Center for Strategic Assessment and forecasts

Autonomous non-profit organization

Home / Defence and security / / Articles
Features of moral-psychological training in the Korean people's Army
Material posted: Publication date: 01-11-2016
As you know, moral-psychological training of personnel of the armed forces is focused on the formation of certain behavior. The section focuses on behavioral and ethical aspects.

The concept of psychological preparation includes the formation of the personnel of psychological resilience, i.e. the psychological qualities that allow you to perform combat missions in difficult conditions involving risks to life and the element of surprise.

In the use of the concept of "psychological training" refers to the direct formation of psychological resistance to stress of the combat situation. The notion "moral-psychological training" involves behavioural, moral and ethical aspects. The concept of "moral-political and psychological preparation" means the full impact on the ideological, behavioral and directly psychological components, i.e. the legitimate use of all these concepts, as they represent different aspects of the work with personnel.

For the implementation of the objectives and military doctrine, in addition to economic and political conditions, the necessary conditions guaranteeing the fulfillment of the tasks of political leadership in military and political fields with maximum efficiency. With this purpose in the armed forces of several countries established and functioning system of political indoctrination and moral-psychological training of personnel.

Purposes of political indoctrination and MPP are:

  1. The development of the personnel of the unconditional support of the military-political policy of the current leadership;
  2. The formation of the personnel of unquestioning obedience to the military-political leadership of the country.

These goals and objectives of the political indoctrination and moral-psychological training is actively carried out and implemented in the armed forces of North Korea.

At present, relations between North and South Korea are experiencing the worst times since their official division. The situation on the Peninsula is tense to the maximum status since the end of active hostilities on the Peninsula, so the problem of preservation of DPRK statehood and status quo on the Peninsula has become more relevant than ever.

It should be noted that the DPRK is fighting for survival on the world stage from the very beginning of its existence, and the country leaders, understanding the complexity of the situation, trying to keep the power in their hands as it is considered it as the only way of preserving the statehood. The North Korean leadership uses political and ideological propaganda, as one of the most effective ways of influence on public consciousness.

One of the most important factors for the existence and survival of the DPRK is the army (annual cost of maintaining the army of the DPRK constitute more than 50% of the state budget), and because the government of the DPRK attaches special attention to the moral-psychological training of military personnel. Military service is compulsory in the country and the universal, and the service life is 15 years.

The personnel of the Korean people's army has about 1 200 000 people while the total population in 22 665 345. That is, in the army of the DPRK involved 5 % of the total population of the country (in the United States serve in the army only 0.4% of the total population).

Mobilization reserve is 4 700 000 million people. Respectively 21 % of the population was subjected to moral and psychological obroda in the army. So the moral-psychological training in the Korean people's Army (kPa), not only affects the morale of soldiers and officers, but to the moral character of the North Korean people as a whole.

It should also be noted that the strategic policy priority of the army was legally backed by the Constitution of the DPRK [1]

Factors influencing the moral and political status of servicemen of the Korean people's Army.

"Theory Of The Leader." In the process of moral-psychological training, a special role is played by such a powerful ideological theory of Juche, Songun and Panjin. That is revealing these important ideological theory, the DPRK can understand what is being built on the moral and psychological training of servicemen in North Korea.

It is possible to note a number of features of North Korean propaganda and moral-psychological training kPa (KOR. 조선인민군 — Josoninmingun). And the main feature on which to build the whole moral and psychological training of servicemen of the DPRK in the current realities of the so-called "Theory of the leader."

According to the theory, a leader can only be one who is completely stressed myself in front of people, absorbed their aspirations, replaced the "I" to "I" society, and there is just this new "I". Leader able to lead not because he is not affected by the opinions and desires of people. He is able to lead because it is not primitive to those views and desires of our own selfishness and because he is free in his actions. The leader unites community, or the people against the outsiders. The leader is able to build a system of direct control that will effectively control people, and to help him lead the country. In his efforts, the leader must be guided solely by the wishes of his people, and the people have to believe and help the leader in his aspirations in the most difficult situations. The people agree to recognize as a leader only someone who actually lives not for himself.

