Center for Strategic Assessment and forecasts

Autonomous non-profit organization

Home / Defence and security / / Articles
Cyber defence is a multilateral political challenge
Material posted: Publication date: 06-02-2014

The recent revelation of former NSA employee Edward Snowden led to the fact that cyber security was at the center of public attention. As this topic is addressed in the policy? One look at the recent posts international journals enough to realize that beneath the headlines about cyber security discusses a variety of aspects, such as liberterian as a means of combating cyber attacks, Internet governance or the benefits of digital diplomacy as a preventive tool for greater cyber security.

Technical article reflect different aspects of the new policy in the field of foreign and security policy. The added value of this young scientific discussion attaches to the fact that it raises many questions, to be answered by the decision-makers in politics and Economics in connection with the fight against cyberscam.

At least the revelation of a former employee of NSA USA Edward Snowden has made fashion the topic of cyber security. To illuminate this theme from different points of view, it makes sense to examine the research related to this issue. Unlike the media, in scientific literature the term "security" is controversial. When it comes to cyber security, then, according to Gustav Good, the head of Euro-Atlantic security programme at the Geneva centre for security policy (GCSP), lack of internationally accepted definitions for many terms that are Central in debates about cybercrime, cyberwar and cyberterrorism. The question of what conditions must be met in order to regard cyber attacks as an armed attack in the eyes of international law, remains unanswered as the question about what are the rights of victims of such attacks. In addition, according to Good, there is a trend of offensive use of cyber technologies that should also be considered. Discussions about cybersecurity should be focused on the question of appropriate policy and legal measures that help to limit the use of cyber weapons. The skills of a cyber attack were developed, Lindstrom, and have increasingly become a strategic tool for intergovernmental conflict resolution. In addition, politicians have to come to an agreement about the model of Internet governance, whether to maintain the current mode or to ensure greater regulation, as in China and Russia.

You can also read the literature on the classification of cyber technologies and their novelty in international Affairs and security policy that provides James A. Lewis, senior fellow and Director of the program on public policy and technology at the Center for strategic and international studies (CSIS), which he wrote for the journal on military and strategic issues. Cybermetal used by intelligence agencies since the 80s, but the military cyber attacks appear only in 90-ies.

Cyber attacks are using new ways and means of violent enforcement of interests (coercion) and espionage, but do not belong to a new category of conflict. It would be wrong to portray malware, such as Stuxnet and Flame as the characteristics of a new type of war; these attacks are not as destructive as the power of nuclear weapons. Be attributed to the Stuxnet weapon of war even more difficult international negotiations in which it is proposed to lock the cyberspace.

Complex cybermetal a La Stuxnet currently used only in the United States, the United Kingdom, Israel, Russia and China. Other States intend to exploit similar opportunities. Still not managed to inflict damage with physical damage. However, there are doubts over Lewis, so, if countries such as Iran and private entities will have sufficient opportunities to commit cyber attacks. Lewis argues that we need to support a large political context with a view to preserving the possibility of cyber attacks: he noticed that revelations about the spy program Flame could be careful negotiating position of Russia on issues of Internet governance and cyberspace.

Liberterian the example of the United States

Miriam Dunn Cavelty, head of the research group Risk&Sustainability at the center for research and security ETH Zurich, in his article in the journal international Studies Review analyzed data on how military rhetoric prevails in connection with cyberincidents, related to security. Cyber security will mainly be dealt with as a military problem that can be solved with military action. Cavelty Dunn refers to this matter and encourages such seemingly obvious relationship is always to cast doubt.

Frank Cillufo, Director of the Institute of politics of internal security (HSPI) and co-Director Cyber Center for National and Economic Security (CCNES) University.George Washington, Sharon Kardash, Deputy Director of HSPI and George Salmoiraghi, attorney and consultant at HSPI, by contrast, believe in this. In the newspaper Military and Strategic Affairs they represent are some of the key points of the strategy of liberterian USA. To protect critical infrastructures such as water and power supply, the authors recommend that States develop a strategy for cyber-security. The United States must demonstrate leadership ciberpolitica and follow a specific plan. Key points of American hegemony is not just that its military power is growing and threatens to strike first, but to actually be able to thwart cyber attacks militarily. For this purpose it is necessary to keep the leading position of the USA in the field of science and technology. The goals and motives of potential adversaries should be identified promptly, to be able to take adequate countermeasures. Despite the enormous technical progress and simultaneously the lack of information in relation to criminals, the U.S. government must be able to withstand their skills in the use of technology. According to the authors, should be the strong incentives for the private sector to protect important strategic infrastructure. Also, if necessary, there can be cooperation with the international unions in the field of cyber technologies.

