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Psychological basis of the information war
Material posted: Publication date: 29-10-2012

The article deals with the psychological aspects of information warfare. It is shown that the Russian Armed Forces become subject to the information attack by the probable enemy. In this regard, the willingness of commanders, staffs, bodies of educational work professionally to organize resistance and protection from the forces of psychological operations (PSYOPS) of the enemy and information-psychological influence on the personal composition of its parts and connections is a necessary condition for the successful resolution units for the set of combat tasks in modern combat.

Introduction

"The threats to military security (RF) are: the policy of a number of leading foreign countries, directed at achieving predominant superiority in the military sphere, primarily in strategic nuclear forces, by developing high-precision, informational and other high-tech means of warfare..."[1].

Revolutionary changes in the field of Sciences about the functioning of the human psyche, mass information processes, the wide spread of systems of mass communication (networks satellite and cable television, fiber-optic communication lines and computer networks, VHF and CB radios), a technological breakthrough in printing technology advances in the field of "non-lethal" weapons cause a sharp increase in interest of the military leaders of many armies of the world to the information-psychological confrontation as an integral part of the armed struggle.

On this basis, it follows that the Russian Armed Forces become subject to the information attack by the probable enemy. In this regard, the willingness of commanders, staffs, bodies of educational work professionally to organize resistance and protection from the forces of psychological operations (PSYOPS) of the enemy and information-psychological influence on the personal composition of its parts and connections is a necessary condition for the successful resolution units for the set of combat tasks in modern combat.

 

1. The concept of information-psychological war

"Information-psychological war is a purposeful action information (oral, written, video) on the consciousness and emotional-volitional sphere of people"[2].

In the system of information-psychological warfare, carried out for military purposes, we can distinguish phenomena that qualify as "information warfare" and "psychological warfare".

By the information war, you can understand the struggle of the parties for the achievement of superiority over the enemy in the timeliness, accuracy, completeness of information, speed and quality of its processing and delivery to artists. This war includes the following activities:

  • obtaining the necessary information;
  • processing the information received;
  • protection of information channels from penetration of the enemy;
  • timely and quality communicating information to consumers;
  • deceive the enemy;
  • the disabling or disruption of the functioning of the systems of obtaining, processing and disseminating information of the enemy; destruction, distortion, theft of information from the enemy;
  • development more effective than the enemy's, information.

Means of information warfare can be1 :

  • computer viruses, with high ability of penetration through different channels in a program, fixing and reproducing them, suppress and withdraw them from the system;
  • "logical bomb", the "werewolves", "program killer" information in advance in implementing information management centers for military and civilian infrastructure, and at a signal or at a set time distort, destroy information or disrupt the functioning of software and hardware;
  • programs unauthorized access to information resources of the enemy to steal intelligence information.
  • a means of suppressing information systems of the enemy, and joining in the spoofing of the information of open advocacy or intervention;
  • biotechnological tools created on the basis of cell engineering, leading out of the building computer motherboard;
  • means of introducing viruses, logic bombs, programs, werewolves, killers information, programs, effects on the staff ("zombie") and others in information systems (viral gun, bookmarks in microprocessors, international computer network, etc.);

Now consider the essence of psychological warfare:

Psychological warfare is the content of the activities of the special organs of one state, having a psychological impact on the civilian population and (or) the military of another state to achieve their political and military objectives.

Impacts in the psychological war:

  1. Information and psychological
  2. Psychogenic
  3. Psychoanalytic (psychocorrective)
  4. Neuro-linguistic
  5. Psychotronic (psychic)
  6. Psychotropic

Psychological warfare can be viewed as a struggle between States and their armed forces for the achievement of excellence in the spiritual sphere and the transformation of the benefits a decisive factor in achieving victory over the enemy. In this approach, information capabilities, along with purely psychological shares, act as a means of solving psychological problems. In the framework of psychological warfare should be allocated to the following areas: mobilization and optimization of psychological and moral forces of the nation and the armed forces in the interests of the armed forces; protection of the population of their country and its armed forces from corrupting the information-psychological influene of the enemy (psychological opposition; psychological cover; counter-propaganda; psychological); psychological impact on the troops and population of the enemy for the purpose of disorientation, demoralization and disorganization (psychological warfare); the influence on the attitudes, moods, and behavior of friendly and neutral audiences (countries, social groups, armed groups) in the direction of conducive to the attainment of victory over the enemy.

