In modern conditions the old tools of international relations largely lose their relevance. Power methods of pressure, including sanctions and embargoes are used less and become a relic of the past. A reality in international relations at the modern stage of becoming a hybrid war and the struggle of ideologies and at the forefront of the institutions of “soft power”.
The concept of “soft power” was developed by American political scientist Dzh. Hiring at the turn of XX-XXI centuries In his theory of “soft power” are opposed to the existing model of international relations based on the equality of the parties (at least in relation to each other as equals) and their pursuit of a mutually beneficial partnership. Of course, the practical implementation of this concept requires specific methodologies and tools, different from the classical one.
In politics, however, the concept of George.Naya is interpreted realistically, i.e. as another tool in the fight for dominance, and in this sense is used by most countries. A departure from the overtly tough, “force” methods involving the use of armed force or economic pressure, it becomes smaller. But now the fight is on the level of ideas, and the goal is not power and ideological defeat of the enemy.
Another important aspect of the use of “soft power” in contemporary international relations — the methods of economic control. Political pressure through sanctions or international organizations like the IMF ceased to be a key pressure for many new players. In this context, it is interesting to consider the Chinese program of “Belt and road”, which includes the construction of infrastructure in countries around the world, and granting loans for large amounts. This creates prerequisites for the creation of Chinese domination over the world economic system in the long run.
However, China is a relatively new player in this field. “Soft power” as an instrument of ideological influence has been used by Germany and the Netherlands.
Germany is actively using soft power after the Second World war and the partition of the country into two parts. The experience of West Germany, the ideological fight against their former compatriots and developed over time, the institutions implementing them like “Goethe Institute” or a public media company Deutsche Welle continue to work until now in different countries.
The Netherlands in the implementation of its policies by external forces uses mostly embassies and consulates, aiming to spread knowledge about the country and form a pool of her face. The Netherlands are actively using their historical past: when he was a colonial Empire of this country actively spread their language and culture through active trade with almost all the developed countries of that time.
These three examples could not better illustrate the paradigm shift of international relations and its transformation in accordance with the spirit of the times and changes in people's minds.
- Nye J. S. Soft Power. The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs, 2004. 192p.;
- Melissen J. Wielding soft power: The New Public Diplomacy / The Hague. Netherlands Institute of International Relations. 2005. 84p.;
- Lanshina T. A. "Soft power" Germany: culture, education, science // Bulletin of international organizations: education, science, new economy. 2014. No. 2;
- Lebedeva M. M. the "Soft power": the concept and approaches // Vestnik MGIMO. 2017. No. 3 (54);
- Zhong C., Kichigina I. M. "Belt and road" in the context of the dialogue of civilizations // the Russian-Chinese research. 2018. No. 1-2;
Nye J. S. Soft Power. The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs, 2004. 192p
Lebedeva M. M. "Soft power": the concept and approaches // Vestnik MGIMO. 2017. No. 3 (54).
Zhong C., Kichigina I. M. "Belt and road" in the context of the dialogue of civilizations // the Russian-Chinese research. 2018. No. 1-2.
T. A. Lenshina "Soft power" Germany: culture, education, science // Bulletin of international organizations: education, science, new economy. 2014. No. 2.
 J. Melissen Wielding soft power: The New Public Diplomacy / The Hague. Netherlands Institute of International Relations. 2005. 84p.
Tags: soft power
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