In the past, any people will be found such events and dates, remember that you do not want. In Russia, for example, never liked to write about our defeats in the Russo-Japanese war 1904 – 1905 years. Especially many such unloved pages in Lithuania's history.
The generosity of Stalin, or as Vilnius again became Lithuanian
In March 1938, Adolf Hitler, meeting no opposition from the so-called "Western democracies", carried out the Anschluss of Austria. Feeling the impunity and entering into the taste, the führer immediately set his sights on adherence to Germany the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia — the state is not threatening anyone.
29 – 30 September 1938 took place the infamous Munich conference, which became the prologue of the Second world war. Having achieved the consent of great Britain and France for the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia, Hitler began to develop success in other areas, including in Lithuania. And in the States of Baltic, says Estonian historian Magnus Ilmjarv, "you draw your own conclusions from the Munich agreement and emerging in Europe situation: guarantees issued by England and France to the border States, no longer matter. On resolution of the Czechoslovak crisis of power power of Germany and its military and economic potential has grown tremendously; the base in the form of Sudeten substantially straightened strategic position of the Third Reich; French aid to Poland has become even more questionable, and the influence of the Soviet Union on European policy significantly weakened. After Munich in the Baltic countries has further strengthened its position those circles that are seen in Germany only anti-Soviet and anti-Bolshevik force in Europe".
On August 23, 1939 the USSR and Germany signed non-aggression Pact. Apparently, Berlin did not hide from Pro-German-minded diplomats of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania the essence of their agreement with the Kremlin on the three Baltic States. This idea is suggested by the message of the Latvian envoy Edgars Krievins in Berlin, which he sent to the Minister of foreign Affairs of Latvia Wilhelms the Munters are already on August 26. It said that Germany and USSR "agreed to respect the Baltic States and will try to balance their interests as follows:
- While Germany and Russia will not bring these countries territorial claims;
- Russia recognizes the right of Germany to consider the Baltic States as an economic base;
- Germany Russia reserves the right to protect its vital interests in the Baltic ports;
- No plans to limit the sovereignty of the Baltic States".
As the events of 1939 to limit the sovereignty of the Baltic States of the USSR at that time wasn't going. And nothing surprising here: in 1930-e years the Soviet leadership has consistently argued for the neutrality of the Baltic countries, which would be guaranteed by the leading States of Europe. The trouble is that not all "civilized Europeans" shared the position of the Soviet leadership.
Moreover, during the Soviet-Lithuanian talks in Moscow, Stalin made Lithuania a truly Royal gift: October 10, was signed the Soviet-Lithuanian Treaty of mutual assistance. Then the USSR gave Lithuania Vilnius and the Vilnius region, which was declared the capital of Lithuania. It is worth noting that this decision was not liked by the leadership of the Soviet Belarus, which also had views of Vilnius. Given the fact that among the population of the then Vilnius Lithuanians were not enough, the claim of the Belarusians cannot be called groundless. However, the "leader of the people" made a choice not in their favor.
However, ungrateful Lithuanian politicians never mention that none other than heart-rending curse them Stalin twice in 1939 and after the Second world war — was returned to Lithuania its capital! The Lithuanians themselves to make this would never have been able.
Perversely interpret the page of history of Lithuania and its nationalist historians. They emphasize that the Vilnius region was returned to Lithuania "after years of diplomatic struggle in the international arena". So writes A. Kasparavicius, emphasizing that "due to this contract Lithuanian society experienced mixed feelings. On the one hand, after years of diplomatic struggle in the international arena, Lithuania again reunited into a single entity with its historical capital Vilnius. But on the other hand, the joy of the return of capital was clearly overshadowed by the creation of the territory of the countries of the Soviet military bases...".
Kasparavicius exaggerated. No problems and troubles to the population of the Lithuanian Soviet soldiers did not deliver. On the contrary, sympathetic and selfless fighters of the red Army every time came to the aid of the locals, when they had any domestic problems. We must not forget that unlike politicians, a significant portion of Lithuania's population were sympathetic to the Soviet Union, not Nazi Germany. But the official Vilnius pretends that never happened. And there was!
Anti-Polish policy Smetona
Ritual howls Lithuanian propagandists on the topic of Stalin's repressions in Lithuania (talking about them below) are not only to once again pour information slop Stalin, the USSR and Putin's Russia. Screams about Soviet repression serve to distract attention from the repression against the poles, held by Lithuanian authorities from November 1939 to June 1940. Note that at first were Simeonovska repression, and then Stalin!
