Civil war in Ukraine gives birth to a monstrous shaft of misinformation on both sides of the conflict. This misinformation is propagated over the network with the speed of a forest fire. In the process actively participate as ordinary citizens, seeking to reinforce their point of view "convincing evidence" and professional soldiers of information warfare.
Operation other people's children
Media laws in the era of online such that first threw easily consumed (most often visual) content wins the pot. Therefore, the practice of promotion left of photo is fairly common. Sometimes it's just a sign of skill Bild-editors, but such a world is rife with anecdotes. From the American technique of postcards for February 23 and German "tigers" on the posters by May 9 to the Convention of the American Democratic party, puzzled liatrises on the big screen parade of ships of the Russian black sea fleet.
Another thing, when it comes to conscious forgery, and this is just our case. Military conflicts ongoing in the world in parallel, supplying all the unscrupulous a huge number of photos and videos that can be used in their short-term purposes.
From the end of may on the network began promoting the hashtag #SaveDonbassPeople (and several similar), which marked the photos of the wounds of the civilian population of Donbass, including children. It was implied that these wounds inflicted during the shelling of the Ukrainian army settlements held by militia forces. However, several of them were previously captured pictures of victims in Syria, Lebanon, and mass protests in Europe. One of the pictures actually turned out to be a screenshot from the film "Brest fortress".
This does not mean that shelling cities in Eastern Ukraine, made up. Moreover, the number of the real victims, unfortunately, do not want to exaggerate. But to use for promotional work photographs in our digital age, easily found the source, which has no relation to the Donbass, is to cross the front of his own work. We must understand that this is a semi-finished execution just discredited a noble, in essence, the task of attracting the world's attention to the bloodshed in Eastern Ukraine.
If I was tasked to promote a network set hard photos with English language comments, the far-sighted it would be cynical to attend to the collection of original material on the ground, and not to be photoshopped Syrian children under the guise of Donetsk. Or really did not connect with this slippery topic.
Under the same hashtag, by the way, totally not critical to spread the photos of mistreatment of the Bosnian population by the Serbian militia in the spring of 1992 under the guise of "Ukrainian sweeps" in the East.
The fountain of "truth and sincerity" marked the first days after the fall under the Torez Malaysian Boeing 777. But this is a topic worthy of a separate article — with all the phony pictures of "Beech" that I could find. And ending with the epic "the intercept", which appeared two hours after the tragedy, in which several of the Donetsk field commanders, including Igor Bezler, discuss liner hit by "Cossacks from the Chernukhino roadblock near".
The story of how the us state Department spokesperson Jen Psaki found in the Rostov region mountain, became a legend of the Runet. Why we write about this fact here? Because this episode a solid track record Mrs. Psaki, alas, was not. It so happened, however, that the proliferation of fake involved a number of Federal mass media, for that they had to make a formal apology.
Eat more phosphorus
There are more complex cases. Say, initially the anti-Ukrainian propaganda widely used the thesis of the "forbidden" cluster munitions used by the Ukrainian army. Then, apparently, someone checked, and the subject began to lower on brakes, although it is still even on the air of Federal TV channels no-no and will be shown "cassette".
International Convention on the prohibition of cluster munitions exists. The trick is that Ukraine is not signed. Besides Ukraine, it was not signed by the USA, India, China, Brazil, Israel and many others, including the Russian Federation.
This does not negate the fact that the use of cluster munitions in urban areas, if it really took place, does not work to call an act of humanity towards its own citizens. But as the obvious appeal to the world community in the framework of formal legal procedures is not.
In the case of cluster munitions is also not without masquerade. A snapshot of unexploded bombs, Packed with striking elements, allegedly made under Donetsk, was shot by Israeli cluster munitions dropped on Lebanon in 2006. And traditionally the story has been creative development — August with the charges of the militia in the use of "banned" cassette shells for "Grad" Kiev has already put forward.
