons based on the use of toxic (common toxic, nerve, skin-naravnih and other) chemicals (toxic substances). This type of weapon can be used for mass destruction of troops and population, contamination, military equipment and supplies. The use of chemical weapons prohibited by the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and the Convention on the prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction, signed in 1993 in Paris, joined by more than 140 States. Recently some chemicals are discussed in a number of non-lethal weapons to incapacitate manpower (psychotropic and irritating type), as well as weapons and military equipment by the method of rapid solidification of the fuel, the destruction of the antifriction properties of oils and greases, destruction of bearing elements of constructions, rubber products, etc. But in this case chemical weapons from the WMD is automatically put into the category of weapons of local action.
Bacteriological (biological) weapons one of the weapons of mass destruction, can cause mass illness or death of people, animals and plants with bacterial (biological) agents. The use of bacteriological weapons is prohibited by the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and the Convention on the prohibition of the development, production and stockpiling of bacteriological (biological) weapons and on their destruction, which has been ratified by over 100 States. However, as a chemical weapon, it is treated for use as non-lethal means of limited scope to a functional lesion of weapons and military equipment (destruction of semiconductors and insulating materials, conversion of solid and liquid fuels, lubricants and other materials unfit for consumption).
If the first three groups of impacts are known and do not require explanation, then the group social defeat today is interpreted in a very broad sense and requires clarification. It seems logical the social impact be divided into material and spiritual. The material include all kinds of impacts on the conditions of livelihood and existence of the state, population and troops. It's a wide range of measures of economic, financial, food and other character turning into a modern society of its kind in kasiraja - state can be brought to its knees by introducing an embargo on the supplies, raw materials, food, fuel, through the deregulation of its financial system, etc. - i.e. by achieving the social and material destruction of the structures of the state. A spiritual influence is all the things that affect the spiritual climate of the people, nation, group, his spiritual heritage, on the age-old foundations, intellectual and creative potentials. This ideologization, demoralization and deculturization society, implemented through artificially organized educational activities in educational lines, in the field of art, science, education, literature, the media, i.e. through all possible channels of influence on the process of educating people - what is now accepted to a greater extent be attributed to the information sphere of the state. The last is nothing as informational influence, carried out with the help of information weapons, which refers to the totality of information technologies, means and methods of informational influence intended for information warfare .
In the literature (e.g. ) distinguish two types of information warfare: information-technical and information-psychological. With information technology combating the main objects influence and protection are information technology systems (communication systems, telecommunication systems, electronic warfare, etc.), smitten with the tools of mathematical exposure (viruses, special bookmarks, interference, etc.). When information-psychological struggle such objects are mind Armed Forces personnel, special services and population of the opposing parties; the system of public opinion formation and decision making. Here as weapons act as traditional methods of influence on the opinions and feelings of people (misinformation, underline the positive sides of problems and silence is negative, an alternation of true information with false, etc.) and non-traditional information technology with high impact on the psyche of the masses. These tools, many authors include psychotronic weapons, considering some of them as a result of research in the field of bioenergy related to the creation of various technical devices based on the energy bio-field that exists around a living organism. The possibility of creation on this basis of psychotronic weapons is linked with the use of extrasensory perception, telepathy, clairvoyance, psychokinesis and telekinesis. In , psychotronic weapons viewed as one of the components of psychophysical weapons, including psychotropic drugs, psychotronic weapons, suggestive techniques, and various combinations of these means and methods of influence on the human psyche with a view to its modification in a given direction. In turn, psychophysical weapons is considered as one of the branches of information weapons.
What is information weapons among the known and hypothetical weapons that might appear in service with the armies in the beginning of the XXI century? Of course, it is impossible to conduct a comparison with all sorts of weapons being developed in many laboratories of the world. Therefore, limit the terms of comparison only with the most dangerous kind, leaving in its destructive effect on the level of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), adhering to the following definition of WMD, given to him by the UN Commission: “Weapons intended for mass destruction should be defined, including nuclear weapons, the current explosion, the weapon acting by means of radioactive materials, chemical and biological means of destruction and any other weapon that will be invented in the future, which has properties similar to the corrosive effects of the atomic bomb and other weapons, mentioned above” (UN Reports C3/32 from 1.12.1948).
