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The place and role of Russian Federation in providing military security in the Commonwealth of Independent States: Central Asian direction
Material posted: Publication date: 13-11-2013

After the collapse of the Soviet Union on its territory there was 15 sovereign States. There was also a special category of "post-Soviet unrecognized States", which was Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia, Transnistria, Gagauz Republic, the Republic of Abkhazia.

Emerged post-Soviet States initially faced the necessity of finding your "international-structural identity". Republics of the former USSR faced a choice - to start the process of forming a new international-political region, or be included in one or another existing one. The second opportunity was fully used by the Baltic countries.

Unrecognized States involved in the process of defending their territorial and political interests, which led to serious armed conflicts. Military security is achieved by interconnected and organized activities of all public authorities. To reveal the contents of this process is to identify, first of all, a set of interrelated and interdependent elements of this activity. In present political processes in the CIS countries, determine the necessity for constant adjustment of Russia's policy and constant improvement of the security mechanism.

Initially, in determining the value of the security process, there are some approaches. So, for example, the authors of the thematic dictionary defined the security as "instrumental" part of the security policy, representing the unity of political norms, institutions, procedures and rules of their activities, are provided through which the interests of national and international security. In this case, the main elements of this mechanism are:

  • the concept of security is a political document, representing the theoretical and methodological basis of construction, operation and development of all parts of the security mechanism;
  • the totality of politico-legal principles and norms that define the duties, powers and order of activity of political institutes, public associations and citizens ' security;
  • political bodies and institutions, acting as power and security – the armed forces, security forces, intelligence, defence sports and technical society, etc.;
  • certain methods, ways and forms of political and social institutions, or even individual citizens in the interest of safety.

On the basis of already existing knowledge about the structure of security mechanism, it can be noted that for its effective functioning in the Russian Federation policy in the post-Soviet space in its composition should include the following main components:

  1. Legal basis of security policy of the state;
  2. The main goals of security policy;
  3. Resources security policy.

Legal basis of security policy of the state includes legislative acts, determining activity of the state security, since it is based on Russia's policy for security in the post-Soviet space. One of the most important legal document that determines security is a national security Concept. National security concept of the Russian Federation is a system of views on security in Russia the security of the individual, society and state from external and internal threats in all spheres of life. The concept defines the most important directions of state policy of the Russian Federation.

This document sets forth the basic national interests of Russia, including in relation to CIS countries. Among the main threats to national security are the following:

  • the danger of weakening the political, economic and military influence of Russia in the world;
  • being in close proximity to the Russian border foreign military bases and large military contingents;
  • the weakening of the integration processes in the CIS;
  • the origin of conflicts near the state border of the Russian Federation and the external borders of the States – participants of the CIS, etc.

The defining document that forms the basis of the strategy for ensuring security in the sphere of defence is the Military doctrine of the Russian Federation, which is a set of official views (settings), defining the military-political, military-strategic and military-economic foundations of military security of the Russian Federation. It is important to note that the Russian Military doctrine is defensive in nature. To repel aggression against the Russian Federation or its allies, as well as to perform tasks in accordance with international treaties and Federal laws of the Russian state, the Russian Federation considers legitimate the use of its Armed forces. The defining document that forms the basis of Russia's foreign policy is the foreign policy Concept of the Russian Federation, is defined as the most important priority "ensuring compliance with multilateral and bilateral cooperation with States – participants of CIS, related tasks of ensuring national security of the country". The most important documents are the annual message of the President of Russia V. V. Putin to the Federal Assembly in 2006 and 2007, where the CIS remains a priority of foreign policy.

The second pillar are the main policy objectives of security of Russian Federation in the post-Soviet space. Policy objectives of Russia's security in the post-Soviet space are:

  • the development of equal and mutually beneficial relations with all countries and integration associations, primarily with the States – participants of CIS;
  • the willingness (if necessary) to prevent military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies in the CIS;
  • participation in peacekeeping operations in the CIS countries;
  • joint with other interested countries in the region the interdiction of the transit of drugs and weapons, combating terrorism and extremism;
  • military and military-technical cooperation with the CIS countries;
  • the fulfillment of allied obligations to the CIS and etc.

The third security component is resources security policy. The main ones are: political-diplomatic, economic and military.

