Moreover, Turkey severely discriminated against ethnic minorities. For example the Third Reich November 11, 1942, Turkey officially declared that in case of a possible entry into the war introduces the "varlik vergisi" - a special tax on owners of real estate and land. While Turks and other Muslims had to pay 4.94% of the value of the property, and the Greeks 156%, Jews 179%, Armenians 252%.
Among the national minorities of Turkey began suicide, since the tax could not be challenged in court and needed to pay cash within 15 days. Those Greeks who do not pay tax, were taken from the property, while the debtors themselves were sent to labor camps. And then the debts demanded from relatives of the Greek - and before that, the Nazis in Germany did not think. Camp for ethnic minorities in Turkey were closed only on 15 November 1944, when the economic impact of the non-Muslim population was finally undermined.
After the war, Islands in the Aegean sea went to Greece and Turkey did not get anything, even though she's breaking the Treaty, declared war on Germany in February 1945. Pro is the ad war, the Greeks say: "Greece for the victory over Germany gave half a million lives, and Turkey with a piece of paper." And it's true, because the Turkish army participate in the fighting of the Second world war and was not accepted.
Ironically, after a few years the Greek and Turkish armies again became allies and remain with them formally until now.
June 25, 1950 started the Korean war (discussed in more detail the tragedy of the Korean war). USA, sent to his troops, demanded from its allies to do the same. Turkey was the first country that came to the aid of American and South Korean armies. The Turkish brigade numbering about 15 thousand people arrived in Korea on 12 October 1950 and stayed there even after the war until 1960. During this time the Turks lost 721 men killed and 168 missing. In honor of them built a large memorial in the center of the Turkish capital of Ankara.
Greece, where only in 1949 ended the civil war, the desire to fight for the Americans in Korea did not burn and the Americans had there even to arrange a change of leadership of the country. The new Prime Minister, Sophocles Venizelos, August 21, 1950 announced that the country will be at war in Korea "despite the fact that after 10 years of war, Greece has no reason and hunting to start a war again". Did not want to fight and the people of Greece. Ordinary Cassandras Stavros and Nikos Pitsikas refused to go to Korea and the verdict of the Tribunal was executed.
9 Dec 1950 in Korea there has arrived a battalion "Sparta" population of 849 people. Until the end of the war it was converted into a regiment composed of soldiers 1063. Besides it was sent 9 military transport aircraft Douglas C-47 "Skytrain". Four of them were shot down, including one by mistake by the Americans on 22 December 1951, while transporting the wounded. The total loss of the Greeks amounted to 185 people killed.
There is no sense to write that for three years of war the American command tried to keep the Greek and Turkish divisions on the most remote from each other parts of the front.
In September of 1955 in Istanbul was the last Greek pogrom. He was really the last, as, after all, the Greeks left Turkey. During the pogrom were injured and the families of Greek officers serving at NATO headquarters in the Turkish city of Izmir, the former Greek Smyrna. Since the United States and other democratic countries did not condemn this pogrom, Greece in protest withdrew its troops from Korea.
On the participation of Greek troops in the Korean war, says the inscription "Korea" eternal flame at the Tomb of the unknown soldier in Athens, in the list of places where Greeks fought. This event is dedicated to the stand in the military Museum in the same city: there, at the feet of the dummy in the form of a battalion "Sparta" is a captured Soviet PPSH.
As a token of appreciation for sending troops to Korea, Greece and Turkey were both accepted into NATO on 18 February 1952. However, the relationship between the allies has not improved. New place of confrontation was the Cyprus gained independence from Britain. Despite the fact that by that time the Greeks stood at 82% of the population and were the indigenous population of the island, the British refused to hand it over to Greece and made an independent state.
