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The Indo-Pakistani conflict in the context of regional security in the middle East
Material posted: Publication date: 12-11-2017
The article discusses the military and political problems in the Middle East region, issues of relations between India and Pakistan. Reveals the political and strategic interests of the countries of the region. Analyzes the causes of military confrontation between the two countries in historical, territorial, religious and military aspects.

The military-political situation in the Middle East region, currently an increasing interest of the world community. This attention to the region due to a number of factors:

  • the place and role of Islam in society of the countries of the region, has special significance because of its politicization;
  • the greatest danger the Middle East the focus of threats of nuclear weapons (nuclear weapons);
  • the problem of accommodation in the region of the largest support bases of international terrorism.

One of the challenges of military confrontation in the Middle East region is a smoldering indopakistani conflict.

The main reason for the conflict between the two countries began a territorial dispute over the ownership of the region of Kashmir.

At the end of the 1947-1949 war years, India gained control of roughly 2/3 of the territory of the region, the rest went to Pakistan. The Kashmir conflict has led to tension in relations between the two countries, continuing until now.

However, the roots of this confrontation was even created before the separation of India and Pakistan. The British, using in the 20th century the principle of "divide and conquer", set of Hindu rulers over the Muslim population, sowing thereby the seeds of bitter enmity between the future successor government of England in the subcontinent – India and Pakistan.

Immediately after the Second World war, when the imminent departure of the colonial administration of the then still unified British India was almost self-evident, acutely the question of the future coexistence of the adherents of the two major religions of India – Hinduism and Islam. It should be noted that the basis of religion was one of the most effective tools the British colonial administration carried out in accordance with the old well-known principle of "divide and conquer". In particular, the legislative elections of India in 30-40 years was carried out by the Curia formed depending on religious affiliation.

This religious principle, as supported by London, much fueled by historic tension that existed between Muslims and Hindus since the medieval times.

India for centuries was a country of dreams for English capitalists. The dream was the conquest, the British wanted to get to her treasures. By the British had nothing to offer India. Its economy, though lagged behind the English in the technologies of mass production, but had a variety of craft techniques and produced a large number of quality products. The absolute size of the economy India, given its huge population, occupied first or second place in the world along with China.

For this reason, important notes in his research noted Russian Explorer and geographer A. E. Snesarev [1].

"...Clarifying the essence of the Central Asian question, – he wrote – is to find out the significance of India for the British and their relationship to this country, and hence, in my opinion, to the development and justification of such provisions [2].

  1. India is a country of vast natural resources and is for Britain not only the most valuable asset, but the main pillar of its glory and power, why, of course, the colony needs to call from British a number of concerns and measures to keep her for the metropolis.
  2. British control of India is predatory trading control of foreigners, considering them subservient to the people race lower the mental, moral and physical relations. As a result of this system, it creates contempt and hatred of the natives to the winners who made the country's liberation from the British yoke the subject of heated desires the best of the native companies. On the other hand, the consciousness of his wickedness, the unpopularity and total distrust of the natives make the British nervous, suspicious, and that circumstance to the concerns about India gaining a lot of element unbalance and cruelty".

A. E. Snesarev, as you can see, notes the huge economic importance of the exploitation of India and its resources for the British Empire, quite clearly characterizes the hostile relations between colonizers and the enslaved peoples. Restatement konkretisiert and reveals both of these provisions. History for the establishment of English domination in India and the wild looting of this country convincingly illustrated by the huge figures of cash that was seized there by the Nazis, was provided to a certain extent, the industrial revolution in England, and then to the fast flowering of its economy and the transformation into the "workshop of the world".

Indo-Pakistani military conflict is perhaps the most dangerous place in the list of modern threats to humanity. A particular danger in the confrontation of these two States in the Middle East region acquired when both India and Pakistan, following a series of nuclear tests, has demonstrated its ability to develop nuclear weapons. Thus, military confrontation in the region was the second in the entire history of the world a hotbed of nuclear deterrence (after the cold war between the USSR and the USA).

According to some estimates, both countries have set a goal (and maybe already reached it) to increase the number of nuclear warheads from 80 to 200 on each side. If you use this enough to the environmental disaster has called into question the survival of not only the Middle East region, but of all mankind. The causes of the conflict and the bitterness with which it can develops in both in the past and in the future, suggests that such a threat can be quite real.

