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Information warfare China, in order to ensure national security
Material posted: Publication date: 17-05-2020
Information warfare is seen in China as a set of actions aiming at the destruction and neutralization of information systems of the enemy, and protecting its own information systems.

It is an active action aimed at the conquest of initiatives in the information space (information superiority)[1].

Chinese military theorists noted that the information in the modern world is a strategic resource. The rapid development of information technologies, their penetration in all spheres of life entailed, in addition to the benefits of the emergence of a number of problems. Given the increasing importance of information space as a sphere of military confrontation, the Chinese military doctrine is increasingly large role for information warfare[2].

Achieving information superiority depends not only on technological superiority, but by new tactics. In the transactions of the twenty-first century emphasis will be placed on the application of deep strikes on the command posts of the enemy, centers of information transfer and system software. One of the varieties of information warfare is "cyber war" (war in the virtual information space – "cyberspace"). The term "cyberspace" denotes modeled with the help of computer technology information space in which there is a certain kind of objects and symbolic representation of the information in one place, which are computer programs and circulate information. "Cyberwar" is based on the identification of vulnerable links in the infrastructure of the state and any actions aimed at the destruction, blocking or modification of information in information, telecommunications and electronic computer systems with cyber attacks, or so-called "cyber attacks" [3].

According to Chinese military experts in the field of information confrontation, there are a number of basic principles to achieve victory in the computer wars, the most important of which are:

  • the defeat and capture of the power supply system of the brain of the computer enemy;
  • the strike systems for remote reconnaissance, command and control, communication centers, computer centers and other key segments of the information network of the enemy;
  • the creation of artificial conditions of "overload" computer networks of the enemy allows you to get direct control over the flow of information in the system of command and control, material and energy resources; viruses software computer networks of the enemy is one of the most effective ways to defeat computer networks command centers of the enemy;
  • using the advances in software tools with the purpose of unauthorized, secret entry to the network management side.

In addition, in order to win the information war, according to the views of Chinese military analysts, it is necessary to establish two important elements: the digital battlefield and "computer-aided" troops. Digital battlefield is a complex network system covering all operational space. It consists of communication systems, control and monitoring, transmission of reconnaissance information, battle computer database and user terminals that can provide detailed operational information in real or near real time. The purpose of this network system is the application of information technology to obtain, exchange and use of digital information in real-time, rapid collection of information at the request of command, personnel, and combat support agencies for clear and precise understanding of the conditions on the battlefield and develop and implement operational plans.

Chinese military experts[4] noted that the impact of the implementation of the concept of information warfare the nature of warfare will occur in the following:

  • the information war will cause a particularly strong rivalry in the sphere of information dominance. The existence and development of the combat effectiveness of the troops will be based mainly on the collection, analysis, transmission and use of information;
  • the information war will expand engagement in military action, which is manifested mainly in two areas:
  • the complication in achieving victory in wars. In the information age will need to not only eliminate the "material base" that provides keeping against war, but, in addition, to take control and destroy the information systems of the enemy, which will be the primary objectives when hitting;
  • the spread of boundaries of war in outer space. Key information systems of data transmission, positioning, guidance and communication will be placed in the space;
  • reduction in the duration of hostilities. On the one hand, attack means will be highly precise. On the other hand, in the information age, in comparison with the industry, the goals of the warring parties, will not be associated with complete encirclement and destruction of the enemy, and to carry less of a political character;
  • making a solid fighting character. Due to the fact that information will be transmitted quickly, and will not depend on the type of troops or time-limited, future war will be an unprecedented whole. The fighting on land, sea, air and space are compact, which is typical for large scale wars and armed conflicts of low intensity. The boundary between strategic, operational and tactical links become obscured;
  • the change in the essence of concentrating troops. Focus mainly to the manpower will be replaced with a concentration of mainly firepower and information, and the quantitative aspect of the concentration of troops and weapons will be replaced with quality[5].

Chinese military theorists have noted that considering the requirements of information warfare, these changes will presumably go in the following directions: in the question of the ratio of the power of the army, air force and Navy, the proportion of the land forces will be reduced with a simultaneous increase in the share of air and naval forces; to improve technical equipment; number of officers compared to soldiers will increase; will increase the number of officers with a technical background and will decrease with the command and staff[6].