Political and diplomatic resources : the use of international institutions, primarily the UN, where Russia is a permanent member of the UN Security Council and can use the "veto" power to deter the aggressive aspirations of some States to realize its foreign policy interests on the territory of CIS countries. This resource is a fairly strong instrument of influence on the security processes in the CIS; negotiations, consultations and mediation to encourage and establish good international relations; meetings and conferences under the guidance of military-political alliances on the assessment of threats and development of recommendations for joint actions, etc.

Three percentage of Russia in the world economy does not allow Russia to use economic the most important and effective in the modern world – a way to impact on international relations. But in the realization of state interests of the current Russian economy is capable to solve regional challenges in the former Soviet Union, where Russia still remains the most powerful economic entity.

Military resource is a collection of material and spiritual abilities of the state to maintain and improve their armed forces, increase their combat effectiveness, and if necessary – to ensure their effective use in the protection of its national interests. Russia is still a leading nuclear power, its power is comparable only with the U.S., which allows it to provide additional security guarantees to its allies in the CIS. In addition to its nuclear forces, Russia has a large population and a well-equipped modern armed forces. This situation allows Russia to threatened to provide military assistance to CIS countries in the Central Asian and Caucasian theaters of war.

Thus, taking into account all these parameters and conditions of functioning of the mechanism of military security policy in the Russian Federation in the CIS, will contribute to improving and strengthening security of the Russian Federation, and the Commonwealth as a whole. Continuing changes the geopolitical picture of the world, due to the collapse of the USSR and formation of CIS, has already led to the formation of a new geopolitical situation in Central Asian region of the CIS. The interest in this region was driven previously. For example, a prominent Russian military geographer and Explorer of Central Asia, Snesarev A. E. in his works, noted that "under the Central Asian question should be understood as a complex group of political, economic and other tasks and interests, covering a vast area called Central Asia.

The latter includes our Amirami Turkestan, Afghanistan and Baluchistan, Eastern Persia, Kashgar and finally, the Northern part of India, or India proper. Currently, in the active stage are the processes of transformation of Central Asia from the peripheral region (where geopolitical tendencies did not manifest), in the region that has the interests of several major powers and other sectors of international life. On how will develop the situation in Central Asia will largely depend on the balance of power in the vast expanse of the planet. Any events occurring in the Central Asian countries will be reflected not only at the regional level, but also can cause changes in the geopolitical balance of power in the whole Eurasian continent, which remains recognized as the axis of global development. Its geopolitical interest in the region was tested, and implemented, and the UK. Military geographer Snesarev A. E. pointed to the fact that "England put themselves top of the political agenda (in Central Asia) Russia to delay all available resources at a good distance from Afghanistan (and, hence, India) and weaken the Central Asian swing...".

All countries in the region belong to the Islamic world. Throughout its history, the peoples of Central Asia existed in close interaction, and at certain times within a single territorially-state entities. The region has access to the Caspian sea, as well as access to the waters of the Baltic sea, through Russia, to the Black sea and the Azov sea through the Caucasus (mainly ice-free ports). Through this region are the major continental highways and pipelines, international airlines, connecting the different regions of Europe, Asia and the Middle East. The countries of the region have significant global reserves of natural resources (especially Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan), particularly rich in oil fields (Kazakhstan), gas (Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan), and there are natural gas reserves are world class, polymetallic and uranium (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan), rare earth metals (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan), gold (Uzbekistan). The agricultural sector mainly specializes in the production of exported outside of the region cotton (everywhere, but the leading position is occupied by Uzbekistan), grain (Kazakhstan), Astrakhan (Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan), tobacco (Kyrgyzstan). Also of note is the large oil field in the Caspian sea basin. So, in the global economy the countries of the region is a niche provider of raw materials, primarily oil, gas, cotton, uranium and nonferrous metals.

In the region there are conflict and problems of different severity, the subject of which is fresh water. In Central Asia the conflict around water sources occurred in the USSR, but then they managed to contain. Today the situation is constantly deteriorating due to a number of reasons. Thus, it is expected that in 15– 20 years of water resources of the region will be reduced at least by a third. And this contributes a number of points.

  1. In the region of acute climate change, with a tendency toward aridity.
  2. Enhanced anthropogenic pressure on the ecosystem. The region has a high population growth rate. Particularly revealing is a sad example of the Aral sea-lake, with an area for some five decades has dropped by more than half due to the "cold war" countries in the region over the water of the Amudarya and Syrdarya into the Aral sea. But once deep and rich of fish sea was the fourth largest lake in the world.
  3. Not regulated inter-state relations regarding water use. Basically these problems exist between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.