Indo-Pakistani military confrontation hurt in the military all countries in the region, and especially neighboring Afghanistan.

First, the territory of Afghanistan for the Pakistani military-political leadership is a sphere of geopolitical influence. Afghanistan is perceived by Islamabad as a "rear area", and Pakistan will make every effort to preserve this status. Second, the political and military leadership of Pakistan considers Afghanistan as its strategic resource reserve. First of all, as operational space, which can accommodate irregular forces, non-governmental groups and terrorist groups operating in Pakistan's interests in the Middle East region. Thirdly, Afghanistan provides strategic depth for Pakistan. After all, loyal to the Islamabad regime in Afghanistan may provide operational room for maneuver and regrouping of forces in case of military conflict with India. Afghanistan is very strategically important for the Pakistani authorities in the event of a military confrontation with India [3].

As noted above, one of the problems of the region is the location of the States in the region, the largest support bases of international terrorism.

The problem of terrorism in India and Pakistan is one of the outstanding examples of how to apply modern terrorist group and what goals they pursue. More than 60 years between India and Pakistan there is a conflict arising due to wrong demarcation in the division of former British India. In this conflict, unusually intertwined contradictions of inter-state and ethno-religious in nature, and in recent years greatly manifested the most frightening and painful for the modern section of the history of mankind, the problems associated with the buildup of activity of the organizations, extremist and terrorist nature. It will therefore be appropriate to explore the relationship between these two countries.

Almost two centuries of British colonization had a huge impact on the formation and development of Indian civilization. India was very strong and highly developed state before the advent of the British. But after colonization, the British rebuilt the country's economy for their own benefit, undermining the local infrastructure and preventing the original development of the Indian state. Another British innovation was the new administrative structure of the Indian government, eventually turned into a huge bureaucratic system, which affected the appearance of the country's corruption and red tape [4].

In 1857 the sepoy mutiny (soldiers who served in the British army) and it put an end to the rule of the British East India company. After the rebellion the British government decided that it would be much safer to control India directly, as this will help prevent possible riots and uprisings. And finally, in 1877 Queen Victoria was crowned Empress of India, which was a "diamond in the British crown" [5].

The paternalism and racism became a feature of the reign of British in India. Thereby establishing the Indian national Congress (INC), which was to prevent the arbitrariness of the Imperial power. In 1905-1908. INK have put forward the slogans of Swaraj (complete freedom for the development of national industry). These requirements England made concessions. But the real opposition came only after the party "national Congress" were United businessmen and owners because of the actions of counsel for Karamchand Mohandas ("Mahatma") Gandhi.

The result of the policies of Gandhi ("nonviolent resistance") against British laws, became independence in 1947 But his hopes for a United India did not materialize. British India was divided into two States: India and Pakistan. Pakistan is Muslim and India is Hindu. And this division has caused mass bloodshed.

The result of the turmoil collapsed the huge size of the Principality of Jammu and Kashmir. And the Muslim population of Kashmir was in the grip of India.

In the region of the poonch, Muslim populated, settled the troops of Pakistan. The same applies to the territory of Gilgit, where the Muslim population organized a resistance ruler, the Hindu. The government of India agreed to hold a referendum in the Principality to resolve the question of who owns the area and decided on the internationalization of the conflict by sending a complaint to the UN. The result started the First Indian-Pakistani war. During the 1948-1949 fighting killed more than a thousand soldiers. January 1, 1949, Announced a ceasefire and in July of the same year signed a ceasefire agreement.

The United Nations tried to call a referendum, but to no avail. In the first encounter with Pakistan was stronger than India: under the patronage got the territory that was inhabited exclusively by Muslims, namely 75% of the population of Kashmir. January 1, 1949, Announced a ceasefire and in July of the same year signed an armistice agreement.. Pakistan did not consider this partition fair and hoped for the liberation of the Muslim population from the yoke of India, which led to the next war.

These two countries despite the fact that they were once a single state had was excellent not only in cultural and religious terms, but also in other features.

For example, the different structure of society. In India was dominated by weakly hierarchical urban population. Dominant role in India was occupied by the representatives, who mainly belonged to the middle strata.

Pakistani society was more feudal: elite of the society was descended from the aristocracy of an agrarian character. Dominated hierarchy that contributed to the emergence of a kind of "pyramidal" political system.

