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U.S. space policy as an integral part of strategic initiatives to achieve superiority in the information war
Material posted: Publication date: 08-10-1999

The past year has clearly demonstrated to the world the strengthening of confrontation and aggressive pressure from the side of the Alliance in creating a new world order based on the idea of American global leadership based on the military power of NATO. This is evidenced by many things: the expansion of NATO, the adoption of unilateral decisions during the Balkan crisis, the military strikes on Yugoslavia and Iraq, the revitalization of the actual output from the ABM Treaty of 1972 under the guise of its modifications, as well as ignoring Russia's interests in the near abroad.

USA and headed the unit, acting in the framework adopted in April 1999 a new strategic concept, openly ignored international law and the existing system of interstate relations, by military action against Yugoslavia.

In the new concept provides for "the formation of a new Euro-Atlantic security system in which NATO plays a Central role". In her leadership of the unit directly expresses the desire to transform the Alliance into a dominant military-political organization on the European continent and to give it global functions in nature due to the expansion of the bloc and zone of influence.

Now NATO reserves the right, at the settlement of crisis situations of different character not only in its area of responsibility, but also beyond, including in circumvention of the UN. Declaring a willingness to use any weapon to achieve their goals anywhere in the world, the Alliance claims to be far more than a regional security structure. So, for many years after the war in the Persian Gulf are being bombarded Iraqi facilities: by unilaterally zones for flights by Iraqi aircraft North of the 36th and South of the 32nd parallel, in fact every day the US and the UK put aircraft missile and bomb strikes officially by the military, and often civilian targets.

In concepts great importance is attached to proactive action to prevent political and military crises. For this purpose, the use of the whole Arsenal of means of influence on the conflicting parties, including diplomatic, economic, informational, social and other factors. But the main emphasis in the document placed on the readiness of the Alliance to use its military capabilities as the only effective instrument for resolving the crisis situation. Given the very broad interpretation of risks that threaten the interests of the Union and he / she is willing to respond, the obvious bet NATO military power cannot be overlooked.

The principle corresponds to global dominance and the new space policy of the US Department of defense approved the relevant Directive in July 1999, which in terms of the increasing importance of space activities generates new approaches of the military leadership of the USA to maintain its leading position in the space and achieve the objectives in the sphere of ensuring national security.

It should be emphasized the fact that in the Memorandum of the Minister of defense first put forward the thesis about the appropriation of space as a new environment of military operations, the category of vital national interests. He plays a crucial role in gaining information superiority as part of the policy of global dominance.

Review of space policy was designed to achieve a number of important goals, taking into account, first of all, the changes that have occurred over the last decade. These include: changes in the system of international security; new aspects of national security strategy and military strategy; changes in the formation of the budget of national defence; changes in the structure of the armed forces; experience in the use of space forces in combat; expanding the use of space assets on a global scale, the spread of technology and information; development of military and information technologies; the intensification of commercial activities in space; improved cooperation between civil and military sectors, and international cooperation.

The Directive States that "space power is as important to the nation as and power on land, water and in the air." It is a strategically important instrument to implement the provisions of the "National military strategy" and "Single perspectives 2010". Cosmic force ensure the achievement of strategic objectives and doctrinal units, creating the conditions for information superiority through dominant positions in the field of collection, processing and distribution of information. Provide space force control, communications, intelligence and surveillance necessary to maintain combat readiness, the implementation of the operational concepts of dominant maneuver, precision weapons application, focused logistics support and comprehensive protection, as well as procedures for the planning and conduct of military operations.

Space forces significantly extend the capabilities of the U.S. Armed forces integration and the organization of control, communications, intelligence and surveillance, perform support functions in the interests of troops, if necessary, prevent the enemy to use the same capabilities of its space assets. They help the commander of the operational forces to synthesize information, dictate the temporal conditions and the pace of operations (as new tactical forms of warfare). Achieve space and information superiority will help to counteract the capabilities of the enemy on the management of their own. Access to space and its use will allow the United States to establish and maintain dominance on the battlefield and information superiority necessary for success in military operations.

Stated that space systems must operate and be utilized for the purpose of: to ensure the free use of outer space, deterrence, and if necessary, protection from hostile actions; not to give the enemy the opportunity to prevent the United States to use outer space for their own purposes; to provide for the implementation by the United States in space, military, intelligence or other space-related, activities; to enhance the combat capabilities of U.S. troops and troops of the allied and friendly countries; to counteract, if necessary, space systems and their use for hostile purposes of the US.