Along with the already mentioned nuclear, chemical and bacteriological (biological), to new types of WMD scientists include geophysical, laser, genetic, ethnic, radio-frequency, infrasonic, on the basis of annihilation of particles and antiparticles, the discharge of asteroids, information and radiological weapons . Some experts to that list add another beam weapon .
Geophysical weapons based on the use of means for military purposes on the processes, occurring in solid, liquid and gaseous envelopes of the Earth. Using volatile state of these membranes, using a small “push” caused by the catastrophic impact of the great destructive forces of nature. The geophysical weapons are weapons that can stimulate earthquakes, the occurrence of huge tsunami-type waves, the change in thermal regime or the destruction of the ozone layer over certain areas of the planet. In terms of impacts of geophysical weapons are sometimes divided into meteorological, ozone and climate. Meteorological weapons have been used by the Americans during the Vietnam war. Then using the dispersion of silver iodide or lead iodide in the rain clouds were provoked heavy rains, complicating the movement of equipment and troops, the flooding of significant territories, worsening of living conditions of the population. Climate weapon is able to affect the processes of posodobitve, reducing agricultural production of the enemy and thereby affecting the development of economic and political situations in the country of impact. Ozone weapon is a set of tools for the destruction of the ozone layer over enemy territory and thereby to penetrate to the Earth's surface hard ultraviolet radiation from the Sun, which negatively affects the cells of living organisms and crop plants, causes skin burns, contributes to a sharp increase in diseases, violate the thermal balance of the affected area. Ozone weapons closes with the climate. The use of both can cause damage to the neighbouring countries and the country that applies them. Given the catastrophic nature of the consequences of the use of the geophysical weapon, its use is recognized by international law a crime against humanity as enshrined in the Convention on the prohibition of military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques, adopted by the UN in 1977
Laser weapons striking objects kogerentnogo a beam of radiation of optical range, causing the melting (evaporation) of the metal, damage to the sensing elements and optics reconnaissance and sighting systems, homing missiles, glare and thermal burns of the personnel of the troops. Due to the low efficiency of high-power lasers are bulky and heavy designs, while not finding the implementation as a means of combat. So as the last in print are mentioned relatively low-energy device for jamming weapons and military vehicles, as well as for decommissioning of devices and operators of surveillance, reconnaissance and weapon guidance systems. In this regard, laser weapons be attributed to the MTO appears to be premature.
Genetic weapon (including ethnic) owes its birth to the rapid development of molecular genetics. The damaging effect of the weapon is based on the implementation of the recombination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information. With the help of genetic engineering it was possible the separation of genes and their subsequent recombination with the formation of new DNA molecules with modified in the desired direction properties. Through the introduction of such genetic material with pronounced, for example, toxic properties of virulent bacteria or viruses individual can get highly dangerous biological weapons of selective action. The basis of such selectivity will be differences in blood groups, skin pigmentation, genetic structure. Genetic weapons could affect some ethnic groups, while remaining indifferent towards other (ethnic weapons). By affecting the efficiency of such weapons, according to the experts, comparable to fusion. Like the latter, it is a massive loss of life and may be related to barbaric weapons, due to the low efficiency of the radio-frequency weapons can not yet be implemented, especially as the ISR. At the same time, experiments show that even EMR of low intensity, comparable with the level of tolerance of exposure to 10 µw, can lead to functional disturbances in various organs of the human body, to affect the human psyche. In this regard, radio frequency weapons low-intensity appropriate to classify psychotropic drugs.
Infrasound weapons based on the use of sound waves infrasound range that cannot be perceived by the human ear. It was established experimentally that the selection of the acoustic frequency around 10 Hz can affect the person, causing discomfort state (anxiety, fear, terror), the defeat of the cardiovascular system, destruction of blood vessels and internal organs. Because of a number of difficult solved problems of technical, operational and ethical development of powerful systems of infrasound weapons has stalled. At the same time the properties of low-intensity infrasound in a specific way to interact with bioorganisms cause an increased interest among potential originators of psychotronic means.
Weapons based on antimatter is theoretically possible to create, using the effect of annihilation of antiparticles with matter. According to the calculations of physicists in the interaction of 1 milligram of antiparticles with matter releases energy equivalent to the explosion of several tens of tons of TNT. However, to obtain antiparticles in sufficient numbers and then keep them in a limited volume make the creation of weapons based on antimatter very problematic.