From the military strategic point of view this region:

first, between three theatres of war – the middle East, far East and European. Within it is a number of important Russian military-strategic assets, in particular the Baikonur cosmodrome and a number of test sites. Here also in the framework of the CSTO formed a single defense space in the region;

secondly, this region, occupying an important geopolitical position in the Central part of the Eurasian continent, it shares borders with countries that are potential centers of the emerging multipolar world, such as Russia and China, and regional powers with nuclear weapons – Pakistan, India and Iran (Iran under development Yao);

thirdly, this region is part of the so-called zone of critical areas of Eurasia. The geographical location of the region coincides with the area of military-political instability, mainly connected with the collapse of the USSR and also the ongoing military operation in Afghanistan.

It identifies considerable risks, as the existing complex socio-political and economic problems is still a slight tendency to resolve the contradictions. The foreign policy priorities of States in the region and the views of the political leadership on the issue of security was sometimes a discrepancy with the Russian vision of these problems.

For example, Uzbekistan, a key player from the point of view of regional security and have their own vision on certain regional political, economic and military issues and problems, actively cooperates with Russia and included in the SCO, but also seeks to maintain relations with China, the US and NATO. As to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, they focused on Russia and at the same time also cooperating with the US and NATO and are included in the SCO. The only exception is Turkmenistan, which due to its officially recognized by the UN as a neutral state, is not included in any military-political organization.

Of the five new independent States of the region – Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan are the most important military-political role in the region. From the positions of these countries depends largely on the political, economic and military processes in the region and the Commonwealth as a whole. In modern conditions the Central Asian republics are members of both the regional and international organizations. Regional organizations: the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the conference on interaction and confidence building measures in Asia (CICA), Organization of collective security Treaty (CSTO), Eurasian economic community (EurAsEC), Shanghai cooperation organization (SCO) and other International organizations, such as the United Nations (UN), world trade organization (WTO) . In fact, such organizations as CIS, CSTO and SCO affect their activities in virtually all aspects of military and political security in the Central Asian region of the CIS. Russia's interests in Central Asia is quite complicated.

On the one hand, their formation took place in difficult historical, cultural and ideological conditions. On the other hand, Russia and the countries of the region are still at the stage of political and economic reform and transformation. After the Central Asian republics achieved independence, there arose the problem of defining Russia's relations with them. The basis of the Russian interests — the desire to preserve the special relationship between Russia and Central Asia in the political, economic, military and cultural spheres. The ultimate goal of Russian policy in the region is integration in the economic, political spheres and in the sphere of security.

Previously all the Central Asian States were part of the Soviet Union, they are now members of the CIS, and are a priority for Russian diplomacy. This position is clearly seen in the first two fundamental foreign policy documents that emerged under President V. Putin, — "national security Concept of the Russian Federation" and "foreign policy Concept of the Russian Federation", signed on 10 January and 28 June 2000, the same conclusion should be drawn from the Epistles of the former President to the Federal Assembly 2000-2005

Thus, in considering the role and place of Russian Federation in ensuring security in the Central Asian region, should also take into account several important factors such as: Geographic. Russia has the longest border with Central Asia that produces a large number of positive opportunities and concerns on both sides. Historical. Central Asia is quite closely related to modern Russia and its predecessors – the Soviet Union and the Russian Empire. Geo-economic. Russia and Central Asia is in many respects a single economically interconnected organism. Ethno-cultural. In the Central Asian States after the collapse of the Soviet Union left millions of ethnic Russians. And now Russia's population, already more than twenty years after the countries gained independence in the region, still tend to view relationships with them as an equal independent States. Geostrategic.

Because of its location, Central Asia is an important geopolitical space from the point of view of ensuring security and stability in the CIS as a whole. In addition to these factors, Russia in this region, as a Eurasian country, has a deep and long-term external national interests. The activities of the Russian Federation in ensuring security in the Central Asian region can be classified according to the following directions:

  1. Activities in the framework of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
  2. Activities in the framework of the Organization of collective security Treaty (CSTO).
  3. Activities in the framework of the Shanghai organization countries (SCO).