Priorities for space and space-related activities of the Ministry of defence is to ensure that the status of freedom of space and protection of national security interests of the United States. In accordance with the Directive "national space policy" of U.S. space systems, national ownership, have the right of free passage and unimpeded functioning in outer space.

Deliberate countering us space systems will be viewed as a violation of sovereign rights. The U.S. can take all necessary defensive measures, including, at the direction of the national military-political leadership, to use force in response to such violation of the rights of the United States.

The main task of the Ministry of defence identified the provision of such operational capabilities of space forces, which would guarantee sufficient space for the power of the United States to achieve national security objectives in accordance with the "Strategy of national security in the new century". Concomitant goals are the maintenance of a robust database of the American space industry and the development of future-oriented high technology.

Space forces provide a strategic advantage to the United States and are an important element of the coalition strategy in which the US can provide unique capabilities for international security. Despite the fact that the United States will retain the possibility to act independently, increasingly the norm includes coalition military operations. The deployment of troops together with other countries increases the importance of interaction. Space systems can significantly improve the effectiveness of communication, providing access to systems for General use, data processing and databases. They allow troops in joint operations to function more efficiently. Space forces enhance forward presence, providing the ability to perform tasks with minimal risk to personnel for the American troops. The integration of space capabilities in joint operations through a cooperation of actions should strengthen military cooperation and allied structures that will promote U.S. national security.

Current reality already illustrates the application in practice of such a policy.

Combat operations of the United forces against Iraq and Yugoslavia was ensured full support from space systems with high efficiency of information support of groupings of troops and naval forces, with application of means of reconnaissance, communications, navigation, and meteorology topogeodesy.

In the Balkan operations were involved warships and NATO aircraft as carriers of primarily high-precision weapons – cruise missiles and bombs laser guided. In the total number of aircraft used by NATO missiles and bombs with precision-guided weapons was in the first three weeks of the military operation more than 95 percent (for comparison, during the war in the Persian Gulf the figure was 10%).

All precision-guided munitions equipped with laser and inertial guidance systems, due to poor weather conditions (cloudy) or absence of digital maps of terrain is often directed at the target only on signals of satellite radio navigation system NAVSTAR. Moreover, the successful use of cruise missiles (CR) of great Britain could be accomplished only with the assistance of the USA, since the UK does not have its own satellite intelligence and not able to create a map of flight in digital form.

For effective application of CU U.S. created a global guidance system, communication and information support based on special satellites and of terrestrial centres, equipped with the most advanced computing technology.

Leading powers of the world are preparing to conduct a global, large-scale and local wars in the next century with an extensive use of near-earth space as a new sphere of armed struggle. A growing number of States dramatically boost space activities, seeking to strengthen his positions in this area.

Research on the military use of outer space, held in the US and other countries, aimed at developing fundamentally new types of weapons – military space systems (BCS), intended for destruction of objects in space and from space.

United States in the framework of the program of national missile defense has produced full-scale testing of missile weapons, in October 1999, knocking over the Pacific ocean (at an altitude of 225 km) warhead Intercontinental ballistic missile Minuteman-2 space interceptor EKV, launched by the launch vehicle PLV from the landfill Kwajalein (Marshall Islands). EKV can be used as a missile, and as anti-satellite weapons.

It is significant that such tests are carried out on the background of political dialogue in which Russia's position is firmly based on the principle of the inadmissibility of modernization of the ABM Treaty, which underlies the architecture of all security created in the last decade.

Analysis of the impact of space systems on the achievement of the objectives of the armed struggle clearly reveals the tendency of showing the output space from covering the traditional branches of the armed forces (in 1970-1990-ies) leading positions (after 2000). Thus on the orbital grouping of space vehicles assigned tasks:

  • information support from space of action of the armed forces by delivering space information to the consumer down to the tactical level;
  • active influence and combat support from space of action of the armed forces;
  • acupressure in space and from space against space and ground targets and ground targets;
  • global non-destructive effects for individual regions and countries.

In parallel with these tasks have any changes in the approaches look promising space resources: in the development of both the US and Russia is an obvious transition in the coming century from large and complex multi-functional spacecraft created in 1970-1990-ies, to malaysiabactrim spacecraft for various purposes. It is envisaged to build on the modular principle with the use of the unified space platform and to achieve high resource characteristics, low cost of manufacturing, operation, etc.