From this moment Turkey started the support of their sonarodniki on the island not only politically and financially but also by force of arms. So the first bombing of the island by Turkish aviation occurred in 1964. Already in 1967 the Turks ceased to elect their representatives in the Cypriot Parliament and to implement the decisions of public authorities, created a temporary Turkish administration. Every year it became increasingly clear that the Greeks and Turks of Cyprus do not want to live in the same state
15 July 1974 Greek nationalists led by Nikos Sampson overthrew the President of Cyprus Archbishop Makarios and announced the reunification of the island with Greece, where the rules of the military junta "black colonels". Response to Turkey not long in coming - after 5 days on the island is invaded by 40-thousand corps of the Turkish army, which started to carry out "operation Attila". Greece announced an ultimatum: if Turkey within 48 hours does not withdraw its troops from Cyprus, she finds herself at war with her. However, before the expiration of his term on 21 July, there was air combat between Greek F-5 Lieutenant Ioannis Dinopoulos and two Turkish F-104 over the Aegean sea. The Turkish air force lost 2 fighter - the war between the allies actually started.
It is not included in the US plans. To the shores of Cyprus was urgently sent to the Sixth squadron of the American fleet headed by the aircraft carrier "Forrestal". Announcing the desire to stop the bloodshed, the us Navy blocked the movement of troops by air and sea from Greece to Cyprus, however, against the transfer of Turkish troops in Cyprus, no action was taken. To avoid accusations of supporting the aggression, the United States announced that it was suspending the delivery of arms to Turkey, however in the conditions of the war it had no practical value.
As a result, Turkey 40-thousand troops were opposed by a 12-strong Cypriot army, 2,000 troops, had been transferred from Greece to the beginning of the siege. In addition the Turks had a great advantage in weaponry. Of heavy machinery the Greek Cypriots had only 32 of the legendary Soviet T-34 tanks and British armoured vehicles and guns are also of world war II. The Turks moved to the island 110 tank M-47 "Patton 2" American manufacturing 50 years, a large number of recently obtained new American guns and 115 M114 and M113 armoured personnel carriers, whose production was launched in 60-ies. In addition the Turks had complete air supremacy and almost complete sea - two old torpedo boats of Cyprus Soviet buildings were sunk in the first day of the war.
However cakewalk war on the island for the Turks did not. The vanguard, composed of the 50th regiment and the Marines, numbering over 3,000 people, with 12 guns and 20 armoured personnel carriers landed on the beach Phentemine where there were no enemy troops. After a few hours managed to throw the Greek battalion, which attacked the Turks with the support of five T-34 tanks. Due to the almost 10-fold numerical superiority of the Turkish troops to throw them into the sea failed, but the Turks suffered significant losses. T-34 destroyed two armored vehicles and came out of the battle unscathed. Night, having received reinforcements, the Greeks made a second attack. The Turks asked for fire support from the ships of the fleet, but they, not understanding, struck at his troops. In the result, the Turks suffered heavy losses and was killed the commander of the 50th regiment Colonel Karaoglanoglu
Turkish soldiers during the invasion of Cyprus on 20 July 1974. Photo: Cypriot
As the Turks fought with the Turks
The next day to the port of Paphos was approached by three Turkish destroyers: "Adatepe", "Kocatepe" and "Tinaztepe". The Greek Cypriots, knowing that the Turks are intercepting their messages, conveyed to Athens in gratitude for three sent the ship of the Greek Navy. Intercepting the message, the Turkish command ordered the aircraft to destroy the Greek ships.
On the interception "of the Greek squadron" took to the air 44 Turkish bomber. Ironically, the Greeks and the Turks in service consisted of the same destroyers the us built. The Turkish pilots were seen on the ships with Turkish flags, but on the eve instructed that the Greeks would be masked in this way. So they no doubt began bombing squadron.
Turkish sailors first tried to contact the aircraft by radio and report an error, but the Turkish pilots learned instruction that insidious enemy will not only be masked Turkish flags, but also trying to deceive their Turkish speech.
In the end, to protect their lives, the Turkish sailors were forced to open fire on it, which further assured the pilots that they bombed the Greek squadron.
Summary of sea battle near Pathos was sad for Turkey: one Turkish destroyer "Kocatepe" sank, the other two knocked out completely. The Turkish air force lost three aircraft. Killed 80 of the Turkish sailors.
Greece have not lost anything as he took in this battle only the virtual part.