Activities in the framework of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The collapse of the armed forces of the former USSR began in the fall of 1991, Important in military and political terms was the statement of the CIS countries at the meeting on 21 December 1991 in Alma-ATA that they support Russia in its continued membership of the USSR in the UN, including permanent membership in the Security Council and other international organizations. After the formation of the CIS in December 1991, the CIS heads of state adopted a decision to establish the relevant statutory bodies. After the signing of the Charter of the CIS were identified: the Heads of state Council consisting of the presidents of the 12 countries, the Council of heads of governments, Council of foreign Ministers and the Council of defense Ministers. In turn, the Council of defense Ministers of CIS countries in the Russian Federation, Moscow is making significant efforts to establishing the rate of the Commonwealth in the military-political and military-technical sphere.

It should be noted that within the CIS the partnership, and not allied. Military cooperation within this framework is developing in three main directions: military-political, military-technical and military. For the entire period of the CIS existence the main efforts of the Russian Federation were focused on the prevention of WMD proliferation; peacekeeping activities (aimed at settlement of conflicts in the CIS); counteraction to manifestations of international terrorism; improving joint operational and combat training; the development of the United air defense system of the CIS. In conditions of political instability, economic decline and the weakness of national armies of the CIS to Russia was a highly complex task: to introduce new independent States in international law obligations in the field of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

The issue was resolved with the nuclear status of Russia, as the successor Union. Thus all the CIS States agreed to this. All the strategic missile and nuclear means on the territory of the CIS were Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan. All these weapons were transferred to the jurisdiction of Russia. An important activity of Russia in the internal conflicts in several countries of the CIS was the maintenance of peace, prevention and resolution of conflicts.

Special attention in this direction deserves the role of Russia in the field of peacekeeping. The beginning of this activity and cooperation in this area with other countries of the CIS was initiated with the adoption on 20 March 1992 in Kiev a joint Agreement "On Groups of military observers and Collective peacekeeping forces in the Commonwealth of Independent States".

Under this Agreement, the States parties committed themselves on the basis of mutual consent together to assist in the prevention and resolution of armed conflicts in the States – participants CIS. Since the formation of the CIS Russia has actively participated in four peacekeeping operations in conflict zones in three States: in Transnistria (Moldova) from 1992, in South Ossetia (Georgia) since 1992, in Tajikistan since 1993 and in Abkhazia (Georgia) 1994 Important stabilizing role in Tajikistan was played by the Russian military presence in the face of the 201st mechanized infantry division, units of which were the basis of the Collective peacekeeping forces of the CIS (CIS CCM). Russia took on the main task in the context of armed confrontation between government forces and opposition troops on reining escalate hostilities, support of the Russian Border troops in Tajikistan and protection of the Tajik-Afghan border.

Simultaneously, the military personnel of this division assisted in the training of personnel for the Armed forces of Tajikistan, carried out the transport of humanitarian aid to the local population participated in the liquidation of consequences of natural disasters, maintained law and order, guarded the most important objects and structures, assisted refugees, and to the Collective peacekeeping forces of the CIS held three operations for the transfer of militants of the United Tajik opposition after the signing of the armistice. Active role in the fight against terrorism and extremism plays Russia and within the CIS. The Russian Federation consistently advocates the consolidation of international efforts to get rid of these modern threats and challenges. Therefore, Moscow is actively supporting all initiatives and proposals in the framework of the UN, the "big eight", and in the course of interaction with the European Union and NATO. The analysis of the situation shows that one of the most pressing and major problem in ensuring the security of Central Asian States still remains the problem of combating terrorism and extremism. To combat this phenomenon of the XXI century in recent years have been connected powerful opposing forces of Central Asian States. In the framework of the CIS is anti-Terrorist centre of CIS (ATC CIS), which was established by the Decision of Council of heads of state of the Commonwealth of Independent States on 21 June 2000. In Central Asia the regional office of the ATC is located in Bishkek (Republic of Kyrgyzstan).

The results of operations of the ATC of the CIS contribute to the development of common approaches to security and to adequately respond to emerging threats of a terrorist nature to countries of the Commonwealth. In the framework of the CIS until 2005 acted as the Headquarters for coordination of military cooperation, within which, in accordance with the decisions of the Council of defense Ministers of the CIS, was annually held joint command-staff exercise "southern Shield of the Commonwealth". Thus, in the framework of combating terrorism and extremism were held joint command-staff exercise "southern shield of the Commonwealth – 99" (in the territory of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan), "southern shield of the Commonwealth – 2000" (in the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan), "southern shield of the Commonwealth – 2001" on the territory of the Russian Federation, the complex operational-tactical exercises "South–Antiterror 2002", "southern shield of the Commonwealth – 2003", "southern shield of the Commonwealth – 2004" (in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan).

