According to several American military experts, a new look at the threats of the twenty-first century is that in the future the main threat will come from the regular armies of different countries, and from various terrorist, criminal and other organizations, including non-state parties which United in certain network structures. Such organizations do not have a clear hierarchical structure of authority, often do not have a unified leadership, coordinate their activities with the use of global communications.
1. Information support in the preparation of the operation
The history of the second half of the twentieth century shows that, from conflict to conflict, from war to war and peace periods information the struggle (wrestling) of States is growing in scale and playing an increasingly important role in achieving these goals. In the twentieth century the role of information factors has increased due to the rapid development of the media. The emergence of global telecommunications networks, satellite transponder, the world wide "web" of the Internet has made information available to millions and millions of consumers. She has turned into a product of mass demand with different parameters values and quality of acting on the thoughts, feelings, worldview, behavior and decision making by consumers of this product.
Information has become a powerful weapon of interstate confrontation, effective means of influence on the personnel of the troops and the population in the preparation and conduct of military operations. There is a constant development and improvement of organizational, methodical and technical methods and means of conducting information warfare, in which they are tested during training and combat operations in local conflicts.
The experience of local wars and conflicts confirms one of the main features - information warfare has become an integral part of combat operations. She is organized and conducted according to a single plan in the form of pre-plan information activities. Thus clearly distinguished two phases of the fight: before the outbreak of hostilities, conducted on the global and regional levels, ensuring conceived military operation, and after the outbreak of hostilities undertaken in support of combat operations.
In the first stage (usually well before the outbreak of hostilities), the main efforts are directed to awareness-psychological treatment of individual and social consciousness of key figures of governments and the population of those countries with interests intended to undertake military action. The aggressor is trying at this stage to attract as many allies, drawing them directly or indirectly to promote the vortex of the conflict.
The main tasks solved by the aggressor at this stage, pursue the following objectives:
- to justify in the eyes of the international community conceived the aggressiveness of the action, under the guise of loud slogans about protecting "universal values" from ecological disaster, terrorism, a nation's right to self-determination, freedom of speech, etc.;
- to form a coalition of States (strike force), the armed forces will take a direct part in the attack on a chosen victim;
- to involve in the conflict countries of the region, located around the country of the enemy; to try to foment a regional war and solve the problem someone else's hands, at least, gain their acquiescence for the action;
- to isolate the enemy from the international moral, financial, military and material support; to break its Union contract and obligations with other States.
To start confrontation with Afghanistan, the U.S. has had tried and proven in combat conditions, a single concept of information warfare, which was clearly reflected in the army's founding documents. In particular, field manual U.S. army FM-100-1 ("Conduct of hostilities") establishes that the actions of parts of psychological warfare, and "independent" mass media and public organizations (funds, unions, parties, sects, etc.), are the military command of the USA.
The main objects of information and psychological influence until the beginning of the aggression was the government and the public of NATO countries, Russia, countries of the Near and Middle East, Pakistan.
Focusing on the experience, in anticipation of military action the US conducted a large-scale information campaign for the effects on the international community to incline her to his side and ensuring international support for U.S. policy towards Afghanistan. On the other hand the US was trying to convince the world community that this country is the main base for international terrorism that Afghanistan is a hornet's nest of terrorist No. 1 Osama bin Laden, want to destroy in the first place. The Taliban themselves were presented as medieval barbarians, destroying the culture of Afghanistan, destroying the ecology of the desert.
The aspirations of the United States found active support from great Britain, armed forces which in conjunction with the American side amounted to the main "strike force" coalition. (Later at the EU summit in Belgium, it was decided to establish a multinational peacekeeping forces of the EU for Afghanistan, numbering 3-4 thousand soldiers. According to the statement of foreign Minister of Belgium Louis Michel, manual forces took over the Kingdom, and participation in the peacekeeping force "will take all EU countries". Since the end of January 2002, the military operation in Afghanistan now in the peacekeeping phase, whose aim was the maintenance of order and protection of important sites).
The government and public opinion, including Russia, heavily processed in order to create favourable conditions for the deployment of strike forces of the United States and NATO on Afghanistan adjacent to the territories, including the territory of the former Union republics of the USSR. Their efforts were not in vain. Russia after a moment's hesitation consented to the American presence in the zone of its interests. The English newspaper "The Guardian" notes that as of early 2002, Uzbekistan was the establishment of a permanent U.S. military base in Khanabad, which was located one and a half thousand servicemen. Manas, near the Kyrgyz of Bishkek, was defined by future "transportation hub", which will accommodate three thousand soldiers, combat and reconnaissance aircraft. Other airfields in Tajikistan and Pakistan were already under the control of the United States. The Pentagon by this time began regular movement and rotation of troops, thereby giving permanent status contingent, which was originally seen as temporary, placed on an emergency situation.