Turkish media announced a major victory over the Greek fleet, but 42 Turkish sailor was rescued by an Israeli vessel and thus the world learned the truth about the incident.
On 22 July during the fighting for the city Kyrenia the Turks lost 7 tanks, with two tanks were destroyed with grenades while the teams went out to dinner. The city was captured by the Turkish army.
On August 2 at Kornos hill was ambushed Turkish convoy was destroyed tanks and armored personnel carriers, and two others captured.
Finally, on 14 August, the Turks managed to win a major victory at MIA Milia, destroying some 200 Greek soldiers, while losing 40 of their own.
The next day the Turks attacked the Greeks at Skylloura forces of the two battalions of parachutists, supported by 35 tanks. The Greeks were able to hold in the rear of the enemy tank, captured on 2 August. Quietly shot in the back 7 Turkish tanks, trophy tank was able to return to his. Another Turkish tank was hit by artillery, and paratroopers, suffering heavy losses, retreated. On the same day, using ambush near Lapithos was captured by another tank of the Turkish army, and later destroyed.
16 Aug North Nicosia T-34 tank with the Greek crew in a frontal battle won is much more modern M47 American production
Later the Turks also managed to capture three of the T-34, but they were abandoned by the Greeks because of breakdowns. One of them is demonstrated in the Turkish military Museum. A captured from the Turks by the American M47 tank was in service of the Cyprus army until 1993.
Despite fierce resistance, the Turkish army slowly moved forward. Their advance was facilitated by the massive use of aviation, which led to heavy casualties among the civilian population. The Greek Cypriots, outraged by the fact that the American fleet blocks the production of reinforcements from Greece, August 19, seized the American Embassy in Nicosia and killed the American Ambassador. Realizing that losing the remnants of its influence in Greece and in Cyprus, the United States demanded Turkey to stop the war and by the end of August 1974, the operations were discontinued.
The Turks lost during the fighting killed 3,500 people, 20 tanks, 24 guns, and the Greeks together with the civilian population lost 4500 killed and about 2,000 missing.
On the border between the Greek and Turkish parts of the island were placed UN troops that are still there. During the war the Turks had captured 37% of the island. The Turkish population of the island was then about 18%. 200 thousand Greeks, stranded on the Turkish army occupied the territory, were deported to Cyprus, and arrived there 30 thousand Turks.
An important outcome of the war Cyprus was Greece's decision as a sign of gratitude to USA for its role in the war, to withdraw from the military structure of NATO. Before that, in 1966, so did France, though later, both countries returned to Greece in 1980, and France in 2009. +
After the war, the confrontation between Greece and Turkey was transported in the Aegean sea and particularly intensified after Greece said that it considers its territorial waters and the airspace above them with a width of 12 miles, in accordance with the UN Convention on the law of the sea of 1982. Turkey, violating international laws, it does not recognize.
As a result, in average about thousands of times per year the Turkish military planes violated the air border and the planes of Greece are forced to rise to their displacement. In fact, between the two countries is the decades of the cold war, and with real victims: +
3 Oct 1977 died captain Stavros Anisakis and Lieutenant Panagiotis Petroutsos of the Greek air force. June 18, 1992 at interception over the island Agios Efstratios killed their comrade Lieutenant Nikolaos Sialmas. Turkish pilot Member Karaburun died 27 December 1995 near the island of Lesbos during a virtual air combat.
In 1996 during the escalation of the situation around the Islands IMIA killed three Greek pilots - the crew of the helicopter of naval forces. Was the helicopter downed Turkish or fell due to technical problems, could not figure out, but the crew is a monument in Athens, near the Turkish Embassy.
And after an air battle on 8 October of the same year, between 6 Turkish and 2 Greek fighter jets, missile brought down a Turkish jet and killed the pilot Neil Erdogan.
After this, countries were able to agree on what their aircraft will depart on the protection of the air space without weapons. But it didn't help: the Greek pilot Kostas Alicias in 2006, rammed the aircraft from the Turkish air force. With the result that Greek was killed, and Turkish pilot managed to escape.
