In January 1995, this influential company was requested in the framework of the activities carried out by the U.S. Department of defense to perform a number of research works in this area.
Their goal was to identify key characteristics and features of use of information weapons; understanding its possible impact on national security; identification of the main activities in the field of IP; strengthening national security and gain technological superiority in the field of information weapons; coordination of scientific and industrial organizations in the determination of basic directions of improving the strategy of national security information systems.
The results of these works were intended to serve as the basis for the designation of the role and place of information confrontation in the national military strategy of the USA, and a year later they were presented in the report MR-661-OSD (Strategic Information Warfare. A new face of War). In this document, for the first time, due to the awareness of the capability information weapons, coined the term Strategic Information Warfare - a <strategic information confrontation>.
Such a confrontation, according to the authors of the report, is an <the use by States of the global information space and infrastructure for holding strategic military operations and reduce the impact of its own information resource>. The emergence of such terminology substantially different from the official interpretation of information warfare as enshrined in the Directive of the Ministry of defense S DOD 3600.1 (December 1992), which reviewed SP in a fairly narrow sense, in the form of similarity to warfare. The report says that changes in socio-political life of some States, due to the rapid pace of Informatization and computerization of society, lead to the revision of the geopolitical views of the leadership, to the emergence of new strategic interests (including in the information sphere), resulting in a change in the policies of these countries. The authors emphasize that, given the definition of war given by Clausewitz (war is the continuation of politics by other means>), global contradictions require new tools and methods of their resolution is a strategic information warfare.
The conducted research allowed to identify the following key features of this type of confrontation: the relatively low cost of generating funds IE; the wreck of the status of traditional national borders in the preparation and conducting information operations; the strengthening of the role of management perception of the situation by manipulating information on its description; change of priorities in the activities of strategic intelligence, which moved into the region in winning and maintaining information superiority; the complexity of the problems of detection of the beginning of information operations; the difficulty of building a coalition against the aggressor who had unleashed an information war (IOT); the presence of potential threats within the United States. The authors particularly noted the fact that the main provisions of national military strategy the U.S. is not adequate to the threats that arise in the course of strategic IP.
In this regard, they expressed the need to implement the following recommendations: to arrange the coordination of works to address threats in the information sphere in the vicinity of the President, because only in this way can provide the required level of coordination among all ministries and agencies; to assess the vulnerability of key elements of the national information infrastructure; to ensure the state's dominant role in coordinating work to address threats in the information sphere; to make adjustments to national security strategy and national military strategy in accordance with the peculiarities of doing strategic IP. In the final part of the report MR-661-OSD examines the likely course of information warfare on the example of possible conflict between the US and Iran in the Persian Gulf using methods of forecast of development of situations, previously developed in the Corporation <Rand> and known as.
The essence of the understanding of the processes of the strategic entrepreneur reflected in the records of the Corporation, executed in 1998: MR-963-OSD (The Day After ... in the American Strategic Infrastructure) and MR-964-OSD (Strategic Information Warfare Rising). In them on the basis of previously performed studies on the role and place of information warfare, as well as analysis of the current state in this area an attempt was made to forecast (using known techniques) formation dynamics of the situation in the world. Discusses a number of possible development paths, including the conquest of the United States dominance in the field of IP, the creation of elite club of States the owners of means of information warfare and several others. Was also substantiated a set of measures necessary to implement in the near future in order to achieve the desired result in this area in the future. A key concept introduced in the report, MR-964-OSD, is the classification of strategic confrontation to the first and second generation.
The strategic entrepreneur of the first generation is considered along with traditional means of warfare (nuclear, chemical, biological and other). It is emphasized that it is more focused on disruption of control systems and carried out more as a traditional support capabilities. The authors note that this perception of information warfare inherent in the initial stage of understanding the problem. In the report of the strategic entrepreneur of the first generation is defined as <... one of several components of future strategic warfare, used in conjunction with other tools to achieve the goal>. Thus, the concept <information strategic confrontation of the first generation> actually incorporates the main methods of information warfare that the United States will implement at the present time in the state and military levels and that do not intend to change that in the foreseeable future. Further study of the problem led to the introduction of the concept of <strategic information warfare the second generation> (2nd Generation Strategic Information Warfare).