At the meeting of the Council of CIS heads of state (August 26, 2005, Kazan, Russia) it was decided to further reform and improvement of the CIS bodies. Accordingly, from 1 January 2006, the Headquarters for coordination of military cooperation of the States-participants of CIS was abolished, and its successor, the Secretariat identified the CIS defence Ministers Council, which transferred the functions of the abolished FAC Headquarters of the CIS. The active role Russia continues to play in joint air defense system of the CIS (OS PVO). Overall, countries included in the OS defense, actively cooperate with Moscow in promoting collective combat skills. The main element of the functioning of this system are regular exercises of air defense forces. OS participants annually attend defense exercises with live firing at the landfill site "Ashuluk" in the Astrakhan region (under the title "Combat Commonwealth"), to exchange with Russia information from their radar. The coordinating Committee OS CIS air defence under the Council of defense Ministers of the CIS is located in Moscow. Also in the framework of the CIS in 2009, fees were held of representatives of the Commonwealth, responsible for the military application of a unified system of state recognition "Password" (friend or foe), which brings together the ten States of the CIS.

This is directly connected with safety in the air. In the framework of the CIS is taking control the proliferation of MANPADS "Igla" and "Strela", which are in service in all the States of the CIS. In this area, adopted a number of agreements, allowing to control the sale and transfer of these weapons into other hands. The important directions of development of integration processes in the military sphere and multilateral cooperation of the armed forces of States – participants of the Commonwealth are:

  • the establishment and improvement of joint (United) military systems, which are aimed at the creation of the joint (incorporated) communication system and automation of the Armed forces of States – participants of CIS;
  • issues of engineering support of Armed forces of countries - participants of the CIS;
  • standardization and unification of topographic and geodetic and navigation provision of the Armed forces of States – participants of the Commonwealth etc.

Thus, to achieve the goals of security of Central Asian States, with wide participation of Russian Federation, have established a comprehensive legal and organizational-structural basis of affirming the above directions of military-political cooperation within the Commonwealth of Independent States. The activities of the Russian Federation in the framework of the Organization of collective security Treaty (CSTO).

If to continue comparison with NATO, the leadership role the CSTO plays in Russia, as the most powerful in the military-political and military-economic terms the country, just as the most important member of NATO is the United States. Since a large portion of the financial costs of the organization falls on Russia – 47,2%, and 8.8% of every other state. Russia is also a major supplier of personnel, weapons and military equipment. The core of the military-political activity of the CSTO is its political component. Presidents, expressing the political will of the member States of the organization, determine the strategic line at each stage of development, as the Treaty itself and the Organization of collective security Treaty into a military organization and military-technical spheres, in the Union of collective efforts to counter international terrorism, in establishing foreign policy cooperation, deepening integration and expanding its spheres.

In its activities, the CSTO is actively working in three main directions. The first is foreign policy, whose main task is to coordinate the positions of States on global and regional security issues. The second direction is counteraction to challenges and threats. First of all, we are talking about coordination within the CSTO joint efforts in combating religious extremism, terrorism, drug trafficking, illegal migration and organized crime. On these issues in the CSTO is setting up a special coordination structures, law enforcement bodies, as well as the creation of appropriate legal conditions for their successful joint activity. The third direction is the military component, including the formation and improvement of the activities of the groups of forces: Russia-Belarus – Western Russia-Armenia is in Transcaucasia, but also the Collective rapid response forces (CRRF) in the Central Asian region. The adoption, in the framework of the CSTO documents such as "Basic provisions of coalition strategy", "the Model of regional system of collective security", has allowed to define the logic of formation of collective security in the post-Soviet space. The main thing is that this logic of formation of collective security in the post-Soviet space leads to the fact that Russia will participate in any regional conflict, and countries party only to the conflict in their region. This, in turn, undoubtedly confirmed once again that Russia in ensuring security in the CIS plays a Central role. Given the security threats emerging in Central Asia and related largely to the unstable situation in Afghanistan, in may 2001 in the framework of the CSTO were approved the regulations on Collective rapid deployment forces (CRDF) of the Central Asian region.