Reset asteroids with orbits was theoretically considered in the U.S. in 60 years. It was assumed that the deorbit of the asteroid can be achieved by means of the powerful explosions of nuclear charges in specially created on the surface of the asteroid the charging chamber. When the explosion of the asteroid will get a powerful jet momentum, which will translate it into selected orbit with the fall on the specified enemy territory. At collision with the Earth will be released energy equivalent to the explosion of a million nukes, capable of destroying an entire continent. Because of unpredictable effects on the probability of using asteroids as weapons is reduced to zero.
Radiological weapons based on the use of radioactive substances in the form of powder mixtures or liquid solutions of radioactive isotopes of chemical elements with specially selected radiation intensity and half-life. As such can serve as waste generated during operation of nuclear reactors, or specially selected and irradiated substances. The handling of such substances is complicated by the risk of exposure of staff. Another option radiological weapons is the so-called “cobalt bomb” is a thermonuclear charge with a shell made from natural cobalt. Produced during a nuclear explosion, isotope cobalt-60 has a high intensity gamma radiation, which creates a strong radioactive rays after dropping to the ground. Taking into account the duration of the half-life of cobalt-60, equal to 5.7 years, the use of irradiated areas may not earlier this term. Today in the media in conjunction with the issue of terrorism is widely discussed the possibility of destruction of nuclear power plants conventional ammunition with the subsequent radiological contamination. The Chernobyl disaster was an ominous example of such an opportunity.
Beam weapons are the various accelerators of charged or neutral particles (electrons, protons, neutral hydrogen atoms), a focused beam in the beam. Having high energy, such a beam is able to destroy the mechanical design objectives, call it intense heat, to initiate x-ray radiation, to damage the molecular structure of the human body. A distinctive feature of beam weapons is the immediacy and suddenness of the action, the disadvantages - low efficiency, high losses in air and a relatively small range in surface layer of atmosphere. These drawbacks severely limit the development of ground-based weapons systems, and large structural mass and large energy consumption is used in space.
Comparative evaluation of the considered types of WMD on the possible scope of the application shows that only geophysical and radiological weapons, weapons of annihilation and reset the asteroids with the orbit, as well as information weapons have a strategic scale combat use and effects, “similar to the corrosive effects of the atomic bomb...” . Radiofrequency, laser, and infrasonic beam, as mentioned above, cannot be attributed to the ISR, and weapons on the basis of annihilation and reset the asteroids with orbits almost impossible. If you consider that of chemical, bacteriological (biological) and geophysical prohibited by international agreements and nuclear, near-nuclear (radiological), and genetic weapons is almost impossible to apply due to the extremely dangerous consequences for humanity, that among a relatively large number of WMD remains just information weapons.
Nature of the lesion informational weapon was different from all the other types of WMD is a deletelast, secrecy and selectivity of the lesion, which together with the scale of application makes the information weapon to be preferred to any other existing and hypothetical WMD.
Only the information weapon and its branch - psychophysical weapons have no reasonable prospect of its wide application, what now becomes evident.
The nature of the destructive effect of the information weapon has no equal, for it is able, leaving the safety of material values, people and the environment, to achieve the goals of the war (conflict, dispute) due to the transformation of consciousness and behavior of a person in need for the attacker.
The versatility of information weapons, especially its core component - the mental and physical weapons, elevates him to the rank of the ultimate weapon, available to all organized structures (and not just overbearing, and not necessarily law enforcement agencies), in war and peace time, individually-targeted and globally, openly and covertly, and even without the awareness of the people the fact of attack.A particularly effective weapon could be against the country where there is social tension, ethnic, religious or class conflicts. It can in a short period of time to cause panic, riots, riots, the destabilization of the political situation and, ultimately, to force a country to capitulate to an aggressor without the widespread use of destructive weapons.
However, this does not mean the substitution of an information weapon for all known types of weapons. Information weapons creates the desired background, reducing the need for these weapons to achieve the goals of the war (conflict), and with the development of psychophysical weapons - virtually eliminates the need.
Information weapons is becoming the major threat to the national security of the country and especially Russia, given the critical and explosive situation (and not without the help of this weapon!) in all vital areas of our country.
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3. Panarin I. N. Problems of maintenance of information safety of Russia in modern conditions / the Bulletin №6 (111).- M: GSH VS, 1997. Pp. 3 - 16.
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