To achieve these goals, Washington has used not only propaganda, but also financial and economic "temptations". 27.10.01, Pakistan received the first award for promoting Bush signed a law lifting the sanctions imposed on the country in 1999., and 29.10.01, the state Department announced billion in economic assistance to Pakistan. Uzbekistan, which the U.S. previously did not pay attention, got in 2001, 64 million. in the form of aid from the us government, and 136 million. in the form of credit "Export-Import Bank" of the United States. 01.11.01 G. Azerbaijan and Armenia has proposed to expand the rights of the U.S. air force to use their air space during the campaign, in response to what the White house immediately offered to lift the ban on military assistance to Azerbaijan. 27.11.01, Yemen has consented to the freezing of assets of groups linked to al-Qaeda. In response, Yemen received us $ 400 million. economic and military aid. In 2002, the Bush administration was planning to provide assistance to Kazakhstan in the amount of $ 52 million. partial payment for military equipment. Having received from the governments of the region to build the base, the United States agree to train and equip local forces. Then, promises economic aid and trade agreements. As well as military cooperation is usually performed in both directions, the U.S. presence in close proximity to the southern borders of Russia, undoubtedly, will be sustainable.
Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed (against the advice of some senior generals) to negotiate with the Americans on a limited first military base in Afghanistan's neighbouring countries. China, though fundamentally objecting to U.S. intervention in the Affairs of the region, in fact, made it clear that is aware of the seriousness of the consequences of trying to defy the US. Both countries hoped to benefit in different areas from helping the United States - and to some extent achieved this. The Americans began to communicate with V. V. Putin as a partner, even proposing closer cooperation with NATO. Disputes with Beijing over human rights and trade that took place after the incident with the reconnaissance plane on Hainan island, have been discontinued. Quickly decided the question of membership of China in WTO.
At the regional level as the main subjects in the preparation stage and the operation identified the Taliban government, the armed forces and population of Afghanistan. The main goal of all activities was reduced to inducing the Taliban to cease fighting, to attract to their side the Afghans, to strengthen the Northern Alliance opponents of the regime. A special treatment was subjected to the government of Pakistan in order to keep him from supporting the Taliban to eliminate them base on the territory of Pakistan.
The primary voice of the information and psychological treatment of the world community was the modern mass media, including the Internet, which the military-political leadership of the United States paid special attention to. Through the media spotlight was focused on the terrorist organization al-Qaeda, created by Osama bin Laden in the late eighties of the 20th century with the aim to unite Arabs who fought in Afghanistan against the invading Soviet troops there. Then she helped Finance, recruit, transport and cook the Sunni Islamic extremists for the Afghan resistance. After the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan "al Qaeda" has set a goal to establish a worldwide pan-Islamic Caliphate by working with allied Islamic extremist groups to overthrow regimes it considered to be "UN-Islamic", and expulsion from Muslim countries citizens of Western States and non-Muslims. The main enemy were declared to United States of America. In February 1998 under the banner of "world Islamic front for Jihad against Jews and Christians" organization issued a statement, stating that the duty of all Muslims everywhere to kill US citizens, whether civilians or military, and their allies.
The activities of "al-Qaeda", was described in the media as highly dangerous for all countries of the world, because it operates globally, has cells in a number of countries and receives support from the Sunni extremist networks. She serves as the focal point of a worldwide network that includes many Sunni Islamic extremist groups, such as "Egyptian Islamic Jihad", some members of the "al-Gamaat al-Islamia", "Islamic movement of Uzbekistan" and "Harakat ul-Mujahideen". With reference to the Central intelligence Agency in the media, it was argued that in Afghanistan in recent years produced no less than 50-70 thousand militants from 55 countries. The Taliban allowed to operate on Afghan territory a wide range of groups - from Pakistani insurgents subordinate to the bin Laden organization al-Qaeda, which in Arabic means "the Base". Bin Laden himself and his top aides were resident in the territory of Afghanistan, there was contained a network of camps for training terrorists. Here militants taught to handle small arms and explosives to prepare terrorist acts.
The media widely covered the chronology of terrorism in order to bring grievances of the public to the activities of al-Qaida. "Promotion" in the media of the atrocities of this organization began with the events of December 1992, when thundered three explosions, the purpose of which was stationed in Aden (Yemen), the U.S. army. Then I remembered about downed U.S. helicopters and the killing of American soldiers in Somalia in 1993, about thwarted plans to carry out terrorist acts against American and Israeli tourists visiting Jordan to celebrate the new Millennium. (Jordanian authorities thwarted the planned attacks and prosecuted 28 suspects.) Particularly acute were submitted material August 1998, when al Qaeda organized and carried out explosions at the U.S. embassies in Nairobi (Kenya) and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), which killed at least 301 people, and more than 5 thousand people were injured. Pro-American press has mentioned about the involvement of al-Qaida following the preparation of terrorist attacks that were not carried out: the murder of Pope John Paul II during his visit to Manila in late 1994, simultaneous bombings at the embassies of USA and Israel in Manila and other Asian capitals in late 1994, the explosions on Board more than ten American planes over the Pacific in 1995, the assassination of President Clinton during his visit to the Philippines in early 1995.
The events of 11 September 2001 caused literally an explosion of media activity around the topic of terrorism. The Western press, like the U.S. government did not grant the public any proofs of fault of Osama bin Laden, Muslim terrorists, but immediately, essentially "appointed" guilty and began preparing the public for large-scale anti-terrorist operation.
To strengthen the coordination of activities of Federal ministries and agencies on information coverage of events, the US Administration took a number of measures aimed at restricting access to some sources of information on the progress of the Afghan campaign. All rights to broadcast any personnel from Afghanistan were purchased by representatives of the Federal government; some media introduced strict censorship; attempts diplomatic pressure on the leadership of Qatar with the aim to close the TV company al-Jazeera. Against it in the Western media was an extensive propaganda campaign designed to tarnish her reputation ties with terrorists.