Before application of Edward Snowden for the monitoring program Prism of American journalist James Bamford in Wired Magazine criticized the current ciberpolitica USA. Bamford writes about how NSA for many decades. It specifies how, under the leadership of General Keith Alexander extended the monitoring of Internet programs, and in this case, depending on those or other consequences for the society, held a political discussion. Based on the official position of the United States, under the cyber security, according to Bamford, is meant that the Pentagon, despite budget cuts of 4.7 billion dollars for "operations in cyberspace" by 2014, in fact, has applied for $ 1 billion more than last year. A significant proportion of cyberorganism under the leadership of General Alexander will be put into operation. Should be funded the establishment of about 13 groups of cyber attacks. U.S. government created the so-called Zero-Day-Exploits, which, falling into the "wrong hands", are a huge gap in security. Zero-Day-Exploit is, in the opinion of the company "Kaspersky Lab", "malicious software, which simultaneously detects errors, the vulnerability of the application or system, and through which these actions can be used for other purposes. From the manufacturer no time to provide a Patch (software fix) and IT administrators don't come to that, to be able to involve other protective mechanisms". Attacks using the vulnerability of the system, will be "Achilles' business security," as quoted a former intelligence officer Bamford. Accordingly, this and follow high of the amount paid by stakeholders Zero-Day-Exploits, and through which, according to Bamford, comes a dangerous and uncontrolled race of cyber weapons with their own black market.

Norm regression and the role of BRICS

While some security experts advocate the expansion of state capabilities to cyber attacks, needs to hear and the other scientists in the field of Internet governance, which declare the trend toward securitization at the expense of civil liberties.

This fact is stated Ronald J. Deibert, Director of the Canadian centre for global research in the field of security and the Citizen Lab at the school on security policy at the University of Toronto, and Masashi Crete-Nishibata, Manager of research at Citizen Lab in his articles for the newspaper Global Governance, where are the "norm regression" in global governance. They are what most rules are placed in such a way that restrict cyberspace as "a public domain of free information and communication". We are talking about what is the development directed toward traditional forms of state control. To traditional state control include censorship and restrictions or interruption of Internet access in order to prevent riots and protests. Forums that promote norms of control, identify the authors of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) or regional organizations such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Simplifies state censorship, the import and export of relevant technologies for cyber defense, filtration, commercial online activity, and for monitoring or use in certain offensive operations.

Why multilateral cooperation it is difficult to form, and what role do the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) in the field of Internet governance and cybersecurity – this tells Hans Ebert and Tim Maurer in the edition of Third World Quarterly. The BRICS countries jointly oppose U.S. policy. But at the same time, these countries have different strategies in foreign policy. Russia and China, in particular, tend to use state control in the Internet community, and they were aimed at creating rules for international coordination through ITU. Both countries wanted to organize an international Code of conduct on information security. India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA), by contrast, used "intergovernmental" model for the purpose of rulemaking for the Internet community, which are specially created international organisations, which also include non-state stakeholders. IBSA-countries are in the position of denying Internet censorship and closed networks, positioning themselves as "Swing States" on the global debate. In this context, is the inconsistent behavior of the BRICS countries is due to the fact that in some countries democracy dominates, in others not. According to the authors, a considerable role is played by other factors: first, different historical experiences, second, the mobilization of society under the influence of the media, thirdly, a partnership between information security and the discussion on human rights and, fourthly, the economic rise of China and offers an opportunity for developing countries to break free from addiction and the U.S. to differentiate its interests from the interests of the leading powers. As an example for the fourth point can also lead to joint cooperation between India and the US or Brazil with the United States under the auspices of the Internet governance and cyber security.

Digital diplomacy

The role of public diplomacy is discussed by Nicholas cull, Professor of public diplomacy University of southern California in Los Angeles in his article for the newspaper International Studies Review. It depicts how modern information and communication technologies have been used in American public diplomacy, describes the dialogue with the representatives of third countries. Responsible for this was from 1953 until 1999, the Department of State as a highly innovative Information Agency of the USA. The author complains that the ICT facilities are not used often enough. The first revelations by Wikileaks and fractures in the Arab world since December 2010 due to the fact that been enhanced ICT opportunities for dialogue compared to how they were used previously. Diplomacy can be activated on the digital forums and with the help of individually used channels. "Public diplomacy 2.0" is the result of the idea of horizontal Networks, which implies the use of social Networks and online communities.