But both States were aware of the vulnerability and the threat of separatism in the country due to the huge number of diverse ethnic groups inhabiting the two countries, Indian and Pakistani elites intended to create a strong and unified state. Each of the leaders of both countries thought their country as had a special mission to unite the countries and establishing their ideology as the Foundation of the future independent state.

Kashmir, located on the borders of five different countries (India, Pakistan, China, Tajikistan and Afghanistan), has a very special geographical location. Before this former Indian Principality was the residence of people of completely different nationalities, religions and ethnic groups who lived without spilling the blood of each other. But everything has changed markedly after the emergence of two independent States in 1947.

This territory was the cause of multiple wars and conflicts between India and Pakistan (war in 1947-48, 1965 and 1999; the crisis 2001-2002). Repeated attempts to resolve the question of ownership of territory was not successful, neither in the negotiations new Delhi and Islamabad, is under consideration at the international level. And now the situation in the region unstable. Despite a slight "warming" in relations between them, the danger of sudden conflict remains the same. For example, this situation was after the signing of the Lahore Declaration.

Kashmir is located in the zone of instability, in the area of residence of different ethnic groups, which are the cause of these perpetual struggles. Enduring tensions, mistrust of the two States to each other can cause a new conflict.

And this potential conflict should be given special attention, as these two countries have nuclear [6]. Both countries conducted underground nuclear tests in the late twentieth century and then announced it officially. The fact that two countries with nuclear weapons, constantly in conflict, it is a matter of excitement not only for the region but for the whole world [7].

Given the likely scenario of a military conflict involving nuclear weapons, and depending on the wind rose, and the flow of rivers radioactive contamination of the terrain will be subjected to all countries of South Asia as well as China, Myanmar, Afghanistan and other Central Asian States.

The Kashmir issue is not only territorial question, as it was before. Now the problem about the ownership of Kashmir for India, and for Pakistan an important factor of realization of foreign and domestic political interests. And Delhi, and Islamabad very cleverly use this situation to follow their political interests. For Pakistan the territory of Kashmir has ethical value: is not possible for Pakistan to let down their co-religionists oppressed by India.

For Delhi it is rather the necessary response to illegal occupation by Pakistan of territory belonging to India, and the adoption of any other decision is dangerous for the state itself, in which there are already other territories with separatist attitude. And the report of the Minister of defence of India in 2007, which provides evidence of ties between the Islamic organizations in Kashmir and the Indian separatist groups in the North-East of the country, confirms that India will not backtrack.

In the beginning of the century Delhi and Islamabad decided to postpone the issue of Kashmir aside for the fact that it was not an obstacle in establishing relations between States. However, this does not mean that they will not return to this problem again.

The development of the conflict affected not only the countries that border with Kashmir, but also the countries that play an important role in solving international problems. Also, be aware that events surrounding the Kashmir emerged after the division of the world by the Victor countries of the Second world war. In the first years of the emergence of the Indo-Pakistani conflict a large role was played by the military-strategic factor, a geographic position of the Principality of Jammu and Kashmir on the borders of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, USSR and China. The Soviet Union as the victorious countries could not remain aloof from these events. However, the Soviet Union was never a mediator in resolving the conflict. The main goal of the USSR was to organize negotiations between the conflicting parties. And the Soviet Union achieved this goal: in 1965 between India and Pakistan was signed the agreement [8].

Now this conflict is of significance for world powers. This issue is discussed in relation to the issue of terrorism and extremism, the threat of which exists in the region. Russia, USA, China, countries of Western Europe are United in the vision of the situation in Kashmir. The international community believes that the dispute should be resolved by peaceful means on a bilateral basis without outside interference.

The second major issue in India-Pakistan relations refers to the use of water resources, including a section of river water for irrigation. After the construction of dams and canals, large tracts of land in the province of Punjab were processed with the waters of five tributaries of the Indus. Two of them, Jhelum and Chenab, and the Indus, cross the lands of the Principality of Jammu and Kashmir. And after the 1947-1948 years headworks of a series of dams built on Ravi, the Beas and the Sutlej were in the territory of the Indian Punjab. In March 1948 the Head of the Indian state of East Punjab cut off the supply canals, which irrigated the fields of the Pakistani Punjab. The issue was resolved peacefully, but Pakistan showed how much it depends on India.