 

2. Psychological operations

Short-term or narrowly focused information and psychological actions, carried out both in peacetime and in wartime, in many countries of the world are denoted by an established term psychological operations (PSYOPS). For example, according to military psychologists, the greatest damage to the moral spirit of the troops applied factors such as "...lack of food, lack of combat experience, negative attitude toward the goals and actions of the political leadership, dissatisfaction with the command"[3]. Therefore, this will be actively used by the enemy during the conduct of psychological operations.

Psychological operation is the use in practice in the conditions of armed struggle complex set of concerted, coordinated and interrelated by purpose, tasks, place and time, objects and procedures types, forms, methods and receptions of psychological influence.

"Psychological operation is a scatter communication amid a massive impact..."[4]

Experience of implementing successful information and psychological stake in the war at the last time (during the military operations of the US in Grenada (1983), during the Persian Gulf war (1990-1991), when the invasion of Haiti (1994), during the performance of peacekeeping tasks in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996) and others) suggests that their effectiveness is high only when they are integrated in a coherent system of information-psychological impact, are carried out according to a single plan, at levels that are objectively demanded by the situation. Therefore, according to experts, the armies of the most developed in economic and military States are preparing to wage war simultaneously on several fronts: electronic warfare, active exploration, the disorganization of command and control systems and weapons, psychological operations, special program and technical impacts on information resource of the enemy. Describe the possible events of such a war American analysts: "in 2005. Iran secretly deploys their forces and suddenly attacked Saudi Arabia. U.S. to protect its strategic ally start an information war against the aggressor.

First of all, live computer viruses and logic bombs, secretly mortgaged in advance in a computer memory that is used in all Iranian state structures, military and economic control. This weapon is embarking on a special command, for example, satellite or via international computer networks. Since the conflict began, the security agents operating in Iran, with the help of powerful portable generators of electromagnetic pulses destroy the software and destroy database systems civil and military control, is protected against computer viruses and logic bombs. At the same time according to international telecommunications networks zeroed the account of the aggressor in foreign banks. These actions result in Iran to disastrous consequences, because it completely disrupted the work of all the vital for the country systems (civil and military administration, communications, energy, transport, etc.). At the same time suppressed television and radio broadcasts of all stations and repeaters in the country, points of contact and management in the armed forces of the aggressor.

E-the media starts flowing materials aimed at destabilization of the political situation, disorientation of the population and initiation of panic. As a result of this combined attack with the help of different types of information weapons in Iran, the chaos, the collapse of the economy and dramatically changed the socio-political situation. In these circumstances, the aggressor is forced to abandon his plans and subject to the requirements of the U.S. and its allies"1. Naturally, this view of war a few aphoristica, because it does not address the possibility of the enemy on the organization of information protection and counteraction. However, modern advances in information technologies allow much of the above described scenario of warfare in varying degrees to implement.

Psychological operation is the use in practice in the conditions of armed struggle complex set of concerted, coordinated and interrelated by purpose, tasks, place and time, objects and procedures types, forms, methods and receptions of psychological influence. "Psychological operation is a scatter communication amid a massive impact..."[5]

It is known that attempts to exert psychological influence on the enemy for the purposes of disinformation, intimidation, demoralization were made in ancient times. It is believed that purposeful psychological influence of a person in order to change the behavior of another is applied since, when there were the first contacts between people. In one of the biblical legend tells how Gideon, waging war with their enemies, often resorted to military ruses, misinformation and intimidation of the enemy. Once he was able to intimidate the enemy that he lost control over his actions, struck his troops.

The art of managing the thoughts, mental States, actions of men were formed, evolved and was kept as a secret weapon by priests, statesmen and military Babylon, Egypt, China, Ancient Greece and Rome.

At a later time practical guidelines on the psychological degradation of the enemy is produced by A. V. Suvorov, Napoleon, etc., for instance, Napoleon believed that "four Newspapers will be able to cause more harm than the hundred-thousandth army". That's why his armies were constantly marching printing house with a capacity of up to 10 thousand. leaflets a day.