Mariete the Shaak, the Netherlands member-member of European liberal democratic party in his own article for the newspaper Security and Human Rights goes even further. She raises the importance of digital freedom as thoroughly as the importance of responsibility, which "grows" out of EU diplomacy. The Arab spring has demonstrated the effectiveness of modern information and communication technologies. Here is the EU is a lever that opens access to democratization.

According to the author, in the era of information technology European policy should be renewed with the aim of strengthening the rights for the protection of human rights. Diplomacy the EU must change its policy to accept their own freedom and to get round censorship or prevent this is by exporting technology. Digital freedom also implies traditional human rights such as the right to freedom of expression and Assembly. The shaak in his article propagates the orientation information of the external policy on human rights, which is of great importance in the economy of the private sector. In addition, information freedom, the EU needs to defend itself so that the Union has earned the trust and fully consistent with his principles. What, just the same, Europe will be deeply monitored from the outside. Despite this, the Shaak sees in the "digitization" of the risks facing the field of security policy and foreign policy. However, information and communication technology should serve in a democracy respect freedom of human rights.

Cyber security has a huge impact on rights and freedoms, but this one has a reverse side. These relationships are quite critical look Stephen C. Bennett in an article entitled "Right to be forgotten" in Berkeley Journal of International Law. The rights of Internet users are that some information can be monitored by its preservation or destruction. Bennett outlined the efforts and measures to protect information that has taken Europe since 2000. This includes the rules that they must operate and which must be adhered to by all organizations in the EU. In the US, by contrast, the right to freedom of speech ranks higher than data protection. Today the economy is based on Internet technologies that, according to Bennett, is a key role in the harmonization of international policies on information security. In connection with the recent events in USA that occurred since 2010, can be established that the United States is making greater openness on issues of data protection, as well as for joint dialogue with the EU. This dialogue can be greatly simplified with the introduction of the EU common standard of data protection, thus both partners would work, at least to the minimum standards. Despite such progress, the question remains about how to handle the legal side of the existing issues of confidentiality. Especially there is a lack of confidence in how widely developed the competence of the courts of the EU towards those who are outside the EU, but influence. The existence of such issues in infinite cyberspace is the traditional concept of jurisdiction, which is based on the sovereignty of a certain territory. Although, according to Bennett, the rapid development of common law standards is a kind of ambitious project. But, on the other hand, it will help to expand the understanding and to reduce legal uncertainty arising from costs and trade barriers.

Next topic: big data

"Big data can give an idea about possible future events," says Kenneth Neil Zucker and Victor Mallet's Program in Foreign Affairs. Big data correlates with the idea that today, they should be treated relatively inexpensive and powerful computers. Most of the data is a decisive factor in certain processes.

At present, almost all can be displayed in the data, e.g. GPS data, which operates on the basis of the positioning. But then, why big data, however, go by the wayside, has its causation. Only with probability it can be argued that this could contribute, in the authors ' opinion, the solution of many problems of mankind. Zucker and Meyer's Program give a couple of striking examples of constructive use of big data, for example, in medicine or the provision of public services. Such data can also be useful in the fight against climate change. A variety of sensors located around the world can provide a huge amount of data that will help to solve the problem of global warming and more accurately determine and study the most effective way to change the environment manually. But huge amounts of data, in particular, in the hands of undemocratic States could, according to the authors, lead to a widening gap between citizens and the state.

Cybersecurity as a new political challenge

In this debate you must also specify that the digital revolution not only opens up opportunities but also poses significant risks. Between two countries actually started the arms race on the Internet. In addition, Edward Snowden, having insider information about British and American surveillance programs, has determined that for foreign policy and security are of paramount importance big data. "You must know your enemy to be able to win it," this principle, which was formulated about 2.5 thousand years ago Chinese military strategist sun Tzu, is the place to be and today, in the era of Internet technologies. Effective security measures it can be taken only when you know what methods and tools an attacker uses to crack the computer of your opponent. At the same time, it can be noted that the digital revolution is different. Thus, there is a digital gap (digital divide) between OECD countries and countries not belonging to OECD. This, in turn, means that opportunities are unevenly distributed to the world access the Internet and other (digital) information and communication technologies, and largely dependent on social factors. Cyber security means also human security. This leaves open the question of modernization that creates the cybersecurity, or new diplomacy, which is now included in the grip of a digital revolution. The provisions discussed here, we can conclude that this debate is only gaining momentum. The issues addressed in the articles clearly illustrate aspects of what cyber security in many policy areas plays an important role, and that different information technologies can dramatically change the reality. Thus, cyber security is for European and foreign policy international security-new challenges.

 

Source: Geopolitikasi


RELATED MATERIALS: Defence and security