The military-political leadership of the PRC continuously carries out practical activities in the field of organization and conducting information warfare in three main areas:

  • training;
  • improvement of forms and methods of information wars in the course of operational and combat training of the PLA;
  • the immediate conduct information and psychological operations, and counter them.

For training skilled personnel in the field of information dominance, developed a special training program is designed for three categories of personnel.

The first category is the highest management level of the PLA. Usually, this person, whose age is more than 40 years. The main goal of their training – learning the basics of information technologies and concepts of information warfare[7].

The second category of the commanders of connections and parts of armed forces of China. Basically, it is a person whose age is from 30 to 40 years. The main goal of their learning – a study of the forms and methods of information warfare, as well as the study of the basic principles of functioning of information systems.

The third category – the personnel officers who know the basics of computers and programming, whose age usually is not more than 30 years. The main task of their training is in-depth study of the strategies, forms and methods of information warfare and their subsequent use in crisis situations. Unlike the first two groups, the training period of this group much longer.

In addition to the curriculum each of the categories, to a greater or lesser extent, included the following questions:

  • strategy and tactics, methods and means of information warfare; computer simulation; basics of information technologies;
  • the principles of operation of telecommunications systems;
  • security of their own information and measures to counter the technical means of foreign intelligence services.

Currently in China there are a number of centers of training of specialists in the field of information warfare: Command and communications Academy of the PLA (Communications Command Academy) (Wuhan IN Hubei) is a major training center. In the institution are developing new methods and techniques of information warfare. Learning centres also operate at the University of information technology (Information Engineering University) (Zhengzhou, Henan) IS at the University of science and technology (Science and Engineering University) and the State defense science and technology University (National Defense Science and Technology University), as well as in the city Achen (IN Hubei). In tarczynska the University deployed the Internet center for military education, designed to disseminate knowledge in the military field and information about military construction. Work is underway to create its own computer networks to transfer data in the shortest possible time.

In China also make many efforts to attract competent experts, trained abroad. In the field of security services of the PRC are more than one hundred thousand Chinese students studying and living after graduation in the United States.

Directly for the information operations involved intelligence officers, graduates of various specialized higher educational institutions of the armed forces and MGB, such as the foreign languages Institute of the PLA in Luoyang, Henan province and Institute of personnel management of the MGB (Institute of Cadre Management) in Suzhou, Jiangsu province, as well as civilian Universities[8].

The military leadership of China is considering information and technical training in the armed forces as a task of strategic importance. Education and training is built based on the requirements and the real conditions of modern warfare. Currently in the armed forces undergo regular training and exercises on issues of information warfare, one of the main tasks of which is to develop practical actions for implementation and reflection, "cyber-attacks" in the local and global information networks.

In the conditions of information warfare the role of the special services involved in the collection, processing, analysis and communication of country's leadership, military-political, military-technical and economic information, as well as conducting information and psychological operations, increases significantly. In this regard, the Chinese leadership attaches to their development much attention[9].

In order to enhance the capacity of national armed forces in information warfare, the military-political leadership of China has implemented a number of practical measures. In particular, as part of larger special operations units of the PLA deployed in each of the seven military regions of China created special units of computer counter, having armed with modern means of introduction into computer networks of the enemy on its territory and transfer the removed information to its command of the channels of tropospheric and satellite communications.

In groups have the ability to spread viruses in computer networks of the enemy, disrupt the operation of its automated control systems for troops, as well as a means of protecting its information networks. Units of computer counter can be used for the conduct of psychological warfare.

The leadership of the PLA believes that the units and parts should be provided with modern equipment for conducting outreach activities. In order to create a modern automated control system of troops and weapons control, control system of unmanned aerial vehicles and communications system using computer networks[10].

The most promising types of information-psychological weapons in the PLA include:

  • electron–viral weapon (EVO);
  • tools to break into broadcast radio and television programmes;
  • device of interference;
  • disposable and reusable generators of different types of electromagnetic energy, such as explosion, explosive magnetohydrodynamic, pochkovidnye[11].

In military scientific circles of China, more importance is given to issues of software and electronic influence on the information resources stored or circulating in the computer information management systems. The main direction is considered to be use in information warfare EVO.

The main features of the EVO are:

  • the relative cheapness of its production at a large performance impact;
  • stealth application, autonomy, duration of operation;
  • the possibility of transformation, a variety of methods of implementation;
  • the ability to disable almost all modern systems of control of troops and weapons.