The relations of Lithuanians and poles, once part of the Commonwealth, were never friendly. The poles have always belonged to the Lithuanians down, considering those people "second class". In this respect, nothing has changed in our days — Polish Polish snobbery and rudeness are not treated. A proof of this and deceitful articles in the Polish press, and autumn the pogrom in Warsaw, and a huge banner saying "Lithuanian CAD, kneel before the Polish pan". It was posted by the Polish fans before a football match in the European Cup involving teams from the two States of the EU. This is the "tolerance" in Polish.
In 1939, when, thanks to Stalin, the Lithuanians were able to return to the Vilnius region, they met there with the poles, who considered themselves more civilized nation than the Lithuanians. About it directly writes the Lithuanian historian Ceslovas Laurinavicius. He also touched on the topic of lithuanization of Vilnius region in 1939 – 1940:
"Latinitate Vilnius region was spread primarily by means of police, in particular, was sure that on the streets of Vilnius people didn't speak Polish. Those who did not own Lithuanian language, has quit her job. The cruelty of the Board manifested itself in the expulsion from the province not only of the war refugees, but also the so-called "newcomers", i.e. those who according to Lithuanian understanding was not a native. By the way, from the province were sent not only to other areas of Lithuania, but also in Germany and the USSR, in agreement with the latter... as a result, in practice, citizenship has lost not only war refugees but many of those who lived in the region during the Polish reign."
However, these were still "florets". "Berries" appeared after between the state security Department of the Ministry of interior of Lithuania and the Gestapo, had concluded a secret agreement. After security forces Lithuania began to pass into the hands of the German secret services of the Polish underground and suspicious of the poles, the Lithuanians, for various reasons, wanted to get rid of. What awaited them in Nazi Germany, to guess is a snap.
The details of cooperation of special services of Lithuania and Germany can be found in the book Alexander Dyukov "the Protectorate "Lithuania". Secret collaboration with the Nazis and unrealized scenario of loss of Lithuanian independence". It published materials of investigation of the case Augustines of Povilaitis, which in 1935 - 1940, he headed the state security Department of the Ministry of interior of Lithuania and engaged in counter-intelligence and the fight against opponents of the regime Smetona. In June 1940, Povilaitis tried to escape to Germany but was arrested. The materials of his investigation of the case let you know about the informal survey President Smetona sent through to Berlin povilaitis of the possibility of establishing a German protectorate over Lithuania.
Only by coincidence and quick reactions of the Kremlin, this scenario was averted. In the spring of 1940, on the eve of the German attack on France, Berlin was not to Lithuania. However, and then the Nazis made clear to the Lithuanian colleagues that in the autumn of this project can be revisited. But the Kremlin, alarmed by the rapid defeat of France in may ‑ June 1940, and received from his agent Petras Vitulskis information about secret contacts with leadership of the Lithuanian secret services of the Third Reich, was forced to svetservice Baltic States. Otherwise very soon they would be under the heel of the Third Reich, becoming a springboard for attack on the USSR.
About this page of history in Lithuania are silent. The study documents it's more propaganda lies about the alleged 23 August 1939, Hitler gave the Baltic States to the mercy of Stalin. However, Western and Pro-Western propagandists for many years can not clearly answer the logical question, why, then with the Sovietization of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, Stalin pulled almost a year?
Front Lithuanian activists and Soviet repression
The accession of Lithuania to the USSR in June 1940 and the beginning of Sovietization has caused controversial reaction of the local population. Were and joy, and hatred, and indifference. Against this background, Stalin continued to swear at Lithuania's generous gifts. The Lithuanian SSR was transferred not only the Klaipeda (Memel) Klaipeda and the region, but the resort known as druskeniki (Druskininkai), Sventsiany and railway station Vodotisky (Adutiskis) with surrounding villages, which were at first incorporated into the Byelorussian SSR and where only a quarter of the population were Lithuanians.
In November 1940, a former Lithuanian Ambassador to Germany Kazys Colonel Skirpa created in Berlin in Front of the Lithuanian activists. Its social base became anti-Soviet and Pro-German-minded group of Lithuanians. Front immediately declared their claims to be the "sole spokesman and by" aspirations of the Lithuanian people. The opportunity to get an idea about the ideology and activities of this organization provides the collection "on the Eve of the Holocaust: Front Lithuanian activists and Soviet repression in Lithuania, 1940-1941", prepared and published by the Fund "Historical memory".
Key ideas of the Front of Lithuanian activists became Lithuanian nationalism, anti-Sovietism, Russophobia and militant anti-Semitism. The Jews they called the creatures, "for which Lithuania was only a cash cow". In the Instructions "Guidelines for the liberation of Lithuania" of 24 March 1941 said: "the Goal is to force all Jews to flee Lithuania together with the red Russians." This and other documents focused Lithuanian nationalists in Nazi Germany. In 1940 – 1941 years they actively collaborated with the German intelligence services and were preparing an armed uprising, which was scheduled to begin immediately after the German attack on the USSR. And although the leadership of the Front is unlikely to have information about the exact date of the German invasion in the USSR, it was aware of the fact that the wait for war was not long.