Or take the major stories with "phosphorous bombs", which in Ukraine is not and could not be. "Soviet incendiary munitions with phosphorus have been reclaimed in the mid-1960s, are used instead of ammunition with thermite mixtures and pyrageliai", — reported "to the Tape.ru" military expert, Colonel Victor murakhovski, chief editor of the magazine "Arsenal of the Fatherland". He noted that this was the result of unsafe storage and use of such munitions. The use of incendiary weapons with thermite mixtures is not a gift, especially in the Donbas, which, incidentally, is the most urbanized territory of Ukraine. Was it the place?
"Clearly you can define the use of 120-millimetre incendiary mines, says Victor Murakhovsky videos from Ukraine; six thermite checkers, flying in the undermining of the mark. We will be rousing 122-mm rockets for "Grad", there checkers is much more undermining is carried out at 200-250 meters, and it looks like fireworks".
Phosphorus, however, can get on the battlefield — in the composition of mixtures of smoke or illumination projectiles — and even cause the appropriate thermal or chemical destruction. However, such episodes with mixtures, non-incendiary, no legal interpretations, and belong to the vicissitudes of war, nothing more. "The phosphorus for use anywhere not prohibited, says Victor Murakhovsky, — prohibits the use of incendiary weapons, and then only under certain conditions, for example in areas of concentrations of civilians".
That is not need to deal with the use of mythical forbidden phosphorus, and specific facts on the use of incendiary weapons under conditions that would fall under the 3rd Protocol to the Convention on prohibitions or restrictions on the use of certain conventional weapons, ratified by Ukraine. In this case, you ought to document a few moments the use of any "lighter" in the precincts of the cities of Donbass (if they were) and to discuss in the media.
Why then do so aggressively pushed that issue with phosphorus? The explanation is simple: the Soviet Union, abandoning munitions with phosphorus, in full demonized weapon in anti-war propaganda 1970's- 1980's, aimed primarily against the U.S. and Israel. That show ended a long time ago, but as it turns out, some mental viruses are tenacious.
"Iron", who are you and where are you from?
Ukrainian TV loves to give out photos and videos of Russian columns of armored vehicles with comments like "that's all IT's gonna cross the line, and then...". For example, the huge popularity enjoyed shot a menacing-looking columns of tanks T-72, he still roams as illustrations to various news about Russian armored vehicles in Donbas. The problem is not that it depicts the Russian troops, and that he made on 23 August 2008 on the road in South Ossetian Tskhinval.
While the scandalous story with the passage in Lugansk Russian humanitarian convoy Ukrainian sources in the network circulated photographs of tanks and armored personnel carriers, painted white, with a comment like "Russia is preparing to send its troops under the guise of peacekeeping". It turned out that it photos 2012, taken from the Internet, and not having any relation to Ukraine. Say, white tank T-72B was the exhibit of the exhibition "engineering Technologies 2012".
In June on the network several times, stacks of photos blazing armor with pretentious comments about the growing resistance "the Kiev junta". The armor was fairly enveloped in flame, but still looked somehow unusual. It turned out that this Chinese APC, burning during the riots in Tiananmen square in June 1989. At the same time this picture was spread of another, where some burned a few tanks. Georgian, in the middle of Tskhinval in August 2008.
Things like that break in the broadcast of Russian TV channels. Crown of creation was the video of the fall on the town "ballistic missiles "Point"". The video shows something quite strange, slow and unusual for a long running motor with a fiery tail. It turned out that this account of the fall of the Russian "Proton-M" July 2, 2013, is made of the construction of Baikonur. But that's not the most striking. Video worked "for the guy": one of the Ukrainian TV channels used it in the story about how the "Donetsk militants" themselves, they say, and bombard their cities to take the blame Kiev.
What motivates the people that allows such? For the media it's simple: they need visual material, and they choose based "and so will descend". It characterizes the "respect" that media workers feel towards their readers and viewers, not more. Well, sort of how the audience will eat, and okay. The audience really unassuming and not used to the basic rules of information hygiene: content is becoming more and sources all angazhirovana, and the perception of supplied information, on the contrary, loses its criticality.
Another thing, when talking about the need to hold their line, that is, to engage in propaganda. Here, the fakes go in the course of deliberately and often fabricated specifically for the task. The only thing you can emphasize is the fact that the high density of the forged material in the information space is often a reflection of the extreme paucity of actual billing, based on which you can accuse the opponent in something unseemly.
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