The collapse of the Soviet Union – a complex multinational system with many unresolved inter-ethnic problems that had been artificially maintained in the quiescent state from the centre for decades, has inevitably led to the development of these conflicts in the new environment. Throughout the former Soviet Union is a degenerated into open confrontation and clashes between representatives of different ethnic groups, defending their economic, political, cultural and other rights and interests. An example of this are the Georgian - South Ossetian conflict 1991-1992, the Georgian – Abkhaz conflict of 1992-1993, the Transnistrian conflict, the Moldovan-Gagauz conflict and so on.
It's safe to say that all the post-Soviet space is becoming a theatre of active geopolitical game, at stake is influence in the heart of the Heartland, in the Caucasus and Caspian regions.
The military aggression of Georgia against South Ossetia in August 2008 has, of course, several major reasons, among which the question of identity and the problem of the psychological attitude of Ossetians towards the state of Georgia as such( the Ossetians do not associate themselves with Georgia, and want to live in a Unified Ossetia, which geographically divided the Main Caucasian mountain range), and the problem of infringement of constitutional rights and freedoms of indigenous Ossetian people, but I don't think it's exclusively a regional conflict, held without outside interference, which does not affect the further development of the situation in the Caucasus.
In my work I will try to address the main causes of this conflict, which, as I mentioned, derives from many factors and consequences that have led or may lead to the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict.
Objective and subjective causes of the conflict
Among the reasons that led to the emergence of the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict, and then to the Georgian aggression in August 2008, I would like to highlight 4 of the major, but will focus on so-called factor of "outside influences", which, in my opinion, and played a key role in this conflict.
It is quite clear that at the heart of any conflict are objective reasons that can accumulate for years or even decades, no mutually beneficial solutions which in the end will inevitably lead to conflict. But in politics, when at stake is influence in such strategically important region as the Caucasus, only objective factors are not enough. Objective conditions in this particular case the role of the powder keg that was ready to explode, but waiting in the wings. And this time, with the filing of an external player, it.
So, the objective reasons:
- Ethnoterritorial question formed in decades, includes opposite and mutually exclusive positions of leadership Georgia and Ossetia. According to Georgian positions in South Ossetia is a historical part of Georgia, indivisible and inalienable from its main site, while the Ossetian position is considered South Ossetia as integral parts of the whole Ossetia.
- Georgian-Ossetian relations in the late 1980s was in a state of conflict, when the two sides come to assess their interests and ultimate goals as incompatible. In such circumstances, began to form the perception of the conflict and laid the socio-psychological foundations and preconditions of the future of the conflict interaction. The development of conflict testified to the flow within both the community socio-disorganization processes, irreversible disintegration of important social structures, which ensured political stability.
- The conflict situation in the Georgian-Ossetian relations in the late 1980s has been largely under the powerful influence of ethno-nationalism in Georgia, based on the principle of the so-called "right of blood" and represented the idea of a unitary mono-ethnic state as the basic concept of Georgian nation building.
- The political struggle between new and old elites that led to the change of elites in both regions was the immediate cause of the transformation of the conflict situation in inter-ethnic relations in the open phase of the conflict, in the form of an armed conflict between Georgia and South Ossetia.
Thus, the tension (conflict) of the Georgian-Ossetian political opposition was growing, manifesting itself in the formation of national movements in Georgia and in South Ossetia in the conditions of growing autonomy of the Soviet state, accompanied by the fall of the "old" and "new" political elites. And also an important manifestation of the conflict was the recognition by the Supreme Council of the Georgian SSR Georgian language is the official language in the Republic. In response Ossetia declared the official language of Ossetian region.
The collapse of the Soviet Union became one of the main reasons that led to military conflict between Georgia and Ossetia, there was a clash of conflicting international imperatives: the principle of inviolability of borders (of Georgia) and the rights of peoples to self-determination (Ossetia).
The war in Ossetia is a part of a geopolitical plan aimed at destabilizing mainly the political situation in the Caucasus, oputyvanie Russia in full scale war, a clash of interests and positions of Russia and Europe, public international "punishment" of Russia, its isolation.
For a number of reasons, which can be divided into several groups:
Full ownership and sole distribution of all the world's resources( it has long been observed "strange" location of American military bases in areas of major oil fields) argues that the US in these regions will carry out its strategic expansion under a variety of "democratic" signs, hence it is understandable that a "warm" attitude of the USA to resourcestream and transit regions of the world: the Caucasus, the Caspian sea, Russia.
Direct control of most of the States and political forces of whole Nations - the card of the existing US regime.
The basis of US influence in the world is their position in Europe, where there remain opportunities for doing them are effective enough strategy games at the expense of the States of the East and the attempts of forcing the States of old Europe on the political periphery. In this regard, the manipulation of political regimes in the countries of the former USSR, colored and colorless revolution, the creation of controlled chaos and the drive to power of a political "puppet" - it is an effective method of conducting U.S. foreign policy.
V. internal Political situation.
The basis of the internal political and socio-economic stability of the USA is the high level of consumption of their population, which means that any reduction in this level can immediately cause serious internal political conflicts, fraught with the change of any administration, or even the coming to state power of politicians from other political ideals. Important is the fact that the bulk of resources, providing "the luxury of American consumption" take US in "rest of world" world, most of which is on the verge of starvation.
Of course, this reality is not only well understood, but is projected for many years to come. This can be made one conclusion: once the scope and quality of domestic consumption cannot be reduced, it is necessary to ensure the smooth flow of global resources in the USA, while all costs, hence, the price of violence, and this means the inevitability of a Large war America.