The preservation of Russia's status as a world power can be achieved taking into account implementation of guaranteed access to outer space as a prerequisite for national security, protection of its vital interests.

According to leading analysts of the country and strategic perspectives of Russia's development in the foreseeable future are to establish transport and telecommunications "bridge" between Europe and Asia, which involves the retention of Russia's status as a "great space powers".

This can be achieved only in case of preservation of accumulated military-technical capabilities in the field of space exploration, which to a great extent determined by the degree of independence of its space policy. Such a policy involves the implementation of national space programs, as well as focus on their own strength and means of providing guaranteed access to outer space and sustainable management of orbital groups in all conditions military-political situation.

The components of the independent space policy:

  • the ability to manufacture the entire range of space assets in domestic enterprises;
  • guarantee the start and management of space means with its own territory;
  • the protection against threats in and from outer space;
  • effective legal support, which creates favorable conditions for space activities.

If in the field of space programmes of scientific and economic destination of the dependence of the space policy of Russia from the necessity to use objects of space infrastructure, remaining on the territory of post-Soviet States, is not critical, in conducting its space programs for military and dual-purpose Russia should have full autonomy in access to space and its use.

Future war, representing, in essence, an uncompromising struggle in the information sector, implies a radical change of traditional forms and methods of armed combat. Information itself is not only a kind of weapon, but also a valuable trophy. The quality, quantity and speed of its transmission are key elements of information superiority. Information technology is the key to mastering all other technologies in the world. So for victory in the information war it is necessary to supply the armed forces with advanced information technology.

Information aggressor wins, solely subdue the governance structure of the enemy, which are the target information.

Military experts, in the concept of "information war", we distinguish in it six points:

  • exploration of military, economic, political and cultural potential of the enemy and blocking similar action on his part;
  • the destruction (suppression) of the informational component of its systems of command and control and communications and protection.
  • the provision of unhindered access to global information systems and the exclusion from them of the enemy;
  • the widespread use of ACS as a means of information support all types of military activities;
  • a flexible and mobile database;
  • computer reproduction of the actual battlefield.

It is believed that information warfare also includes fighting, with the participation of information-rich modern means of warfare.

Thus, it is easy to conclude that virtually all components of information warfare are either an integral part of space activities in the interests of the armed struggle, or in varying degrees, intersect with it.

Clearly there comes an understanding that ignoring the issues of information warfare at the present time is unacceptable. Increasingly, the conclusion about the need for a comprehensive development of space activities and capacity space power.

During the formation of the state defense order within the framework of the Federal budget for 2000 the government of the Russian Federation approved priorities in accordance with the challenges posed by the current external and internal political situation, and to increase the procurement of weapons in half. Moreover, the Russian military space is expected to be paid more attention. Before funding space means of arms from the total financing of the strategic missile forces in 1998 amounted to only 9 %, in 1999 it rose to 11%, but such means was impossible to maintain the normal of the orbital grouping of the Russian defense Ministry. Currently, more than 70% of the Russian orbital group, consisting of 132 spacecraft has exhausted its warranty life. With a serious lack of funding to preserve space means of the Ministry of defence was able, in the opinion of the Military Council of the strategic missile forces, thanks to new approaches and alternative measures developed by staff and endorsed by the security Council of the Russian Federation. But these measures are mostly structural in nature, and thus are able only to postpone the moment of the collapse of the Russian orbital constellation, which requires, primarily, the replenishing of new spacecraft.

The Federal space program was formed in recent years on the principle of maintaining the SPACECRAFT orbital constellation to the minimum necessary for the defence and security of the country. This is clearly not enough to achieve parity in case of the outbreak of information warfare. Hope, first of all, change the attitudes of the Government and Federal Assembly to the issue of funding for the military of the Russian cosmonautics. And already in the 2000 budget. Because without enhanced financial investments of the domestic cosmonautics will be forced to cease to exist after 2-3 years.

Conclusion: in order in case of aggression phase of the information war, Russia was able to adequately resist the aggressor, it is necessary to preserve and develop the scientific, technical, technological and organizational achievements in the field of creation of appropriate space means to counter; thus, in conditions of limited funding should choose such ways which allow to raise efficiency of functioning of orbital group, save the basic elements of space infrastructure and to improve them in the future.

 

Denisov E. A.


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