According to the Washington Post, 24 September 2001, White house press Secretary Ari Fleischer personally phoned executives and editors of all the leading broadcasting television companies in the U.S., Newspapers New York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal and other media outlets to restrict the information about the planned U.S. military operation against terrorists. Fleischer also asked media executives that television and Newspapers have not reported schedule and movements of U.S. President George Bush and Vice-President of the USA Richard Cheney.
U.S. President George W. Bush also said that now the public and are not subject to information about the sources and methods of intelligence gathering that the US gets for an operation against terrorists. "I put the following condition media: any sources and methods of intelligence information disclosed will not be. My administration will not talk about how we get the secret information do we receive information, and what we learned. It is necessary to protect American citizens."
During the war, Fleischer said, "the administration is obliged to provide all the information that makes the country strong, and at the same time, we must be sure that any published fact will not lead to loss of lives or failure of special operations."
Pursuant to the instructions of the White house, according to the newspaper The Washington Post from 1.11.01 G., Chairman of the Board of the largest CNN Walter Isakson has issued an internal regulation on the broadcaster, in which it ordered its employees not to focus on the losses among the population or the devastation in Afghanistan caused by U.S. military actions. The head of CNN reported that all the materials about the situation in Afghanistan should be balanced by the information that the Taliban use people as human shields and sheltering the terrorists who organized the terrorist attacks in the United States. "We must redouble our efforts so that we looked not transmitting information that reflects their (Taliban) point of view or favorable to them, - stated in the order of Isakson. American viewers need to perceive the suffering of civilians in Afghanistan in the context of a terrorist attack that caused enormous suffering in the United States." According to him, CNN should not be used by Taliban as a "propaganda forum".
Conducted by the U.S. information and psychological operations are not excluded, and its part. It is noteworthy that the bombing of mountain ranges, in which the hidden inner circle of Osama bin Laden, was carried out mainly at night, although nothing prevented Americans with greater precision to execute them in the afternoon. The reason of difference in time: when America's day, in Afghanistan the night. Night shots "punish the terrorists", transmitted in live broadcasts from the field events, which could see wide-awake American viewers. It has given them pride in the power of his country and contributed to the strengthening of patriotism.
However, in its zeal the American media suppressed and hushed up today, the involvement of the United States itself to the emergence of terrorist groups in Afghanistan. This was mentioned by Julian Anythin in the Information-analytical review "the Focus, the reasons and the purposes of campaign-related events in the USA on 11 September 2001." It turns out that back in the late 80's the CIA, through its agents among the UN staff in the Afghan refugee camps in Pakistan, recorded and selection of military and civilian personnel required for the organization of state power and administrative structures of Afghanistan. At the same time, training was provided to armed groups and units of Pashtuns with the help of Pakistani and Arab military instructors, which was funded by the Pakistani intelligence agencies and Pro-government religious organizations, "Jamaat-e-Islami and the Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Pakistan", as well as U.S. intelligence, Pakistani and international fundamentalist organizations. The idea is to change the sign for unification of the Afghan tribes, to stop the internal war and move it to the outside using the movement of novices madrasahs belonged to the CIA, was funded by the sheikhs and arms were provided from Pakistan. So, representatives of the Pashtun nationality in the summer of 1994 was formed a paramilitary group headed by one of the spiritual leaders of the Afghan Mullah Seyid Muhammad Omar (Akhundzada), which received the name of the Islamic Taliban movement.
The current number one enemy bin Laden a decade and a half ago was a friend of America the number one. Under the guidance of mentors from the CIA, the representative of the wealthiest family from Saudi Arabia became the organizer of the Islamic resistance to the USSR in Afghanistan. Then bin Laden became an enemy of the United States. But some brothers "terrorist number one" quietly lived in the United States and kept their billions in American and European financial institutions.
The father of the current President George W. Bush. Bush senior, former Secretary of state Dzh. Baker, former defense Minister FR. Carlucci had been in the headquarters of the family of Osama bin Laden in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). These famous people in the world are closely linked with a major investment Bank, Washington Carlyle Group (this group is of direct relevance to military space industry of the USA), in which the family of the bin Ladens offers a considerable package of shares. In 1995, the family of the bin Ladens were invested in Carlyle Group of two million dollars.
Osama bin Laden was examined and was treating the kidneys at the American hospital in Dubai, where he arrived July 4, 2001, from Pakistan. While in the hospital, bin Laden was visited by the regional representative of the CIA. Immediately after the departure of bin Laden on July 14 met with him, the American intelligence officer was summoned to Washington. (This message appeared in the French newspaper "Le Figaro", was refuted by the CIA).
These are the facts. Their comparison suggests that over-publicized media "operation Infinite freedom" we had some different geopolitical plans and strategic objectives of the United States.
2. The nature and characteristics of the information war in Afghanistan
Formal procedure in the preparation for military action in Afghanistan ended 18.09.01 G. Bush signed a congressional resolution on use of armed forces and funds for the fight against terrorism.
On the same day, Secretary of defense Rumsfeld stated that the US is facing an entirely new type of conflict, as the network "al-Qaeda" is linked to the 50-60 countries that require large-scale operations.