In the report this concept is defined as <a fundamentally new type of strategic warfare, brought to life by information revolution, introducing a range of possible areas of conflict of information space and a number of other areas (particularly the economy) and continued for a long time: weeks, months and years>. It is noted that the development and improvement of approaches to doing strategic IP second generation in the long term can lead to complete refusal from the use of military force, as coordinated action can afford to do without this extreme measure. The authors emphasize that if the consequences of strategic PI of the first generation can be projected using existing methods, the second generation of warfare today it is very difficult formalized, and existing methods of prediction can be applied to the analysis of consequences is very conditional. As an Annex to the report presents two scenarios of possible events derived using the same methodology. The first is based on the results of the assessment of the strategic PIS of the first generation in the conflict between China and Taiwan in the period up to 2010. The second examines the conduct of strategic IE Russia and USA in the period up to 2010.
This scenario is based on the fact that Russia deploys complex operation to manipulate the economic situation in the energy market (oil and gas) for several years and aims to achieve superiority over the U.S. by imposing its economic policy on the energy market. In operation, in addition to means of special software and mathematical impact on the information system of credit and financial sphere of the West, manipulating information in the media, and is also involved diplomatic measures of influence on other energy suppliers, and manipulation of monetary systems of countries (Euro and dollar). It is obvious that for all its novelty, the concept <information warfare of the second generation> formally outlined the purpose of doing EVE on the state level, which put the U.S. intelligence services in the times of <cold war>.
However, under conditions of a certain transformation of views on the problem of reference IE, and change objectives that need to be addressed to achieve this goal. So, for information warfare of the first generation is:
- suppression fire (in military time) infrastructure of state and military administration;
- electronic warfare;
- obtaining intelligence through intercepting and deciphering information flows transmitted via communication channels, and spurious emissions;
- unauthorized access to information resources and their subsequent misrepresentation or theft;
- formation and mass distribution via information channels of the enemy, or global networks of disinformation to influence the estimates, the intentions of the decision makers;
- receive for information by interception of public sources of information.
Information confrontation of the second generation envisages a slightly different approach:
- creating an atmosphere of spirituality and immorality, negative attitudes to the cultural heritage of the enemy;
- manipulation of public consciousness and political orientation of social groups of the population to create political tension and chaos;
destabilization of political relations among parties, associations and movements to provoke conflict, fuelling mistrust, suspicion, aggravation of political struggle, provoking repressions against the opposition and even civil war;
- reduction of level of information support of authorities and management, are inspired by wrong management decisions;
- misinformation of the population about the work of public authorities, undermine their authority, discredit the government;
- provoking social, political, national and religious clashes;
- initiation of strikes, riots and other actions of economic protest;
- difficulty making controls important decisions;
- undermining of the international authority of the state, its cooperation with other countries;
- damage to the vital interests of the state in the political, economic, defense and other fields.
In General, it should be noted that since the end of 90-ies the main trend in the development of an understanding of the role and place of information confrontation among specialists Corporation <Rand> is the realization that strategic entrepreneur is a self fundamentally new type of strategic warfare, able to resolve conflicts without the use of armed force. It is noteworthy that the President's Directive PDD-68, dated 30 January 1999, the White house has created a new structure called the International Public Information Group (IPI). The objectives of this organization included professional use of intelligence information in order to exert influence on the emotions, motives, behavior of foreign governments, organizations and individuals>. A significant role in creating the Agency was played by the intelligence community, primarily the CIA. Thus, American experts believe it is quite possible to achieve in the foreseeable future overwhelming advantages in the information war that, in their opinion, will allow to successfully resolve conflicts in their favor without military intervention.
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