Even now, when Turkey have to wage war with the Kurds in the East of the country, and also to provide armed support to his supporters in Syria and Iraq, it has not ceased to escalate tensions over the Aegean sea. Proof of this is the announcement by Turkey area prohibited for flights of all aircraft of practically all of the waters of the Aegean sea on the grounds that there she will conduct exercises its air force, and the year from 1 January until 31 December 2016.
The Greek government has already said that ignoring the ban. So a quick end to years of confrontation between sworn allies is not expected. Moreover, despite the economic crisis, Greece does not reduce its military budget and its people go to rallies of solidarity with Russia, which has also lost a pilot because of the aggressive actions of Turkey.
captain nail Erdogan
8 Oct 1996 aircraft of the Turkish air force F-16s took to the skies with air force base in the Turkish province goes wide of the post for the training flight. In the area of Chios island the plane crashed. Aircraft commander Colonel Osman Cilekli managed to eject. It was picked up by Greek rescuers and handed over to Turkish command. The co-pilot, captain nail Erdogan, was gone. His body was found. Soon relatives Naila Erdogan told the press that the Turkish authorities are likely hiding the true cause of an airplane accident — he was hit by the Greek air force. Ankara has denied this information. It has been 16 years and in 2012, Lieutenant Colonel Cilekli still broke the "vow of silence". He confirmed that the plane was indeed shot down by the Greek side. The speech of Colonel Cilekli forced to give an official comment and the heads of the armed forces of Turkey.
Greek military pilot Kostas Iliakis
Speaking to reporters, defence Minister Ismet Yilmaz confirmed that in 1996 the aircraft F-16D, piloted by Lieutenant Colonel Cilekli and captain Erdogan, was hit by a missile "air-air", released from the aircraft "Mirage-2000", owned by the Greek air force. Since then, the debate continues about the true causes of the tragedy. The Turkish military claimed that the aircraft of the Turkish air force was without weapons, and the Greek side claims that the plane was armed and were escorted by another aircraft. Moreover, the Turkish pilot of the collision, and Greek pilot Thanos Grivas pulled the trigger accidentally, with no intent to destroy a Turkish plane. Ten years later, the Turkish side, accidentally or purposefully, but "recouped" by the Greeks for the downed captain Erdogan. 23 may 2006, two Turkish F-16 aircraft and a reconnaissance aircraft F-4 violated the Greek airspace at a height of 8200 meters. Greek aviation service informed about it was not, therefore, to intercept the Turkish aircraft were raised two fighters F-16 air force of Greece. Over the island of Karpathos Greek and Turkish aircraft collided. The Turkish pilot Halil Ibrahim Ozdemir managed to eject, but the Greek pilot Kostas Iliakis died. It is not excluded that the above losses of the Turkish and Greek air force — not the last in the confrontation between the two countries over the airspace above the Aegean sea. Neither Turkey nor Greece are not willing to compromise. Moreover, the Turkish side is using provocative methods, strongly demonstrating his contempt for the protests from Greece.
When the Turkish air force shot down a Russian su-24 aircraft, and the extremists of the Turcoman groups have killed the pilot Lieutenant Colonel Oleg Peshkov, Minister of foreign Affairs of Greece Nikos Kotzias expressed his condolences to Russian foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov. The Greek side is well aware, the behavior of Turkey in the air. Every year the Greek air traffic control service record about 1.5 thousand cases of invasion by Turkish military aircraft into the airspace of Greece. Several times a day, Turkish planes fly into Greek airspace. Greece in response is forced to raise combat aircraft to intercept the trespassers. So, in July of 2015, six Turkish F-18 again violated the airspace of Greece, before the Greeks took to the air four fighter, not less than 20 times violated Greek airspace. For Turkish military aircraft violations of the airspace of Greece have become a usual fact.
February 15, 2016, the General staff of the armed forces of Greece reported about 20 violations of the airspace of Greece which was accomplished by six Turkish military aircraft.
- Volodymyr TULIN http://riafan.ru/
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