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Count N. P. Rezanov. Its role in the development of land in North America
Material posted: Publication date: 14-11-2014

Nobleman Nikolai Petrovich Rezanov was born in St. Petersburg into an impoverished family of 8 April 1764, but received an excellent education at home and by age 14 he had five European languages. Since 1778 he served in the military artillery, but due to its statisti, the bearing and the outer beauty was transferred to the life guards Izmailovo regiment.

During the civil service rose quickly through the ranks, that speaks not only of great diplomatic and business qualities of the young man, but also powerful support of influential officials.

In 1791, becoming the ruler of the office, Rezanov became as close as possible to the Imperial court, and could become a new favorite of Catherine II. But Teeth P. A. for fear of losing their privileged position under the pretext of sending him to Irkutsk.

Being in Irkutsk, Rezanov met with a "Russian Columbus" — the founder of the first Russian settlements in America — G. I. Shelikhov. In an effort to consolidate its position, Shelikhov Rezanov wooed her eldest daughter, Anna. January 24, 1795, thirty years of Nikolai Petrovich Rezanov to marry fifteen-year-old daughter Anna Shelikhov, receiving, thus, the right to participate in the Affairs of the family company. From this moment Rezanov's destiny was closely connected with Russian America.[1]

After the death of G. I. Shelikhov, count making every effort to create a Russian trading company, the interest of which will extend across the Pacific. Soon on the basis of the company G. I. Shelikhov and other merchants of Siberia created a unified Russian-American company (RAC).

In 1802 Nikolai Rezanov through the Minister of Commerce, count Nikolai Petrovich Rumyantsev gave the king a note that pointed to the inconvenience of shipping in the new Russian ownership provisions, construction materials and offered to deliver them by sea, world by from Europe to America.[2]

Before the end of 1802 there was an active development plans trip around the world, whose main objective was the establishment of a Maritime communications with "Russian America" because over time increasingly difficult to defend the interests of the Russian Empire in the Americas.

A trip around the world. In 1802, the Highest order of N. P. Rezanov was appointed envoy to Sweden and leader of the first Russian world expedition (1803-1806.) on the sloops "Nadezhda" and "Neva". During the preparation of the expedition, its leaders were given a variety of assignments for economic, political, scientific nature, but the main objectives were still two: the establishment of relations with Japan and the inspection of Russian America (Alaska).[3]

The situation in "Russian America"

As you know, the purpose of the visit N. P. Rezanov to Alaska was "the inspection of the Russian lands". The graph on the rights of the "host" CANCER could delve into all the aspects of managing a territory, and immediately before him during a number of vital problems: food is not enough, were barren land, scarcity of construction materials, dressup challenge was even rigging of the ship.

Rezanov himself in a letter from the Sith wrote: "we all Live very closely; but of all our lives worse by the purchaser of these places, at some domenai tent, full of damp to the point that every day mold and wipe with local heavy rain on all sides like a sieve current. Wonderful man! He only cares about the quiet space of others, but careless about himself, till one day I found him floating bed and asked tore if where the wind side at the temples of his Board? No, he answered quietly, apparently they call to me from the square, and continued his orders".[4]

The population of Alaska grew at a very slow pace, and the presence in the Russian Empire serfdom complicated the delivery process in "Russian America" of the workforce.

Russian settlers, not getting the products for months, died of starvation. The supplies that are delivered from Siberia, came into disrepair in the way and could not serve food miserable. The decision Rezanov quickly accepts, he buys the merchant John Wolfe the ship "Juno" with products and gives them to a hungry population. Urgently built another ship "Avos", and in March, 1806, both ships headed for the South. During a month-long voyage, the entire crew of the ship "Juno" fell ill with scurvy. Moored in the Bay of San Francisco, Nikolay Petrovich managed to negotiate with the Governor of Upper California Jose Arillaga and commandant Jose Dario Arguello.

Russian settlers, not getting the products for months, died of starvation. The supplies that are delivered from Siberia, came into disrepair in the way and could not serve food miserable. The decision Rezanov quickly accepts, he buys the merchant John Wolfe the ship "Juno" with products and gives them to a hungry population. Urgently built another ship "Avos", and in March, 1806, both ships headed for the South. During a month-long voyage, the entire crew of the ship "Juno" fell ill with scurvy. Moored in the Bay of San Francisco, Nikolay Petrovich managed to negotiate with the Governor of Upper California Jose Arillaga and commandant Jose Dario Arguello.