The agreement, which was signed at the occasion of water was temporary and was valid until 1960, and then they were replaced by the agreement on the development of the basin of the Indus river, to divide resources of the Indus and its tributaries so that the water was divided equally: the three Eastern rivers used by India and three Western Pakistan. In the implementation of projects on Pakistani territory under the Treaty agreed to participate, and India. This year can be considered the first successful development of bilateral relations of India and Pakistan as the former capital of Pakistan Karachi was visited by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Nehru. Pakistan has offered India to sign a "defense Pact" of the Indian subcontinent, but India rejected this proposal. Different ideological and foreign policy interests have been in the way of establishing peaceful relations between the two countries.

60-ies was a time of setbacks for Pakistan and the time of development and strengthening of the state system of India. India took advantage of the plight of their neighbors, this time actually on the initiative of India started a war with Pakistan, which was the most effective and bloody. The result of this war, India has achieved its goal: to use the separatist mood of the population of East Pakistan and to achieve their separation, thereby to weaken West Pakistan.

The Kashmir situation was worsened from year to year. One of the reasons for this trend was that in Kashmir flourished extremist and terrorist groups. And this situation was used to incite not only antiindia opposition, but religious struggle. The separatist attitude of the population presented a huge threat to the national integrity of India and the government feared that they could lose not only Kashmir, but also other areas of the country begin to wonder about the separation. A huge impact on the development of the conflict had a different extremist group.

Pakistan has also provided widespread support in the region, since the Kashmir issue has always been that Islamabad is not only territorial but also ideological. Kashmir was Pakistan created under the banner of Islam, of great symbolic importance.

It should be remembered that Kashmir was at the junction of two civilizational areas, Muslim and Hindu. And with the increasing of the civilization factor in the global politics conflict from the local has become part of macro-regional and global. A feature of the Kashmir conflict in recent years is that the key factor was the confrontation between Muslims and non-Muslims.

One of the components of the Kashmir conflict is nationalism, that is the desire of the leading political figures of Kashmiris-Muslims to achieve maximum autonomy, while maintaining certain ties with India. It should also be noted that many of the "Azad" Kashmiris are not identificeret yourself with "one Pakistani nation" in the long term see Kashmir still independent.

In 1998, the Kashmir issue after the transition of India and Pakistan the status of nuclear powers has acquired a global significance. However, this has not prevented nearly three months of confrontation between the two States (mini war) on the line of control in Kashmir in the Kargil sector in 1999, And it was evidence that now is a potential threat not only to Central Asia but also the world. And it is connected with the possibility of coming to power in Pakistan, the Islamists and the access to nuclear missile arsenals. Extremely unfavorable from the point of view of terrorist activity in Kashmir has become since the late 1980s, when in the opposition movement there were significant elements of Islamic radicalism and extremism. Kashmir was irradiated with Islamism coming out of Pakistan, Afghanistan and the Arab world. Retraction of the Kashmir region as an international terrorist syndicate complicates not only the settlement process but destabilizie the situation in the entire South Asian region.

It is the presence of the above-mentioned destabilizing factors attracts a special relationship to the conflict by the international community. And despite the fact that this conflict is not given so much attention as Palestine, but still the international community is trying to push Islamabad and new Delhi to resolve the conflict in a peaceful way.

But the adverse socio-economic situation in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, the absence of any social prospects, the corruption of the government apparatus and the permanent repression of the security forces led to a wave of indignation. Muslim separatists and fundamentalist organizations have received tremendous support local unhappy with the current state of the population, which was recruited for training in terrorist camps in Pakistan for further terrorist actions.

The fact that radical Islamic ideas received a lot of support in Kashmir, due to various historical events that began in the late 1970s (the period of Islamization of the Pakistani society after the military coup, the 1979 revolution in Iran and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan).

After the withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan, the people of Kashmir who returned home after a long absence, and brought with it a new Islamic ideas and started to implement them. And as a result, Kashmir became one of the major centers of radical Islam and Kashmiri separatism acquires features of radical Islamism.

Terrorism and extremism in Kashmir is a serious threat to the security of the entire Asian region. And this trend will continue to influence the development of the situation in the region.

Withaccording to a study commissioned by the United States military Academy West point Professor Shaun Gregory in Bedfordshi University, at least there have been three serious attacks of Islamic fundamentalists on objects of military nuclear infrastructure of Pakistan. It is an attack on the Assembly plant for nuclear weapons in the town of Wah, near the capital, in August 2008, which led to the deaths of dozens of people. As well as the attack on the warehouse of nuclear weapons in Sargodha in November 2007 and on Pakistan's nuclear airbase in Kamre, near wah, on December 10 of the same year [9].