The broadest concept is the "information-psychological confrontation" reflecting different levels of counteracting the conflicting parties, provide information and psychological means to achieve political and military objectives. This broad interpretation of the considered phenomenon allows to capture information and psychological action undertaken: a) at different levels (inter-state or strategic, operational and tactical); b) both in peacetime and in wartime; b) in information, and in the spiritual realm; d) both among its troops and among enemy troops. In the system of information-psychological warfare, carried out for military purposes, we can distinguish phenomena that qualify as "information warfare" and "psychological warfare".

By the information war, you can understand the struggle of the parties for the achievement of superiority over the enemy in the timeliness, accuracy, completeness of information, speed and quality of its processing and delivery to artists.

In turn, psychological warfare is the content of the activities of the special organs of one state, having a psychological impact on the civilian population and (or) the military of another state to achieve their political and military objectives.

Currently in many countries of the world information and psychological means of implementing the psychological operations are considered as priorities in achieving military objectives. Razrabotki for their practical application involves considerable logistical resources, famous scientists, politicians, cultural figures and arts, highly qualified military specialists.

To the information-psychological influences in the system of psychological operations include the following:

1. Print media - leaflets, posters, Newspapers, newsletters, etc., means of their production (printing) and distribution.

Flyers, based on their purpose, are published in different sizes and on different material. In the U.S. army for their distribution used artillery, aviation, aircraft containers. During the Persian Gulf war (1990-1991) Iraqi troops and the population of the region by Americans was dropped over 30 million flyers. By some estimates 98% of Iraqi soldiers surrendered prisoner, read the American flyers, 88% of them believed in their content, 70% for this reason surrendered.

2. An important means of psychological operations are radio and television. This includes stationary and mobile (automobile, airplane, ship) radio and television stations (both full-time and captured by the enemy) with the programmes broadcast. The role of these funds is increasing especially in the regions, saturated by radio and television receivers, as well as when broadcasting, illiterate population. For example, during operations "desert Shield" and" desert Storm" the cash part of the Iraqi army only in the frontal zone around the clock were broadcast over six stations. In order to increase the potential audience among the military and population of the region with nomads and aviation have been distributed 50 thousand small-sized receivers with a fixed frequency. Along with the radio and television broadcasting in the interests of psychological operations, typically involves the use of electronic countermeasures, a overwhelming TV and radio stations of the enemy. For example, the state of Iraq radio station "Voice of Baghdad" was essentially paralyzed during the whole period of military confrontation in the region.

3. Film, video, audio and other media video and audio for the persuasive and inspiring influence. For example, in the course of military events in the Persian Gulf among the population of Jordan, Saudi Arabia and other States were distributed videotapes depicting Saddam Hussein as the tyrant of the Iraqi people and a schismatic, destroying the unity of the Arab world. At the same time, they contained stories that promote the power and justice of the United States.

4. One of the most effective means of information and psychological impact on the enemy within tactical psychological operations is Zvukovaya. It is carried out by Zvukotesne stations (SWS) and other means of voice amplification, including man-portable, mounted on jeeps, trucks, tanks, armored personnel carriers, helicopters, airplanes. Loudspeakers on trucks used mainly in rear areas on the tanks to support the offensive, portable and small machines - for position broadcasting.

The extent of the use of Zvukovaya testimony to this fact. The military garrison of one of Iraqi Islands, numbering about 2,000 people, surrendered without a fight after his treatment by the Americans with Zvukotesne stations located on Board the helicopter.

5. The results of the information-psychological support of American peacekeeping troops in Bosnia and Herzegovina testify to the increasing role of computer devices and, first of all, the global computer information network Internet, as a means to influence people. Thus, in the period leading up to the elections called on-site specialists USA through the channels of the system gave the information to the PA aimed the formation of a positive image of the U.S. and NATO in resolving the Bosnian problem. There are facts of transmission over the Internet leaflets, posters and even newspaper "the Talon" (the official organ of the American military contingent).