Fifteen-year-old Concepcion Marcella Arguello ( Conchita) was the daughter of the commandant of San Francisco. Rezanov turned 42, but a noble grandee was still handsome and stately, his gallantry he won the heart of a young girl. He became a frequent guest in the house of the commandant josé darío argüello, and talked a lot about the Spaniard Russia. On his proposal to share his secular life at the court of Russian Emperor he received the consent of Conchita. Parents were not happy the daughter was taken to confession, but to convince your girl in love could not.

The count did not love his bride. So he writes in a letter dated 24 -26 January 1807 Mihajlo Buldakova about his California bride: "my Love is in the Nevsky, under a piece of marble, and here is a consequence of "entusiasmo" (spelling Rezanov.- Ed.) and another victim of the Fatherland. Condense sweet, good heart, loves me and I love her and cry that there is no place for her in my heart".[5]

After the engagement on the Russian vessel "Juno" has delivered and shipped products. June 11, 1806 Rezanov leaving California, moving more than 3,000 pounds of grain and legumes, fats, oils, salt and other products for the hungry settlers. He says goodbye to Conchita, intending to ask the intercession of the Emperor, before the Pope on consent to marriage, promises her to come back in less than two years. The girl swears to wait for a loved one.

In California by order of Rezanov, was selected for the organization of the southern colonies in America. It was organized and existed for 13 years. Perhaps the death of the handsome Earl had deprived Russia of the California territories.

Way home in September 1806 was interrupted by bad weather, and Nikolai Petrovich had to spend some time in Okhotsk. However, the report was waiting in St. Petersburg, and the traveler decided to go on horseback. In a way the past few times falls into the icy water, he has to sleep in the snow. As a result, the count suffering from a bad cold and lay sick of a fever 12 days. A little recovered from the illness, he sets off again. At the end of his travels Rezanov fell from his horse, losing consciousness, and hit her head. Still living the traveler was brought to Krasnoyarsk, where he died March 1, 1807. Buried Nikolai Petrovich in the cemetery of the resurrection Cathedral.

Poor Conchita every morning to go to a Cape, sat down on a rock and looked into the distance. A year later, Alexander Baranov in the letter informed her of the death of her lover, but she has remained true to Rezanov prior to the end of his days. Until 1829 she lived with her parents, moving with them from San Francisco to Santa Barbara, and then to Loreto, Guadalajara. After returning to San Francisco, she devotes her life to charity in California new Donna Concepcion was called "Blessed."

Scientific and geopolitical basis

In practice, clear that the Russian AK needs of American logistics, that is, from an economic point of view, the Russian Empire was not able to contain a colony. There was a view about the unprofitability of Russian possessions in America, which was, according to some experts, the impetus for the sale of these lands. On this occasion, disputes do not cease till now. N. P. Rezanov made great efforts for the development and preservation of Alaska, which was economically dependent on the rest of America, region. According to count the most important and decisive strategic step is the assignment of California. In this case, Alaska could be provided with all the necessary, whatever supplies directly from Siberia.

Unfortunately, in the early nineteenth century the eyes of the rulers of the Russian Empire were directed towards Europe. Developed in France, England and other European countries cared more than the distant American colonies, but it was at this time occurred the formation and development of America as a region as a power.

History knows no subjunctive mood... But a huge advantage is the availability in North America of the Russian territories that would transform the Russian Empire into a full-fledged Pacific power.

It is worth remembering that during the first uprisings in the American colonies Catherine II refused at the request of king George III to send twenty-thousand corps in America, and in February, 1780, Catherine issued a Declaration of armed neutrality. This document set a precedent of Maritime law and allowed Americans to trade with belligerents in all goods except ammunition and weapons. Later on the basis of this Declaration occurred the codification of the law of the sea. It was joined by Denmark, Prussia, Austria, Portugal. France and Spain recognized its principles.[6]In the United States of America welcomed her continental Congress, recognizing the proclaimed rules "useful, reasonable and fair". Britain could afford only humility, and the Russian Empire in all its glory has demonstrated its strength and increasing influence in the international arena.