The next day the Minister of foreign Affairs Igor Ivanov said on consent to involvement in military operations of the former Central Asian republics. Formal agreement underlined Russia's participation in the international coalition, despite the fact that the presence of NATO forces is clearly contrary to the interests of Russia in the Central Asian region.
Preparations for "operation Infinite freedom" began with the deployment of air forces in Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kuwait, the island of Diego Garcia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The squad of 14 ships led by the aircraft carrier "Theodore Roosevelt" went into the Persian Gulf. Japan expressed intelligence and transport support. The organization of American States has engaged the inter-American Treaty of reciprocal assistance of 1947 (Rio Treaty). Canada for the surgery has provided 2,000 troops and 6 ships, Australia - 1,000 soldiers, France - Navy in the Indian ocean.
07.10.01 G. American and British bombers and cruise missiles attacked Taliban positions. Thirty-first targets included airfields, air defense system, training camps and groups that are opposing Northern Alliance. And 09.10.01. General Mears reported that the US has achieved full control over the airspace of Afghanistan. In the subsequent steps for hitting intended targets were used multipurpose fighter F-15E, heavy bombers In-52. During the bombing of the cave complex Tora Bora was applied one of the most powerful weapons - 15000-lb bomb BLU-82 "Daisy Cutter" bombs and special laser-guided.
For information and technical support troops, the U.S. army has used unmanned aircraft and new type of Predator" and "Global Hawk". Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) "Predator" can lead not only aerial reconnaissance, and attack ground target detected anti-tank guided missile "Hellfire". At low altitudes the UAV is indispensable in solving problems of violation of the system of command and control of the enemy, as his electronic eyes could not hide even small groups of fighters of movement "Taliban" and terrorists "al-Qaeda". UAV the U.S. air force Global Hawk, reconnaissance aircraft, capable of flying at altitudes over 20,000 feet above the ground. However, with all their promising capabilities, UAVS are not without drawbacks: "Predator" bad "sees" ground targets in poor weather conditions. In addition, this machine cost $ 3.2 million. has a nasty habit of suddenly run to the ground when no one will expect. As for high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft "Global Hawk", because of the accidents of two cars worth $ 40.6 million. each whole fleet of these UAVS more sitting on the ground waiting for the results of investigations into causes of accidents than flying.
In Afghanistan the U.S. army first tested the soldier-robot in a combat situation. Radio-controlled soldier-robot, weighing in at 40 pounds, it "learns" to perform the functions of reconnaissance during examination of the caves or suspicious areas. He can climb a flight of stairs in the building, doing somersaults and move at speeds up to 9 mph. Shockproof and waterproof design can withstand bullets and falling to the ground from a second floor window. In the future it is planned to upgrade the soldier-robot, equipping it with a moving hand with a camera so that you can lift it higher, increasing vision range, as well as low-frequency radio relay communication system, which will improve its navigation capabilities at the action in the caves. In addition, options are considered weapons of a soldier-robot, for example, a grenade launcher or a double-barreled semi-automatic rifle. The cost of the robot in 40000 dollars. is considered acceptable, as it can prevent the death of a soldier in battle. The Pentagon has allocated to the programme for the development of soldier-robots that can perform life threatening jobs, $ 50 million.
In Afghanistan information technology to actively struggle was not conducted due to the lack of a powerful Taliban air defense systems and complex weapons systems. Immediately after the outbreak of hostilities bin Laden called on all Muslims to Jihad against the United States. So information warfare in the future, mainly focused in the field of information and psychological warfare. The nature of this struggle on the part of the aggressor differed uncompromising, commitment, consistency, and globality, the secrecy of the true purpose of the operation. The Taliban are unable to render the enemy visible information-psychological confrontation.
The main features of information-psychological warfareconducted by the US and its allies during the preparation and conduct of the war in Afghanistan, are as follows:
- information campaign organized and conducted according to a single plan in the form of pre-planned events, as a rule, long before the outbreak of hostilities;
- clearly distinguished two stages of information-psychological warfare: before the outbreak of hostilities, conducted on the global and regional levels, ensuring conceived military operation; after the outbreak of hostilities undertaken in support of combat operations;
- the managing of preparation and conducting of information and psychological warfare was carried out the existing centralized civil and military part of information warfare in close interaction with each other and relevant agencies of their allies;
- these structures were guided by the already proven statutory documents;
- special attention was paid to the cooperation with the media, directing the dissemination of information and their coverage is a good thing.
- the main objects of information and psychological influence prior to the aggression on the geopolitical level was of the government and the public of NATO countries, Pakistan, Russia, countries of the Near and Middle East.
The main tasks of the aggressor at this stage, was:
- justification in the eyes of the international community of aggressiveness intended action;
- the plans cover for the loud slogans about protecting "universal values";
- strengthening coalition of States allies, raising their economic and military resources for the operation;
- retraction in the conflict countries of the region, located around the country; fomenting inter-regional strife and contradictions;
- isolation of the enemy from the international moral, financial, military and material support;
- the destruction of its Union agreements and commitments with other States;
- at the regional level as the main objects of information and psychological influence at the stage of preparing and conducting operations identified the Taliban government, the armed forces and population of Afghanistan.