The terrorist organization began active operations in 1989 and during that time on the border area of India and Pakistan killed more than 30,000 people. The Bombay serial blasts in 1993, became one of the largest terrorist acts in India over the years (as a result of explosions killed 257 people). In 1996, there was a bomb blast in Delhi which led to a huge number of casualties. And many other terrorist acts have been organized in other parts of India.

It has long been known that the leaders of a large number of extremist Sikh groups based in Pakistan and recruit in their groups of Sikh youth, living in the UK, Canada and the Indian state of Punjab. For example, Wassan Singh Zaffarwal, one of the main criminals in the list of India, who was accused of terrorism on the territory of the Punjab, was hiding in Pakistan, and where subsequently, in search of refuge, he fled to Switzerland.

Pakistani and international media, confirmed that Islamabad funded Kashmiri radical groups. The US state Department in 1997 issued a report on manifestations of terrorism, in which special attention was paid to "Harkat-ul-Ansar" as a terrorist organization, actively leading terrorist activities in the territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The report also mentions another group: "the Islamic front Jammu and Kashmir", which is responsible for explosions in new Delhi, in Jammu and Kashmir and in other regions of India [10].

The Pakistani magazine "Herald" published a detailed report on the group "Lashkar," which was supported by Pakistan. The article said about the involvement of "Lashkar" to kill a large number of people in Kashmir. Moreover, the "Lashkar" called for Jihad against the United States, Indians, and the democratic ranks as one of the main problems of modern society. And that the Pakistani government supported the activities of "Lashkar" no doubt, as even the information Minister Mushahid Hussein endorsed the activities of the organization. This group, like has become the main mercenary of Pakistan, but we should not forget about the other groups, for example, "Hizb-ul-Mujahiddin". C. Salauddin the head of the organization according to the latest data continues in Pakistan and from time to time arranges a press conference, "Council of the United Jihad" to discuss plans for future actions, devoted to the Jihad against India and other countries opposed to their actions.

It is necessary to emphasize the problem of narco-terrorism.

Drug trafficking as a source of financing military operations was used during the struggle of the Mujahideen with the troops of the USSR. Supporting the Afghan patriots strength was not paying attention to the growing drug trafficking. And even after the withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan, the situation has not changed. And turned a blind eye to this just because the income from drug trafficking was used to Finance various operations of extremist organizations in India. The aforementioned Josef Bodansky many times described how the financing of terrorists by Pakistan in India through the profits derived from drug trafficking, created in the period after the Soviet withdrawal.

Yet another proof that Pakistan is supported contingencies of the organization was the statement of Nawaz Sharif (former Prime Minister). He admitted that the army of the country put forward a plan to use profits from the drug trade to Finance operations against India. But Sharif, he said, rejected the proposal.

And despite the fact that States, according to their heads and governments are fighting with terrorists and drugs, however, there is evidence that revenue from drug trafficking to Finance its many operations. The fact that the Taliban and terrorist organizations of Pakistan are very connected and support each other, suggests that the income from drug trafficking is used to Finance terrorist activities in Kashmir.

And to prove their cooperation, the fact that all members of terrorist groups in Afghanistan and Pakistan was held the same training in the same camps. Their common teachers and a common hatred of the Gentiles, the US and the West in General.

It is worth mentioning the terrorist attack on 13 December 2008 in the Indian Parliament, the purpose of which was to eliminate political leaders of the country. The Minister of internal Affairs of India Litle Krishna Advani accused of the terrorist organization "Lashkar-e-Taiba" and "Jaish-I-Mohammad," is that those groups with the direct support of ISI of Pakistan responsible for this attack. As a result of terrorist attacks killed more than 170 people, among whom there were also inhabitants of Europe.

Later the Prime Minister of India ATOL Bihari of Vajpayee at the meeting of the faction "Bharati janati party",the main partner of the ruling party, refused to Pakistan to conduct a joint investigation of the attack, explaining that it is meaningless to investigate together with Pakistan against terrorists located in Pakistan.