Probably right to assume that the role of the Internet as a universal channel of information-psychological influence on large masses of people will continue to grow. Because today users are about 40 million people in more than 100 countries. It is expected that by 2013 their number will increase by more than 1 billion with this in mind, the U.S. intelligence services, "just in case" organized the creation of a common electronic catalogue of known software means of disabling computer networks of the enemy. Currently over 8,000 known computer viruses, including about 3000 threat. Every month their number increases by hundreds of units. And all this, if desired, can be very effectively used in the interests of information warfare.

6. In practice, very effective information and psychological influence, primarily on the population in the combat zone, serve the daily necessities, food, toys, sports equipment, etc. with an appropriate information support. So, in 1945, over Germany were dumped lighters with instructions about arson in Korea, spread exploding pencils and pens in Vietnam - transistor single-frequency receivers, in Haiti, baseball caps, sports jerseys, soccer balls, in the Gulf region t - shirts, audio cassettes, etc.

7. A relatively new means of psychological impact, which can find wide application in the practice of psychological operations, are synths (oscillators) holographic and sound effects in the atmosphere. According to foreign media in several countries, projects to install on existing satellites, laser-light systems, can project on clouds. As you know, clouds are a great natural screen, located at the altitude of 60-80 km from the earth's surface. Projected onto them the image will be clearly visible at the distance of 100-150 km. Case of this kind recorded in 1993 in Somalia.

Media reported that on 1 February a group of U.S. Marines, operating near the city of Mogadishu, said in the clouds of dust and sand the face of Jesus Christ size of approximately 150 by 150 meters, Describing his mental state, the Marines said they cried, on his knees and for a long time are unable to continue the execution of combat missions. Unexpected contemplation of the images of saints, and monsters (dragons, dinosaurs, mutants, etc.) or other unknown phenomena can have a strong psychological impact on people, and as a mobilizing and demoralizing. Modern audio equipment allows the use of synthesizer voices, sounds, noises, distinguished by a special significance for people. For example, the soldiers suddenly can hear the voice of a prominent politician of the country, urging them to leave the field or even turn the weapon against his colleagues.

8. In the implementation of psychological operations is often used such a powerful means of undermining the morale of the enemy, as auxiliary activity. This includes: a demonstration of power; raising the preparedness of the troops or their redeployment in the crisis regions; civic action; initiation of civil disobedience, rallies, and demonstrations in "the camp" of the enemy; programs in education, agriculture, medicine on the territory of the enemy; some of the ways of fighting.

 

Conclusion

Thus, the protection of troops (forces) of information and psychological influence of the enemy as a part of moral-psychological support is carried out both in peacetime and in wartime. The effectiveness of the protection of troops (forces) this gives a comprehensive consideration of the peculiarities of the psychological operations of the enemy, the real moral and psychological state of the personnel and the situation, continuity and comprehensive implementation of measures of moral and psychological support. Extremely important is the accounting of psychological laws of perception of external information by military personnel and equipment of formations and military units of technical means of education.

The main efforts to focus on the creation of favourable moral-psychological and information environment in the areas of deployment of troops (forces).

 

A list of sources used

  1. The national security strategy of Russian Federation until 2020. Approved by the decree of the President of the Russian Federation 12 may 2009 No. 537. – Novosibirsk: NWCU, 2009. – 36 S.
  2. Information-psychological and psychotronic warfare. A Reader / Under. ed. by A. E. Taras/ - Mn.: Harvest, 2003. – 432 p. – (Library of practical psychology).
  3. The landmark 2007. No. 10. The author of the article A. Kolesnikov, S. 57-60
  4. Methods and techniques of psychological warfare / Ed. – edited by A. E. Taras. – M.: AST, Mn.: Harvest, 2006. – 352 p. – (Commando).
  5. Collection of scientific works. Issue # 17. NWCU (VI), Novosibirsk, 2008, 388 p.
  6. Military thought, 2005. No. 5. The author of the article V. A. Rostovtsev, S. 38-46
  7. Foreign military review, 2005. No. 5. The author of the article A. the Tyrants, p. 19-26.
  8. The landmark 1997. No. 1. The author of the article A. Cherkasov, S. 45-48


 

[2] Information-psychological and psychotronic war, page 2

[3] Landmark 10,2007, p. 59

[4] Methods and techniques of psychological warfare, p. 17

[5] Methods and techniques of psychological warfare, p. 17

 

Lukin E. V.


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