The main objectives of this level were:
- intimidate the opponent military strength of the coalition and fighting opportunities of modern means of defeat;
- inducing the Taliban to cease fighting and to surrender;
- the engagement of the Afghan and the people of the region;
- strengthening the Northern Alliance opponents of the regime;
- the retention of the government of Pakistan from supporting the Taliban;
- liquidation of their bases in Pakistan.
During the preparation and conduct of "operation Infinite freedom" the Taliban were broken. According to official data of the U.S. Department of State, the result of this operation was the following:
- The military operation in Afghanistan was the result of the efforts of the global coalition, members of which were armed forces of the United States, great Britain, Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Poland, Russia and Turkey.
- Coalition forces have liberated the Afghan people from the violent Taliban regime. The coalition has achieved broad military success, having involved in active ground operations of less than 3,000 soldiers.
- In a matter of weeks was almost destroyed a network of al-Qaida in Afghanistan, and the Taliban handed over the key Afghan cities such as Kandahar, Kabul, Kunduz, Mazar-I-Sharif.
- Were destroyed at least 11 terrorist training camps and 39 Taliban command and control bases, which in recent years has trained about 50,000 terrorists from more than 50 countries.
However, George Bush has repeatedly stressed that the main objective of "operation Infinite freedom" is that Osama bin Laden, his main allies of al-Qaida, and members of the Taliban government appeared before the court. From this point of view, the results can be considered zero. The Taliban regime overthrown, but among the prisoners and the victims are mostly ordinary fighters. Among the dead of high rank were only Mullah Abdul Jalil, who served as Deputy Minister of foreign Affairs. The Minister Wakil Ahmed Mutawakkil - alive, location unknown. Defense Minister Obaidullah Ajam, which is considered the closest to bin Laden man among the Taliban. The Taieb Agha, the representative of the spiritual leader of the Taliban left Kandahar with armed men. the column Disappeared Amir Khan muttaqi, who served as Minister of information and culture and then education. Ahmad Turabi and Noor Muhammad saqib the most radical members of the Supreme Council of the Taliban - had crossed the border and settled in Pakistan. The fate of the Mullah Omar known anything. But in early December 2002, the Qatari television company al-Jazeera began to transmit regularly to the received recording mullahs with threats addressed to the Americans about the looming U.S. aggression against Iraq.
As for al Qaeda, the situation is similar. Osama bin Laden managed to escape. High reward for the head of bin Laden ($25 million from the government and 2 million from the pilot Associations and air transport) and his companions (also at $ 25 million) have not yielded results. The only high-ranking leader of al-Qaida killed during the operation, became Muhammad Atef, who led the military operations of this organization. However, evidence of this was found, and he is still listed among the most wanted terrorists and information about him the promised reward. Not found the chief ideologist Ayman al-Zawahiri, the founder of the "Islamic Jihad" and the right hand of bin Laden, although assuming that his family died under American bombs. There are no traces that could lead to Abu Zubaydah, another close ally of bin Laden.
The results of operations include the destruction of terrorist training camps. However, it is hardly to overestimate the importance for international terrorism with the Afghan camps. First, in the region with permanent continuing war most residents since childhood, ready for the armed struggle. Secondly, similar camps can be organized in large numbers in other regions of the globe, and to control the entire planet cannot even antiterroristicheskoy coalition forces. And, finally, modern terrorism it is not necessary to prepare thousands of fighters. To cause serious damage to quite a dozen well-trained fanatics that are impossible to distinguish from law-abiding citizens (evidence of this - the September 11 attacks).
The most important result of the operation is obvious the loss of Russia's positions in Central Asia. Concluding his visit to Uzbekistan, the Senate majority leader in Congress, Tom deshl expressly stated: "We will increase our presence here in order to defend U.S. interests in Central Asia. Our presence in the region now is a long-term, and with the governments of Central Asia on this account already exists the necessary level of trust." 12.02.02, the United States has once again demonstrated its complete disregard for the views of other States. White house spokesman Ari Fleischer said that the US could find other partners in the antiterrorist coalition in the event of a dispute with President Vladimir Putin on the issue of taking action against countries that are ranked as Washington's "axis of evil". Fleischer warned that "can be created by different coalitions with different countries and for different purposes".
Obviously, the reduction of the military security of Russia. The possible deployment of military bases in Uzbekistan and in other Asian former Soviet republics, in the Northern provinces of Afghanistan can remove the necessity of creation of the ABM of the USA. High-precision medium-range missiles placed on-site data bases, cover all the Russian territory to the Arctic ocean. Under the gun are all the launchers of our strategic missiles.
The extension of NATO troops in former Soviet republics, as well as explicit and quite sharp statements of the American politicians of today only emphasize the weakness of Russia and its inability to defend its long-term geopolitical interests.
3. Geopolitical aspirations of the USA in Central Asia
The U.S. government has not provided the public any evidence of guilt Asama bin Laden, Muslim terrorists, but immediately, essentially "appointed" guilty and began to prepare for large-scale anti-terrorist operation, the war and involve other States. The former head of the First chief Directorate of the KGB Leonid Shebarshin right says: "almost immediately, of involvement in the incident was blamed on bin Laden... was ... a very strange moment in all the events that followed the tragedy of September 11. I mean the reflex reaction of the American side on all levels: a priori, all were accused of Muslim organizations and Islam in General. In the same spirit were couched statements of official U.S. persons who did not, and physically could not anything to understand. They in one voice said: it is not extremists, not terrorists is Islam. It seems that the scenario of the reaction of American society to the tragedy was carefully prepared in advance".