But Pakistan is also very much exposed to attacks of terrorists. For example, the attack in Northwest Pakistan, which killed 9 people (30 Jan 2010); 8 Mar 2010, 14 people were killed; 16 April there was a terrorist attack that killed Benazir Bhutto; two days later there was yet another attack, which killed 9 people.

Terrorism is very much spread across the region, including India and Pakistan. This area is already 50 years old is considered a "hot spot", although the seriousness of these dangers have always depended on the time and political tension. And the problem of the proliferation of these terrorist attacks were not only in the struggle of Muslims and Hindus, but in the confrontation between government forces and national liberation groups in various regions of India and Pakistan, who fought for independence.

India was one of the countries that supported the fight against terrorism at the international level, as the threat of terrorism was directly related to the security of the country.

India played a significant role in finding common solutions to terrorism in "the non-aligned Movement" (international organization uniting 120 countries in the world on the principles of non-participation in military blocs). The organization said that the actions with the purpose to spread fear among people, groups of persons or individual citizens irrespective of the cause, are inexcusable. In addition, in India urgent call to adopt and begin to implement a global Convention to fight international terrorism, as the country's leadership was very afraid of the threat posed by Pakistan. And India was full assistance in this fight.

The United States has created a special unit for protection in case the terrorists will get nuclear weapons in Pakistan. The task of Ranger is to return nuclear materials to the warehouses and to ensure their protection. The squad was created after several major attacks on Pakistani military bases and other important strategic points in the territory of which contained nuclear weapons [11]. According to M. Larsen (former CIA officer), was not only the attack on the army base, but and the cases of infiltration of terrorists in the most important protected objects. Behind all this is the leadership of "al-Qaeda". It is a professional approach to the issue of mastering the nuclear materials, says Mowat-Larssen. Professor Shaun Gregory, Director of the research Department of security of Pakistan at Bradford University, cited a number of incidents confirming this. In November 2007 there was an attack on the base in Punjab province, where the F-16 bombers capable of carrying nuclear weapons. A month later, a suicide bomber attacked a nuclear air force base Kamra. In August 2008 a group of terrorists blew up the gate in the garrison in Wah Punjab. There was a factory for the production of nuclear warheads. In October 2009, militants attacked the General staff of the army in Rawalpindi. The attackers, dressed in military uniforms, penetrated inside the object and fought off security forces for 22 hours. According to Gregory, at nuclear facilities, employs about 12 thousand people and it is not excluded that among them there are supporters of terrorists.

And the reason is that in Pakistan in recent years gain weight groups that are very extremist. Also Pakistan is subjected to constant criticism from other members of the international community in connection with his indecision on the issues of combating international terrorism and religious extremism (Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Algeria, China, USA, etc.). And all these countries ask for or to give hiding terrorists, or accused of training militants in Pakistan. Pakistan has repeatedly considered the United States as a "candidate" for inclusion in the list of terrorist States for permanent threat to American interests in that country from Islamic radicals and inadequate perception of Islamabad's concerns, US over bases in neighboring Afghanistan functionaries of the terrorist organization "al-Qaeda". For this reason, the country's leadership is so hesitant in anti-terrorist actions, because Pakistan must act in the interest of the opposition and countries of the world.

It is in connection with constant pressure from the international community, the Pakistani administration is forced to implement certain measures aimed at combating terrorism and extremism, or at least create the semblance of intensified counter-terrorism activities, not to lose the world's support.

But it should be noted that Islamabad is not attached to one of the key documents of the international anti-terrorist law – to the Convention for the suppression of the financing of terrorism of 1999, due to the fact that the signing of the Convention will entail a number of negative consequences for the economy and for the overall situation.

After the September events in the United States, the Pakistani leadership was forced to support a UN security Council resolution No. 1373, as well as to recognize the need for the antiterrorist operation in Afghanistan. Even had done some action (including force of nature) to limit activity based on Pakistani territory for certain structures of terrorist and extremist organizations.

Thus it can be noted, the confrontation between India and Pakistan began in 1947 after independence from Britain, but it should be noted that the preconditions for the emergence of this conflict was long before that. After all, aloof arrogant policy of England in relation to the indigenous population, the demarcation of the borders in the division without regard to ethnic and religious belonging of local population is largely contributed to the conflict. The actions of Britain, the mentality of the peoples of the region, has led to the emergence of tension between inhabitants of the colony, which eventually grew into a bloody war. Therefore, it is necessary to note that:

  1. Kashmir conflict in the course of its development has acquired a global confrontation (Muslim and Hindu identities). And the great danger of a confrontation in this matter is the possession by India and Pakistan of nuclear weapons, which is not a reliable means of holding the two sides of military conflicts.
  2. Another major problem in Indian-Pakistani relations connected with the use of water, including a section of river water for irrigation.