Of course, ensuring its national interests for the United States – the main task, therefore, regardless of their party affiliation, the American system was already configured for global operation. And, no matter what ways this goal will be achieved, one task is to ensure the implementation of the world's resources in the U.S. and maintaining its own internal stability. May conduct periodic regional wars in different parts of the world, or a full-scale war on the continent, the permanent creation of hot spots and hotbeds of tension is the path to American prosperity. In other words – the US know exactly how and when to act in relation to its main geopolitical opponents – Russia, China and the EU.
Conclusion: the consequences of the conflict
At the moment, the Georgian - South Ossetian conflict, which lasted for two decades and ended a five-day war in August 2008 cannot be considered fully complete. Yes, Russia officially recognized South Ossetia and Abkhazia as independent States, to ensure security in the two new republics were Russian military bases are deployed. In Abkhazia and Ossetia already well established and successfully operating legal and legitimate government, elected by the citizens of the two new sovereign States.
But what are the implications for the world order? And what role in the new system will take Russia? Questions are by no means the most simple, and probably accurate answer you can give one. It would be foolish to believe that the conflict is over and gone, just plan for Big Sam didn't work and the game took on a different scale. Now in the Caucasus region had settled down, Russia, who will not allow the approach of NATO "colleagues" on dangerous distance. One of the directions of Russia's foreign policy is based on one main principle: to create around its borders, the halo Union, independent, strong States with stable economic and political situation. The U.S. and others like them even the slightest chance at swaying the situation in the Caucasus and in Asia, on the Eastern borders and in the border States. For the implementation of the objectives in the basic state documents Russia has the objectives of Russia. Thus, paragraph 4 of the Chapter on General provisions the foreign policy Concept of Russia reads as follows: "In accordance with the highest priority of national security - ensuring the security of individuals, society and the state are the main foreign policy efforts should be focused on achieving the following main objectives:
- The security of the country, preserving and strengthening its sovereignty and territorial integrity, strong and authoritative positions in the world community, to the greatest extent meets the interests of the Russian Federation as one of the most influential and competitive centers of the modern world;
- The creation of favorable external conditions for sustainable and dynamic growth of the Russian economy and its technological modernization and transition to innovative way of development, improve the level and quality of life of the population, strengthening the rule of law and democratic institutions, the realization of the rights and freedoms of man;
- Active promotion of the course on comprehensive strengthening of international peace, universal security and stability in order to promote a just and democratic international system based on collective basis in solving international problems, on the supremacy of international law, primarily the UN Charter, as well as on equitable and partnership relations among States with the Central coordinating role of the UN as the principal organization regulating international relations;
- The formation of good-neighborly relations with neighboring countries, promoting the elimination of existing and prevention of new hotbeds of tension and conflict in areas adjacent to the Russian Federation regions;
- The development of bilateral and multilateral relations mutually beneficial and equal partnership with foreign States, interstate associations, international organizations and forums based on the principles of respect for independence and sovereignty, pragmatism, transparency, multi-vector, predictable, non-confrontational upholding of national priorities. Deploy a wide and non-discriminatory international cooperation, promote the formation of flexible non-bloc network alliances, and active participation in them of Russia;
- Comprehensive protection of the rights and legitimate interests of Russian citizens and compatriots living abroad, settling in various international formats to the Russian approaches to the protection of human rights".
The national security concept reads as follows:
- "Russia's national interests in the international sphere consist in ensuring sovereignty, strengthening of Russia's position as a great power - one of the influential centres of a multipolar world, in development of equal and mutually beneficial relations with all countries and integration associations, primarily with the States - participants of the Commonwealth of Independent States and traditional partners of Russia, in the universal observance of the rights and freedoms of the person and the inadmissibility of applying double standards."
- Russia's national interests in the military sphere lie in protection of its independence, sovereignty, state and territorial integrity, in preventing military aggression against Russia and its allies, in ensuring conditions for a peaceful, democratic development of the state.
- Russia's national interests in the border sphere lie in the establishment of political, legal, organizational and other conditions for ensuring reliable protection of the state border of the Russian Federation, in compliance with the legislation of the Russian Federation procedure and rules of implementing economic and other activities in the border space of the Russian Federation".
Of course, the international situation is complex as ever, Russia is economic isolation and the number of threats, challenges and external provocations by the U.S. and the rest of the democratic world will only increase. In this regard, Russia is taking important steps to modernize its army, the development of safety systems in the framework of the CSTO, the CIS, there is close co-operation with China, countries in Asia and Latin America. All of these measures, in my opinion, demonstrate that Russia is ready to repel external attacks from the Western world and stands firmly on two legs in the war for the realization of their national interests.
Koziev S. With
The list of references
- The Constitution of the Russian Federation http://www.constitution.ru/
- The Russian Federation law "On security" http://base.garant.ru/12181538/
- National security concept of the Russian Federation until 2020. http://www.scrf.gov.ru/documents/99.html
- The foreign policy concept of Russia http://www.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/0/6D84DDEDEDBF7DA644257B160051BF7F
- The article "Some implications for Russia and its defence policy in the light of the consequences of the August conflict", Belozerov V. K.
- The article "international security after the Caucasian crisis," Arbatov A. G.
- The article "the Armed conflict in South Ossetia: a catalyst for military reform in Russia?", Mel'kov S. A.
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