Among many political scientists have formed a strong opinion that the USA of 11 September 2001 have made a great provocationaimed at unleashing the hands to actively pursue the idea of world domination.
In confirmation of this reasoning are the following arguments:
The terrorist organization al-Qaida, despite its power, could not hold the attack on the selected target. To approve L. Shebarshin, "... the organization known to the world for years. Better yet she's known to the intelligence services of the USA, England and Israel. Of course, these intelligence agencies have put a lot of effort to keep this organization under control, to know frames to be aware of its plans. E-mail, telecommunication, phone connection - everything is under control. It is hard to imagine that the preparation and implementation of this large-scale operation as the terrorist attack of 11 September, have been without the use of electronics and ether. Even harder to imagine that it wasn't intercepted and recorded... the Professionals that were equipped with the services mentioned above, could not use their agents surrounded by the leaders of extremist groups".
The evidence long and carefully thought-out plan and clear organization of the terrorist acts. To simultaneously capture up to 6 or even more aircraft required a corresponding number of pilots. The pilots of the hijacked aircraft were very professional: had almost simultaneously and without suspicion to reach goals and not to miss. So long and carefully prepared for driving these planes. Nevertheless, about problems with the training of pilots and the terrorist attacks involving dozens, if not hundreds of people, U.S. intelligence agencies knew nothing.
The terrorists knew and used in negotiating a code word denoting the aircraft of the President of the United States. They were known codes (combination of six digits) that get commanders "Boeing" personally from the Manager prior to a flight. Not entering these figures, the pilot first, will not be able to taxi and take off. Secondly, after entering the password. it for about 20 minutes unable to deviate from the desired course. The only thing he is allowed to increase the height within the corridor. To change course only when running out of time cipher. In fact the aircraft after take-off to Los Angeles after a minute or two unfolded in new York. The obvious conclusion to make a diversion of this magnitude the terrorists had to have the people in the vast network of mutually overlapping, duplicate, multiply redundant intelligence agencies with huge financial and technical capabilities.
It is worth noting that the attacks were committed at the very moment when it was already overdue international financial crisis. After persistent talk about the imminent fall of the dollar the day before the terrorist acts of some big players on the London stock exchange were bearish.
Terrorist attacks occurred on the eve of the introduction of the European Union in the cash flow of its currency, which the US see as a real threat to the dollar. The attack helped the Americans to save their currency by attracting European resources on the conduct of hostilities.
352 suspected of helping terrorists, detained by FBI agents, nobody had a direct and evidential relations to nineteen suicide bombers involved in the attacks. This was announced by the attorney-General and Minister of justice George W. Bush. Ashcroft to members of the us Congress. The FBI also has no evidence of the activities of al-Qaida or any other group of Osama bin Laden in the United States.
- The disappearance of Osama bin Laden and his key associates allows the White house to talk about the need to spread anti-terrorist operations not only in Afghanistan but in other States, for various reasons objectionable to the United States (Iraq, Iran, Yemen, Syria, Indonesia, the Philippines, etc.).
However, the above conclusions are not legal evidence of attribution of the events of 11 September in provocation conducted by the American globalists. The obvious consequences of information and psychological treatment of the world community under the banner of anti-terrorist operation has been the expansion of US influence in the Asian region. The slogan of combating terrorism was an excuse to interfere in the internal Affairs of other States. The U.S. assistant Secretary of state Elizabeth Jones is not accidentally said that "when the conflict in Afghanistan will end, we will not leave Central Asia." And it's not just about the appearance of U.S. military bases and their allies in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The U.S. presence will increase in all countries engaged and involved in the fight against terrorism, despite some resistance from those governments.
Military bases created by the United States in Central Asia, perform not only the function of combating terrorism. Their long term goal is to provide military, strategic and economic influence of America in the rich oil and gas region. These databases will serve as the Foundation for building America's world Empire.
The United States is pursuing an ambitious strategic power grab in Central Asia. In former times this kind of expansionism would have been called colonialism or imperialism. Today, this expansion is simply called "war against terrorism". The war in Afghanistan is a regional political, economic and military capabilities that have long been sought by the United States and who now fell into their hands. In September 2000, for example, General Tommy Francaie toured Central Asia, waving a checkbook military aid. However, in General, during the reign of Clintonistas the desire of the United States to tread the path to Central Asian reserves of oil and gas encountered various obstacles, especially after missile attacks on Afghanistan in 1998 that followed the movement organized the al-Qaida bombings of buildings of the American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.
United States, pressure, flattery, and bribery breaking their way into Central Asia, have no desire to leave soon this region. With the threat of the return of the political situation in Kabul as to the past or revival of the Taliban movement is only partly a task of the American bases everywhere created around Afghanistan. Them more significant, more long-term goal is the protection of American influence and American interests in the countries where the U.S. previously did not penetrate.