In February 2009, the CSTO member States have agreed and signed a draft decision on creation of CRRF. The decision of the session of the collective security Council of CSTO on the establishment within the organization of Collective rapid reaction forces (CRRF), suggests that this military-political Alliance of strategic partners came out today to a whole new level of its development. This is actually creating a very strong on equipment multi-functional capacity, capable of responding to any challenges and threats. If earlier the Collective rapid deployment forces (CRDF) of the CSTO was intended to counter the first invasion, war or border conflicts, the tasks of the collective rapid reaction force not only to counter military and border conflicts, but also to presechenia the activities of terrorist and extremist groups, drug trafficking and other organized crime.

One important component of the policy of the Russian Federation to ensure security in the region was the opening in November 2003, the airfield at Kant (Kyrgyzstan) a Russian military base. The deployment of Russian aviation groups at the airport Kant was the first step towards the creation of a permanent in Kirghizia the Russian air base, which later became part of aviation CSIS. Overall, the Russian aviation group in the region able to solve quite a wide range of missions: from provide cover from air strikes Bishkek, interception purposes in the airspace of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and parts of Afghanistan, to escort transport aircraft engaged in the transfer of important goods that, in turn, is the guarantor of stability and a bulwark against the threats and challenges in the region. Another confirmation of the increasing role of Russia in the CSTO was the signing in October 2004 between Tajikistan and Russia of an agreement for the lease of the military base. Thus, the CSTO has been strengthened full-fledged Russian military base in Tajikistan. Annually in the framework of the CSTO held military exercises "Interaction" and "Inviolable fraternity", which are the complex command-staff exercises conducted sequentially in a single military-political and strategic environment.

Along with this, are held and exercises "Rubezh", which is based on counter-terrorism orientation with the task of countering the terrorism, extremism in the region. Another crucial task of the CSTO is the creation of antidrug "security belts" around Afghanistan. Since 2003 the CSTO holds annual international anti-drug operation "Channel" in order to curb the smuggling of drugs from Afghan territory. There are other steps the CSTO in Afghanistan. For example, since 2005 the collective security Council in Moscow adopted a resolution "On the implementation of the action Plan on coordination of activity of member States ODKB in questions of post-conflict rebuilding of Afghanistan and measures to improve this work", and formed a working group on Afghanistan. The main activities of this group focused on developing recommendations on measures to combat drug trafficking and assist in the building of the government institutions in Afghanistan, and also in the sphere of economic cooperation. In recent years, member States of the CSTO increasingly cooperate with each other in military-technical sphere. This is evidenced by a substantial increase in the number of mutual bids for the supply of military products. In the framework of the organization of military-technical cooperation is based on both multilateral and bilateral agreements. A significant step towards deepening was the signing in 2000 of the agreement on main principles military-technical cooperation. Work in this direction has allowed to restore and sustainably develop the Joint air defense system of the CIS countries such as Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. For further integration in the field of armament and equipped with sophisticated technology in April 2003 decided on the introduction about preferential deliveries of the Russian armaments to the countries participating in the organization.

Previously, the implementation of mutual deliveries of military products on favorable terms was made only for the forces and means allocated directly in the interests of collective security. Now, since 2004, a special regime for the supply of arms and military equipment from Russia started to spread into the armed forces of all countries. Within the CSTO, Russia successfully carries out the implementation of the Agreement on joint training of military personnel. Thus, for example Russia allocates large number of seats in the military academies of the Ministry of defense of the Russian Federation for training on a preferential basis to military personnel from States members of the Organization. These quotas allowed us to satisfy all requests of the member States of the CSTO. Approved by the Ministers of defence of the States members of the Organization of the list of universities for joint training of 45 military personnel of the Russian military-educational institutions, 6 – 3 Belarusian and Kazakhstan. Thus, with the active participation of Russia in the CIS, four Central Asian States (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) participating in the collective security Treaty organization, strengthen the common defense space. Prospects of creation of security system within the CSTO (and the Central Asian part of it) suggest fairly intensive integration of the Russian Federation in the military-political and military-technical cooperation with States parties to the Treaty. The most important role in ensuring security and stability in the region, the Russian Federation plays in the SCO framework.