The United States regarded the action of Catherine II for their direct support. In 1782 g arrived in St. Petersburg to represent them, the lawyer from Massachusetts F. Dane. In the instructions which he was given the Congress, expressed the wish to obtain from the Empress the recognition of the independence of the United States, it talked about lack of foresight and inexperience of American diplomacy at the time. Although the Russian government was in no hurry to establish U.S. diplomatic relations, the Commissioner arrived and his compatriots were greeted very warmly.

Was not successful and the proposal of the Russian Empire and Austria to mediate in resolving the conflict. Catherine II was flattered by the acquisition "in this, all parts of the world the greatest war the enviable role of mediacii". But all the efforts of the two courtyards were initially unpromising, as American leadership to the task was the recognition of the independence of the 13 States, while a part of the territory at that time was still occupied by British troops.

In such a complex, yet favorable conditions, was born of Russian-American relations. Favorable, because the U.S. has not forgotten the refusal of Catherine II put the British crown cannon fodder or she created the League of armed neutrality, which, according to J. Washington had undermined "the pride and power of great Britain on the seas." As a prominent diplomat A. Lee testified: "a Large force of the Russian Empire, the wisdom and the liberality of her Ministers, and the respect commanded by her Empress, give this yard the greatest weight in the Confederation of neutral States". The American foreign policy was based on a good and solid Foundation.[7]

Since its Foundation the Russian-American Company became a significant factor in Russian-American politics. Under Alexander I in 1808, the first Russian Consul General, extraordinary envoy and Plenipotentiary Minister in the USA was appointed A. Y. Dashkov, at the same time being an honorary member and correspondent of CANCER. The first USA Ambassador in St. Petersburg was appointed D. K. Adams, the future sixth U.S. President. Since the mid-nineteenth century changed the perspective on CANCER and the privileges of its existence. A principled decision on the issue of sales of Russian lands in North America was made in 1866 at the "special meeting", which was attended by Alexander II, Alexander Gorchakov. After transfer of Russian America to USA in 1867, relations between the two countries continued. So, in 1871, visited America as the first representative of the house of Romanov — Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich.

Opinion of the Russian tsarist government completely alien to him in the form of state, the United States, was later clearly expressed by the Emperor Alexander II in the dispatch to the Russian Ambassador in the USA, Prince Gorchakov: "the American Union — was stated in the dispatch — in our eyes is not only an essential element of the world balance; it represents the nation to which our August Sovereign, and with him all Russia, cherish the most friendly interest, for both sides, staged at the extremities of both hemispheres, both in a flourishing period of development, appear called to a natural community of interests and mutual sympathy, mutual proof which they presented."[8]

The question remains: Why Russian colony have been sold for a pittance? I would venture to suggest that the reasons for this is the lack of a clear geopolitical interests in the region, and that then the US was not a geopolitical enemy of Russia.

Also try to clarify the question of the sale of Russian America. It is worth remembering that at the time of sale of Alaska, United States of America were sufficiently developed in a military and political sense government. In fact, they controlled all of North America except the provinces of the Russian Empire. In a note to Nicholas I, the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky was talking about what considers a priority the strengthening of the Russian Empire in the far East and relations with the United States. One of the ways of "establishing relations" could be the sale of land of Russian America, which, in his opinion, were unprofitable. And, indeed, Alaska was actually subsidized. The situation was complicated by the fact that there was no military garrison. Given all of the growing U.S. influence in the region, he was simply necessary, and this, in turn, required additional financial investments.

Thus, AK sooner or later had to be captured by the Americans, by force or peacefully. There were only two exits: the most favourable development in California that would provide all the Russians land in America with all necessary and would be economically beneficial and less favorable – favorable sale of unprofitable land. But history knows no subjunctive mood. All the efforts of a talented person, Earl N. Rezanov, unfortunately was not successful. But the idea was more than ambitious. Your article I'd like to finish the famous phrase from the Opera "Juno and Avos": "Gamble failed, for trying thank you!".

Osowski V. M









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