But the most important and crucial problems have arisen between India and Pakistan on the issue of determining the fate of the largest (more than 200 thousand sq. km) of the Indian Principality of Jammu and Kashmir. The number of semi-Autonomous, formally sovereign or semi-sovereign principalities scattered among the British possessions on the territory of the Indian subcontinent, were in direct contractual relations with a vassal of the British Empire, was close in those years to six hundred.

The conflict over Jammu and Kashmir was the cause of the deterioration of the already strained tensions between India and Pakistan. This strains in relations was caused by mutual claims that appeared in connection with the bloody events that accompanied the separation between India and Pakistan. Before Muslims and Hindus have lived together in many border areas before a single administrative-political territory of British India. But as a result of the demarcation and the formation of two independent States emerged flows of internally displaced persons. Fleeing violence and persecution, Muslims from India moved to Pakistan, and to meet them rushed refugees from Pakistan to India, i.e. Hindus and Sikhs. There are two main reasons for which need to pay attention when considering this question:

  1. Factor in Islamic terrorism
  2. Between India and Pakistan, noted a trend towards the peaceful settlement of the conflict (the threat of terrorism and radical Islamism forced the two warring States to put aside their differences for the sake of security).

Considering the constantly successive conflicts, clashes with the détente between India and Pakistan (which are placed mainly in ten-year cycles), it is possible to identify some regularity in the base of each newly erupted conflict is the military dominance of the country, which in the previous period were focused more effort and attention to army building and began to beat the enemy in this aspect. In 1998, both countries have crossed a threshold beyond which their eternal "trial of strength" can cause catastrophe on a global scale. But it should be noted that both the clashes after 1998 were short-lived and did not bring huge casualties for both sides. Overall, when compared with the middle of the last century, the conflict tends rather to decay than growth, despite the fact that the potential price risk of such huge growth due to the presence of nuclear weapons in both countries.

A characteristic feature of the present stage of Kashmir "settlement" is that the question of the proper territorial jurisdiction of Kashmir loses its Central importance in the bilateral relations of Delhi and Islamabad. To date, the main for India, the goal is not so much the settlement of the Kashmir question, how many strengthening and building trust between the two countries, as well as the suppression and complete elimination of cross-border terrorism from Pakistan. Islamabad is traditionally committed to the final resolution of the dispute as the basis for future normalization of relations with new Delhi, to bring charges of India in massive human rights violations in Jammu and Kashmir and makes a statement about supporting the "struggle of the Kashmiri people for self-determination".

Unlike Pakistan, in India, there is no problem with the ideals of the internal structure of the state policy, there is a consensus of a pluralist, secular and democratic character of the country. But India has not yet decided what role she was destined in the world. If India has to be on a par with the world powers on a global scale, it is necessary to cross regional boundaries, showing "generosity" to the neighbors, and to Pakistan in the first place. It should not try to defeat Pakistan by military means, but should strive for peace and cooperation with him, and also with Bangladesh and Afghanistan. While in Delhi understand that a "great and prosperous India" is only possible on the basis of technological breakthrough and high economic development.

We should not forget about the appearance of the "irreconcilable" opponents of a number of common goals and interests in security, trade-economic and inter-ethnic cooperation. Of great importance in the context of addressing conflict becomes cooperation between the two countries in the energy sector, in the implementation of projects of construction of gas pipeline from Iran to India via Pakistan, as well as the TRANS-Afghan gas pipeline from Turkmenistan to Pakistan and India. Moreover, the fight against drug trafficking and smuggling, as well as violations of land and sea borders.

Despite the potential for destabilizing and in the long term the emergence of a new crisis in relations between India and Pakistan, trends of development of the situation in the short term, is favorable. The conflict seems to have moved from the acute to the chronic phase. And even the issue of Jammu and Kashmir can in principle be resolved in terms of growth of mutual trust and cooperation between States and refraining from imposing on each other one final decisions that have been taken recently from the countries of the region and the Shanghai cooperation organization (SCO).


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