At the same time Russia together with CSTO considers the SCO as one of the mechanisms to ensure the safe development of Central Asia and as a fundamentally new model of geopolitical integration. The creation of this organization coincided with the period when China announced itself as a power, claiming a new role in world politics. Considering the interaction of States within the SCO, it can be argued that the core of the organization are Russia and China. If we consider their role and influence in the world, it is understandable their strategic interests in various regions of the world, including Central Asian region. The SCO has its own budget, where the share of Russia and people's Republic of China (PRC) accounted for 24% of the total budget, Kazakhstan - 21%, Uzbekistan - 15%, Kyrgyzstan - 10%, Tajikistan - 6%. The main activities of Russia in this format to ensure security and stability in the Central African Republic are:

  • border disputes between SCO members;
  • countering extremism and terrorism and drug trafficking;
  • countering U.S. influence in the region;
  • the decision of regional problems of military-political nature.

The initial prerequisites for the formation of the SCO are measures closer Sino-Russian relations in the process of formation of the Russian-Chinese border, the political feature of which was that it was set during diplomatic negotiations in which both parties equally had its successes and shortcomings. The compromises that went to Russia in 1991-1999 were justified and allowed to transfer Russian-Chinese cooperation on a new quality – strategic partnership, making it real, tangible and affecting on the security processes in the region of Central Asia.

Since 1992, work on the settlement of border issues in Central Asia and China was carried out in the framework of the working group of the Chinese delegation and the joint delegation of Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, although the Chinese side insisted on a bilateral format. For young States of Central Asia, which on the basis of legal succession had to be with China talks on the boundary, but had no need for this archives legal, methodological, historical and other documents, this format together with Russia was a vital prerequisite. So the format of the "joint delegation" allowed Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to receive from the Russian foreign Ministry the required documents and the relevant protocols of the Soviet-Chinese talks. To date, the process of delimitation of state borders of Central Asian republics with China is almost complete. In April 1996 Shanghai agreement on confidence building measures in the military field in the border area, States agreed to establish a 200-mile maximum demilitarized border zone.

At the next meeting of leaders of the five countries (in Moscow in April 1997) signed a five-sided act of the "Agreement on mutual reduction of armed forces in border areas". This agreement was elaborated on and supplemented the Shanghai document, but also reinforced mutual confidence in security matters. Thus, the problem of a successful solution of the border issue continues to play its important role in the SCO region. This organization has a special function – ensuring border security and stability in the areas along the borders between member States. Essential elements of the SCO is to fight terrorism and extremism. In practical terms, concern about these issues culminated in the signing of the SCO member States in 2004, "Convention on combating terrorism, separatism and extremism, Agreement on the establishment of the Regional anti-terrorist structure (rats)" and "Agreement on cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors". In the framework of the SCO in July 2005, approved the "Concept of cooperation of States – members of SCO in combating terrorism, separatism and extremism", and also signed the "Agreement on the procedure of organization and holding of joint antiterrorist actions on the territories of member States of the SCO and the agreement between the governments of the States members of SCO on cooperation in rendering assistance in liquidation of emergency situations". These documents set out the legal bases of cooperation of the SCO member States in the field of collective security, which allows to improve the targeting and effectiveness of joint actions in this direction. Countries of the SCO held in August 2003, the first joint anti-terrorist exercises "Interaction – 2003" in Kazakhstan and China, "Cooperation – 2007" in Russia. Anti-terrorist exercises "Peace mission-2009", "Peaceful mission-2010", "Peace mission-2012", on the territory of the countries of the SCO member States began large-scale anti-terrorist measures taken in the framework of the Shanghai cooperation organization. These held for the first time in the history of this organization joint anti-terrorism military exercises, demonstrate the willingness of the participating countries to go beyond political declarations, but to create real mechanisms of maintaining peace and stability, countering common threats. As stressed by the President of Russia Vladimir Putin in interview to the Chinese newspaper "people's daily", the SCO is not a military bloc, and the organization, can play a very important role in creating an enabling environment and stability not only in Central Asia but in the Asia-Pacific region as a whole. In the future, the SCO may become a Central element of the future "arc of stability" from Western Europe, covering the Caucasus, Central Asian region of the CIS and to the Asia-Pacific region. One way or another, but it seems that this organization in the foreseeable future can be a powerful regulatory and attractive factor in politics in such a large region like Central Asia, resulting in a mandatory-active participation in the organization of Russia. Thus, Russia in ensuring security and stability in Central Asia is involved in practically all directions of development of relations with regional States.

Military-political relations of Russia with the Central Asian States were and remain a necessary and important element of ensuring security in the region. The military-political provisions signed between Russia and the Central Asian States in various forms of cooperation provide for joint commitments in the area of defence in the event of security threats and are associated with the provision of additional guarantees of military security to the countries of the region.

 

Hasanov, V. S.

 

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