According to this theory People exist and can only develop in the name of the Leader and thanks to him: "as part of the subject of the revolution, the Leader is the Supreme brain, the centre of unity and cohesion, party – political organization that embodies the ideas of the leader in life. In 1997, North Korea even refused Christian calendar and began counting of its history from the birthday of the great Leader, in 1912. Apart from the ideas of the leader of the party is unthinkable as the leading organization." The leader is not just a Central figure of authority and a sacred figure. "The fate of the Leader – this is the fate of the nation, of the revolution."

The ideological core – the "Juche" 주체. The next tool of moral and psychological training is the state ideology of "Juche". The name of the state ideology of North Korea defies adequate translation into Russian or other European languages. Naturally, Korean-Russian dictionary is the translation of the word Juche as "identity, the main part". But if you say that the essence of the Juche idea is the concept of identity and autonomy, it means to say almost nothing.
To grasp the meaning of this term, you should address the meaning of the syllables that make it up. The fact is that in Korean language there are two large groups of words and native Korean words borrowed from the "kreisiraadio" ancient Chinese written language (hanmun) widely used in Korea until the late nineteenth century. In these borrowed words, each of the syllables you can write a hieroglyph with its own significance. The word Juche as times belongs to the category of such harmonic words. "Chu" means "owner", and "Chae" "body, essence, substance, nature." That is, the Juche idea means not just "independence", and a situation where man is master of himself, and all of the world. Indeed, the fundamental philosophical principle of the Juche idea, formulated by President Kim Il Sung and disclosed in detail in the classic work of Kim Jong Il "On the Juche idea" (1982) says: "man is the master of everything and decides everything".

In other words, the Juche idea is put in the center of the universe, at the center of human society. For North Korea the use of such very profound principles of the Juche idea as the basis for policy autonomy and independence was indeed a wise decision, as justified not only the policy itself, but the possibility of its implementation.

In conditions of limited technical and technological capacities, the theory of Juche was to convince the citizens of the DPRK that the person is stronger than cars and can squeeze out of them the performance that they originally pledge. However, the definition of man as the center of the universe does not mean that the Juche idea is supported individualism. On the contrary, a person, according to Juche, can manifest itself only through the group headed by a talented leader.

The process of the formation of the North Korean Juche idea took quite a long time. North Korea's official historiography claims that Kim Il sung created the Juche idea in his youth, when he was in China, where he organized the struggle against the Japanese colonialists for the independence of Korea. The final formation of the Juche as an ideology and philosophical systems should be attributed to the 1980 – 1990 years. In the 1980-ies began to emerge in the light of various articles of Kim Jong Il on the Juche idea, put forward earlier sistematizirovany Juche postulates and give the Juche idea in the form of slender theory.

In itself the Juche idea originated from the theory received its spread in the 18th century, during the Joseon period, and such religious movements as tohak and Chondoist, the doctrine of the heavenly way.

For military personnel, first and foremost, the important main idea of the theory of Juche"Man is the master of everything and decides everything." The Juche idea established in the Constitution of the DPRK and it is the Foundation of the state and the army, and the basis of legitimacy of power.

Consequently, 21% of the population of the DPRK held a moral-psychological training in the army.

"Asabiya". Another important part of moral-psychological training of the army of the DPRK is asabiya. Arabia (asabiyya or asabiyah, Arab.:عصبية) is an Arabic word, originally meaning "spirit of kinship" ,or the collective consciousness and sense of common purpose, combined with extreme nationalism.

The cult of personality of the leader became an important factor "asabee" the North Korean leadership members of the leadership of the state understands that disobeying the leader – thus leaving the total number, they are doomed to destruction. Among other things, the political class of the DPRK-related. Such solidarity of the political elites among themselves and around the leader – the Foundation of statehood of North Korea.

Informational isolation. In the economic and political realities of the DPRK, the most important factor in the success of moral-psychological training is an information isolation. "People can be sure that he was fine until then, until you know that you can live better." In the DPRK, the method of information control designed to provide direct prohibitions aimed at isolating the companies from foreign, hostile sources. Therefore, in a country completely absent of opposition media, which could become a counterweight to the media, obeying orders from "above" and put your audience in more objective information. Besides, on the territory of the DPRK it is almost impossible to obtain independent information, and any conversation a North Korean soldier with a foreigner – is cause for investigation, which almost always ends the same way.