The main tasks to be solved using EVO:

  • obtaining information constituting a state or military secret of the opposing side;
  • the introduction of the enemy into confusion, paralysis of control systems, implementation of the intervention in the control of troops and weapons of the enemy.

For effective realization of the possibilities of electron–viral weapon the leadership of the PLA in the near future, presumably, will be developed by the theory and principles of e-virus war, and formed the special units.

Thus, the leadership of China has stepped up military-theoretical research on the problems of information counteraction, and also continues to undertake practical steps to create a modern information infrastructure of the state and improving the capabilities for conducting information operations.

Currently, in the Chinese people's Respublikamizda development of the system of informational influence on the mind and psyche of military personnel and the civilian population, which is regarded as one of the key elements of military power. Existing in China's information infrastructure and media, which are mainly under the control of the Communist party and the state, allow the Chinese leadership to involve them in the information war in full. Force cyber operations of China is able to conduct both defensive and offensive operations, while the leadership of the PLA is ready to use kiberprestuplenie in any conflict affecting the national security of the state.

Ruslan Bolonchuk

LIST OF SOURCES USED

  1. Accurev A. A. Application of nanotechnology in the military abroad // ZVO. – 2015. - No. 7 Pp. 44-46.
  2. Ibragimova G. Strategy of China in the field of Internet governance and information security // security Index. – № 1 (104). – Tom 19. – S. 169-181.
  3. Maxim Kazanin. The Syrian conflict: assessment of Chinese experts. M., Institute of Middle East, 2017, 276 p.
  4. Sun Tzu. The art of war / M: Sofia, 2010. – P. 56-58.
  5. China's Cyber Activities / U.S.-China Economic And Security Review Commission, 2014. – P. 243-265.
  6. China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence / Journal of Strategic Security, 2014. – P. 1-26.
  7. Mandiant, АРТ1: Exposing One of China's Cyber Espionage Units. –Alexandria, 2015. – P. 2-4, 9, 21-23.
  8. Pickrell R. A dangerous game: responding to Chinese cyber activities / R. Pickrell // The Diplomat, 25 December 2015.
  9. The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army in 2025 / Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press, 2015. – 267 p.
  10. 中国的亚太安全合作政策:中文 / 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室发布。– 北京:外文出版社,2017 – 55页. The exchange rate of China on cooperation in the sphere of security in the Asia Pacific region // the office of public Affairs of the State Council of the PRC. Beijing, 2017, 55 p.
  11. 中国的军事战略:中文 / 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室发布。– 北京:外文出版社,2015 – 54页. Chinese military strategy // the office of public Affairs of the State Council of the PRC. Beijing, 2015 – 54 s.

 

[1] Mandiant, АРТ1: Exposing One of China's Cyber Espionage Units. –Alexandria, 2015. – P. 2-4, 9, 21-23.

[2] R. Pickrell A dangerous game: responding to Chinese cyber activities / R. Pickrell // The Diplomat, 25 December 2015.

[3] Ibragimov G. Strategy of China in the field of Internet governance and information security // security Index. – № 1 (104). – Tom 19. – S. 169-181.

[4]中国的军事战略:中文 / 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室发布。– 北京:外文出版社,2015 – 54页. Chinese military strategy // the office of public Affairs of the State Council of the PRC. Beijing, 2015 – 54 s.

[5] China's Cyber Activities / U.S.-China Economic And Security Review Commission, 2014. – P. 243-265.

[6]中国的亚太安全合作政策:中文 / 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室发布。– 北京:外文出版社,2017 – 55页. The exchange rate of China on cooperation in the sphere of security in the Asia Pacific region // the office of public Affairs of the State Council of the PRC. Beijing, 2017, 55 p.

[7] The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army in 2025 / Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press, 2015. – 267 p.

[8] China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence / Journal of Strategic Security, 2014. – P. 1-26.

[9] Maxim Kazanin. The Syrian conflict: assessment of Chinese experts. M., Institute of Middle East, 2017, 276 p.

[10] Sun Tzu. The art of war / M: Sofia, 2010. – P. 56-58.

[11] Accurev A. A. Application of nanotechnology in the military abroad // ZVO. – 2015. - No. 7 Pp. 44-46.


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