With Nazi Germany the nationalists pinned their hopes on the restoration of Lithuania's independence. Claiming that their activities leave "a little romantic and no — illusions", the Lithuanian nationalists stubbornly refuse to see that in the plans of the Third Reich the giving of any form of statehood of the Baltic peoples were not included, and in the scale of Hitler's racial ideologues Lithuanians were even lower than Estonians and Latvians. In the summer of 1941 they were able to see just how divorced from reality their calculations and how delusional is the contention that "Hitler will come to Lithuania and bring her a happy future" and "Freedom and prosperity can give us only HITLERISM".
The documents of the collection provide much food for reflection on the causes, extent and dynamics of repressive activity of the KGB in Lithuania. For example, the results of operational work of the NKGB of the Lithuanian SSR as of 19 may 1941 statement of what the operational records of "chiefs of district departments and their deputies and chiefs of departments of the center are irresponsible. To date, records not taken the leadership of the most important base of the insurgency — saulesti, woldemarim, gained a foothold, the police, ex. employees of the criminal police, jailers, ex. employees of the secret police, ex. officers, etc.". Because that was the situation ten months after the accession of Lithuania to the USSR and just a month before the beginning of the great Patriotic war, there are serious doubts about the validity of the imposed propaganda official Vilnius views about the original presence of the Soviet authorities ' plans for mass repression.
An interesting illustration of the breadth of the range of methods of struggle with "attacks" against the Soviet power contained in the memo of Commissar of state security of the LSSR Peter Gladkov, Deputy Commissar of the NKVD of the USSR Viktor Abakumov on 12 may 1941. It States that from July 1940 to may 5, 1941, "the public security authorities arrested the Republic of hostile counter-revolutionary elements — 4137 man".
It is also noteworthy decision for six high school students (15 ‑ 18 years) Sadovskoy Junior high school LSSR, producing and distributing anti-Soviet leaflets. They were all released "as a minor under the responsibility of their parents, who alerted us that in the case of a second detention of their children, they along with them will incur criminal liability."
According to NKGB of the USSR for the period from 14 to 17 June 1941, that is, a few days before the invasion of Nazi Germany and its satellites on the territory of the Soviet Union, Lithuania was arrested 5664 person and expelled from the Republic of 10187 people. In total, according to the memo NKGB of the USSR No. 2288/M in the Central Committee of the CPSU(b), the Council of people's Commissars of the USSR and NKVD of the USSR of 17 June 1941 in the three Baltic republics, from 14 to 17 June 14467 arrested and deported 25711. Thus, it was repressed 40178 people. And this is including 670 2162 prostitutes and criminals.
Extremely important is the fact that most "victims" were the activists of nationalist organizations, who worked for Nazi Germany. As an example, the texts of the reports, which are regularly sent to Germany its agent in Lithuania, Jasaitis (under this nickname hides Pranas Drukteinis):
"Report No. 7. April 2, 1941 15 an hour.
On 25 and 26 March from Vilnius headed train towards Waren with 25 aircraft and 40 medium-sized vehicles".
"Report No. 15. April 4, 1941 15 an hour. 10 min.
On 31 March, the radio station of Kaunas received top secret 10 transmitters for jamming radio broadcasts. They are designed to jam German radio station in the event of war".
"Report No. 17. On 7 April 1941 15 an hour. 10 min.
April 4 at the airport Catanei was 88 bombers, 14 fighters and 3 tanks of 150 thousand liters of gasoline".
"Report No. 24. 1 may 1941 13 hours.
Near the airport in Vilnius built a plant for Assembly of aircraft".
That had to do with Soviet intelligence agencies, such perehvatyvaet message to Berlin on the eve of war with Germany? Maybe to promote "fifth column" to high positions in the government and the media? But under Stalin to do so was not accepted...
German intelligence before the war was very interested in the location of Soviet airfields and the state of our aviation. Reports agent Vasilisa and his colleagues show that not only the failures of the Soviet command became the reason of big losses of our aviation in the beginning of the war. The success of the enemy and contributed to Lithuanian "fighters for independence".
So before you shed crocodile tears for these "victims of Stalinist repression", it is worth remembering about their espionage in favor of Germany, as well as ask what worked escaped the arrest of their associates from the very first days of the great Patriotic war. However, this is a subject for another conversation.
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