A very dense stream of propaganda information. In the DPRK, particularly in the kPa, the flow of the propaganda information is so dense that the left thought just not occur. All the military songs and marches dedicated to the great leaders or the urge to fight the main "enemy" of the nation. It is mandatory to wear a military uniform badges with images of leaders, as well as the placement of their portraits on the walls in barracks, housing units, classrooms, canteens, etc.

Paramount parades demonstrating the combat power of the kPa, rallies and polzovaniya organized in companies, battalions and sometimes regiments of scale. At these meetings, the commanders, units and their deputies in the cultural and educational work.

The anti-Americanism. Every soldier of the Korean people's Army (kPa) is immersed in an atmosphere full of hatred to the main the sworn enemy of "American imperialism". Even the army newspaper, the Central slogan: "Destroy the sworn enemy of the Korean people – American imperialism." Most of these anti-American slogans are placed by the government on the walls in barracks, classrooms and grounds.

"Penjin" –병진. If the term Juche (reliance on own strength) or the Songun (priority to the army) against a known mass audience, the innovation associated with the young leader of North Korea, has not yet received wide distribution. "Pengin" is translated into Russian as "parallel development". The reliance on military personnel in General, and moral-psychological training in the army due to a number of reasons:

  • The North Korean military, especially the officer corps, are the elite. Despite the lack of material resources, their significant part is directed to the needs of the army, focused on critical areas. Perhaps because of this, the DPRK continued to maintain a fairly high level of military industry, military education and science, and representatives of the army personnel were aware of the situation in the world and therefore better understand the urgent need is urgent to bring the country out of the crisis.
  • The North Korean army has long been engaged in economic activities. In the deteriorating economic situation, the army increasingly used for plugging holes in industry, construction and agriculture. All this did not contribute to enhancing the combat readiness of the kPa, but it also means that its members have experience in "civil" management activities and because they have less chance to be incompetent on new posts than war, abandoned on the economy without such training.
  • In contrast to the "infected with doublethink and materialism" civil party elite, the army was able if not to completely avoid all of these vices, then, in any case, was affected to a much lesser extent. The military, especially in parts less burdened by personal property, they increasingly live, in North Korean terminology, a public, not private life. Moral incentives for them to still play a more important role compared to the "de-revolutionary" bureaucracy. It seemed very important, as the collapse of the Soviet Union, according to North Korean press, was not the cause of economic backwardness, but because of the beginning of the expansion of bourgeois ideology.
  • To build a structure simpler than civil. The military methods are characterized by a clear system of subordination with a smaller intermediate in the decision-making process. In she is no simultaneous submission to multiple single-level instances, often issuing conflicting orders, a strict system of personal responsibility, there is the concreteness of tasks and the absoluteness of the execution of a superior order.

Mechanism of relations of the "new Koreans" with the authorities like the interaction of military and financial-industrial groups in the South, under Park Jung-Hee, although the fact that in the South took place in the framework of cooperation of business and state, in the North takes place in the framework of cooperation of business and individual government agencies. The government provides the "capitalist" preferential treatment, and the response executes the strategic guidance of the organization and shares the profits.

Thus, formally and informally, the new course of the young leader of the DPRK can be determined by three variants of "parallel":

  • the parallel development of military and civilian/political branches of government;
  • the parallel development of military and civilian branches of the economy – ensuring
  • sovereignty at the expense of the nuclear shield;
  • the parallel development of formal and informal economy.

The system of moral-psychological treatment of soldiers of the Korean people's Army.

High morale and patriotism achieved by political work in the army. At its core was an explanation to staff of a just war aims, instilling in the soldiers and commanders of hatred and contempt for the enemy, communications of ideological work with specific combat tasks of the troops, the strengths and weaknesses of the enemy, exposing his propaganda, the education of hatred of the enemy.

The importance of the GPU creates the frames of cultural-educational workers company level, selection and placement of agitators departments, the organization of apparatus for carrying out political work among enemy troops and prisoners of war.

Widely deployed mass agitation work. At present, the most common forms of this are rallies, military-political information and conversation, as well as tools such as print, radio, billboards, performances of cultural and educational teams.