The potential benefits for the United States in Central Asia are enormous: growing military dominance in one of the few parts of the world that is not under Washington's influence, the growth of strategic influence by reducing the influence of Russia and China, substantial political influence and, most important, access to huge reserves of Central Asian oil and gas which are not under the control of OPEC. The U.S. seeks to create an energy source alternative to the Persian Gulf. This alternative in Asia is the Caspian region. In Azerbaijan the oil and gas can be about 10% of world reserves in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan also about 10% in both countries. Assessment of OPEC, total oil and gas reserves in the region amount to 23 billion tonnes. Communications of the Caspian sea, particularly the oil pipeline "Baku-Novorossiysk", traditionally went through the territory of Russia. In the mid-1990s, it has ceased to satisfy US. Almost all of the Russian alternative pipeline projects: "Baku-Supsa" and "Baku-Ceyhan, Odessa-Brody-Gdansk" were born as a result of direct or veiled efforts of the American administration.
In the USA was considered the transfer of energy through Iran. Steps were taken for rapprochement with the Iranian liberal circles, but it to anything yet. Oil from Kazakhstan could go to China, which to jerk the world leaders is not enough cheap energy. This USA don't want to admit.
The path from Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan through Afghanistan and Pakistan to the Indian ocean is the cheapest for the Caspian oil and, most importantly, do not traverse Russian territory. To ensure this route, the United States can take control of the Herat valley in the direction of Kabul and Pakistan's Peshawar. This way the most probable laying of pipelines from Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan to the Pakistani port of Karachi. Control can be achieved by planting in Afghanistan puppet regime.
For Russia, the realization of U.S. ideas will bring huge losses.
The presence of USA and NATO on the southern borders of the former USSR will strengthen the geopolitical separation of the Central Asian republics from Russia. The fate of the Russian troops in Tajikistan, Armenia and especially in Georgia, it becomes obvious - conclusion under the first pretext. Georgia already requires this. In the presence of NATO troops in Georgia and Azerbaijan of the Russian border troops in Armenia will become meaningless.
Uzbekistan still locked Iran from the South and Russia from the North, but having sustainable access to the port of Karachi in Pakistan, he can completely abandon the partnership with Russia and to switch to the West. Once in the key area of the branch in Ashgabat, Baku, Tbilisi and Istanbul, Tashkent will be able to build a special relationship with Turkey.
A project of the European Union in the framework of the Tacis program "the silk road of the 21st century" ("TRACECA" Transport Сorridor Europe Caucasus Asia) for the purpose of organizing a new road connecting Europe with China and Southeast Asia, passing through the territory of the States CIS, passing traffic artery of Russia, Turkey and Iran will lead to economic isolation of former Soviet Central Asian republics from Russia and the withdrawal of part of cargo traffic to Russian transport network.
The weakening of geopolitical and economic positions of Russia pursuing long-term strategic objectives of the United States – the elimination from the political arena of the world and its transformation into a raw materials appendage of the West. The thrust of this policy are formulated in the clear speech of talkers: Secretary of the Trilateral Commission Zbigniew Brzezinski: "Russia - the defeated power. She has lost Titanic struggle. And to say "it was not Russia, and the Soviet Union" - means to escape from reality. It was Russia, called the Soviet Union. She challenged the United States. She was defeated. Now it is not necessary to feed illusions about velikoderjavnoy Russia. It is necessary to discourage to this way of thinking... Russia will be shattered and under guardianship". Member of the Trilateral Commission, the head of the b'nai b'rith Henry Kissinger: "the Collapse of the Soviet Union is undoubtedly the most important event of modern times, and the Bush administration (meaning older) showed in their approach to this issue amazing art... I prefer in Russia chaos and civil war to trends of reunification of it into a single, strong, centralized state". The Prime Minister of great Britain J. Major: "...the task of Russia after losing the cold war - to provide resources prosperous country. But for this they need only 50 - 60 million people".
Despite the rapprochement between Russia and the USA on the grounds of fighting against terrorism, no one in America not stated Dasavali statements of its ideologists. With this in mind, Russia has firmly and consistently pursue its strategy in relation to international processes quickly-changing modern world, to defend Russian interests in the various regions of the planet.
4. Afghanistan as a testing ground for developing a radically new operational concept for the conduct of conflict - that of network wars
According to several American military experts, a new look at the threats of the twenty-first century is that in the future the main threat will come from the regular armies of different countries, and from various terrorist, criminal and other organizations, including non-state parties which United in certain network structures. Such organizations do not have a clear hierarchical structure of authority, often do not have a unified leadership, coordinate their activities with the use of global communications. A distinctive feature of these structures is the presence of a single strategic goal and the lack of clear planning at the tactical level. To refer to such structures appeared a special term "segmented, polycentric, ideologized network" (Segmented, Polycentric, Ideologically integrated Network, SPIN).
In terms of exposure to such threats change the role and place of armed forces. Increasingly the emphasis is on conducting non-military operations (Operation Other Then War) that requires close interaction with non-state organizations and structures.
For the organization of the armed forces in terms of exposure to new threats in the United States developed the concept of network war. According to its authors, the confrontation between the network or "network war" (Network-Centric Warfare, NCW abbreviated) is the best term proposed to date to describe the way of organizing and conducting warfare in the information age.
In one of the statements made immediately after the terrorist attacks in the United States, Secretary of defense Donald Rumsfeld noted that in connection with perfect of 11 September in new York and Washington attacks "...we are witnessing the emergence of a new field of battle... conflict of a different type...". He further noted that in the near future America will have to solve two important tasks: to win in the fight against terrorism by eliminating terrorist networks and prepare for a completely different war - the war that will be strikingly different not only from the wars of the past century, but also from the new war on terrorism that the US lead at the present time.
The operation of U.S. troops in Afghanistan in many respects is a testing ground for developing new operational concept of "network war".
On the intensification of work by the U.S. Department of defense in this direction is the fact that in recent years sharply increased interest in the project to create a global information network of the Ministry of defense known as the Defense Information Grid project, which is coordinated by the Agency of information systems of the Ministry of defense (DISA). Global information network of the Ministry of defence is the basis of "network war".
From September to October 2001 the subject of "network war" one way or another were discussed at all conferences and seminars held with experts of the Ministry of defense.
This trend in the development of operational art was the basis for the concept of building the armed forces of the United States "joint vision 2010" ("Joint Vision 2010") and linked to the transformation of views on the nature of the threats in the new century.
The contours of the new strategy were spelled out by rumsfelda in the article "Beyond the war on terror", published in the newspaper "Washington post" in October 2001. He notes that in light of recent events in the US preparations for a surprise attack - the preparation of swift and decisive - must be one of the components of military planning in the 21st century. In order to repel sudden attacks, the military strategists of the USA needs to move the center of gravity in the system of defense planning model, the starting point of which is the threat and which still dominated in the theory of the defence, on the model based on the forces and capabilities required in the future. Instead focus on who will be the next opponent, or will the war, the U.S. armed forces should focus on the methods of action of potential adversaries - and, consequently, to develop new capabilities to deter and defeat. Instead of planning large-scale wars in precisely defined theaters of the proposed military action, Rumsfeld believes, it is necessary to anticipate the emergence of new and varied opponents, who will rely on surprise, deception and asymmetric weapons use to achieve their goals. (According to the definition of the Institute for national strategic studies National defense University USA, under the "asymmetric" threats are understood "using the element of surprise in all its operational and strategic dimensions and the use of weapons in ways that are not planned in the USA").
As stated by D. Rumsfeld, preparing for this development was the goal held every four years, the analysis of the status and prospects of development of the defense, the results of which were presented on 30 September the US Congress. This analysis set out a new strategy of defense in the twenty-first century, designed to realize four key objectives: to assure allies in the firmness of set goals and ability to meet its obligations in the field of security; to dissuade potential adversaries the appropriateness of programs or activities that may pose a threat to U.S. interests or the interests of its allies; to provide for deterrence of aggression and power at the expense of forward-deployed forces and assets able to quickly stop the spread of the crisis and to take decisive action to neutralize any opponent in the case, if the methods of persuasion and deterrence would be ineffective.
To achieve these goals the U.S. should maintain the existing military advantage in key areas and to develop new ways of depriving the opponents of the benefits they are trying to get, applying asymmetric options.
The authors define NCW as an operational concept based on information superiority and allows to increase the combat power of the troops by focusing on a network of sensors, headquarters and Executive offices. This makes it possible to achieve wide awareness, increase speed of finishing orders, higher tempo of operations, greater striking operation, greater survivability and a degree of self-synchronization. In essence, NCW translates information superiority into combat power, effectively linking smart objects in a common information space of the theater of operations.
The main task of the developers of this concept is to offer military leadership theoretical and operational basis for the organization of counteraction to new conditions.
The concept of NCW comes from the experience of fighting received by the U.S. army at the time of participation in the conflict. First and foremost is the war against guerrillas in Vietnam, in Somalia, in Bosnia, as well as the generalization of the combat experience of the Soviet and Russian army in Afghanistan and Chechnya.
"Network war" transforms the notion of the battlefield (battlefield) to the concept of space combat (battlespace), in which in addition to traditional goals to defeat conventional weapons are also included and the objectives behind the virtual sphere: emotions, perception and psyche of the enemy.
Impact on new classes of goals is achieved through close integration of the network structures of the Ministry of defence and network structures of civil society, responsible for the production of "public opinion".
The key features of "network war" war is a traditional lie in three fundamental concepts:
- The use of geographically distributed power. As experts point out previously due to various kinds of restrictions were necessary so that units and elements of logistics are from the same area in close proximity to the enemy or to defend the object. The new concept removes these limitations.
- The forces involved in "network war", highly intelligent. Using the knowledge gained from comprehensive monitoring of space combat and enhanced understanding of the intentions of command, these forces will be capable of self-synchronization of activity will be more effective with Autonomous actions.
- The presence of effective communication between entities in the battlespace. This enables geographically distributed objects holds joint actions, as well as dynamically distribute the responsibilities and the amount of work to adapt to the situation.
As noted above, the basis of the new concept is an information network (The Grid). Furthermore, this network consists of three subnets: the subnet of sensors (sensors), a subnet of nodes of the decision makers, the Executive and the subnet nodes.
All three subnets include nodes running both with real and virtual objects. So, in the subnet touch sensors themselves can be passive and active, and can be located in both real and in the virtual sphere of space combat. The same applies to subnet the Executive units. It includes both traditional weapons (tanks, planes, ships, etc.) and means of influencing the target in the virtual space: media, computer viruses, etc.
In the Doctrine of information security of the Russian Federation stated: "the national security of the Russian Federation substantially depends on information security, and in the course of technical progress this dependence will grow". The armed Forces of Russia it is necessary not only to declare the importance of the information component, but also more actively and decisively to introduce information technology in the practice of troops.
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