"Songun" 송군. Primary military theory in moral-psychological training of the PRC is the theory of "Songun". The word "Songun" consists of syllables with a single value. "Sleep" means "previous, prior, first," and "Gong" "army". So sometimes the concept of Songun translated into Russian language by the phrase "the priority of the army" or "policy priority of the army." The years 1995-98 were the DPRK to time, the "hard hike" when natural disasters and famine was accompanied by a formal anarchy, because Kim Jong Il observed the mourning period for his father. An extraordinary situation required extraordinary measures, which have resulted in a policy of "the priority of the army." "The line of the Songun revolution is a great revolutionary line of our era, the all-conquering banner of our revolution" said Kim Jong-Il and officially transcribed songuntil "method of revolutionary leadership and management of socialist policies, which purport to consider the military the most important state affair and allow by relying on the inherent people's Army revolutionary quality and its combat readiness to defend the Homeland, the revolution, socialism and increase the pace of building socialism in General."

The main provisions of the "Songun idea":

  1. The idea of the weapon as the basis of the ideas of Songun. The basis of the General provisions Songun is the theory of the special role of the gun. The gun, according to the Songun idea is a weapon class, the weapon of revolution, the weapons of justice – the spirit of the revolution. It is the power of the gun, the power of the people is a necessary condition for prosperity. If KDNR recognize how strong militarily the state, then success on all other fronts is ensured. Consequently, according to the ideas of Songun is "service is life". And the fall of socialism in the USSR, and the defeat of the Chilean revolution of 1970-VX years the theory of Songun is explained by the weakening of the armed forces in these regions. Thus, "the basis of the revolutionary struggle lies the gun."
  2. The problem of the relationship to guns and handling. It is important not just to "have" weapons, but to be able to handle it properly. Kim Jong Il said: "I appreciate and love guns". However, in this case, the love of guns means "love for the Motherland and the masses, hatred of the enemy." Practical manifestations of love for the country, according to the ideas of Songun, is mainly in opposition to imperialism.
  • The theory of force of arms. Because the weapons of the DPRK are significantly inferior in quality to the weapons of the enemy, the fighting capacity of the army of the country to the greatest degree depends on the level of psychological training of servicemen, their psychological resilience. We can say that the Songun politics for a long time was even a kind of substitute religion, and the soldiers she "spiritually armed revolutionary ideas of the leader." One of the advantages of this kind of psychological preparation on behalf of the government of the DPRK is the fact that, in their opinion, "the ideology is not restricted, and its power is greater than the force of the atomic bomb". And ideological weakness relate to the "rust" weapon, therefore, is a weakening of the armed forces, and eventually weakening the entire state system. And the main reason "rust" - a weakness in the capitalist evils such as the fascination with alcohol, women, money, gambling.
  1. Securing strongholds weapons through the act of succession. The need to transfer "weapons" inherited (the preservation of traditions in the army) - one of the conditions of ensuring the strength of your arms.
  2. The theory of the revolutionary army. "The army can not be without weapons, but the weapons the army used on the basis of the will of man," States the ideology of Songun. The assertion of the primacy of the human factor in aircraft logically leads to the idea that she could be one of the strongest and most efficient thanks to a special education unit.
  3. "The army in the first place in politics";

The natives of the armed forces of the DPRK take a leading place in the system of political power and governance.

  • "The army in the first place in economic construction";

Armed forces occupy

  • The army is in first place in the ideology" that serves as a guiding ideology.

Thus, in conclusion it should be stressed that the combat readiness of the armed forces KDNR depends on psychological preparation of military personnel of the process of moral and psychological training is constructed in such a way that the leader and his theories seem to servicemen as a kind of religion or its close substitute. In the Korean people's Army fighters "are arming spiritually revolutionary ideas of the leader."

Modern confrontation with the United States an ideological dimension, according to the ideas of Songun, plays a lesser role than the actual military. The military power of the weapon is limited to performance characteristics, while "ideology is not limited and her power is greater than the force of the atomic bomb". To undermine the state system from the outside and from the inside is virtually impossible. Despite the bad economic situation in the country, combat and morale higher than the military of most developed and wealthy countries. The DPRK continues to play an important role in the Asia-Pacific region

Endurance of a fighter in the army's non-violent methods. Political work is constructed in such a way that the soldier perceived the commands and orders of the leader. This perception is based on the military chief and the opposite of the leader towards the military. The leader, according to the ideas of Songun, treats his subordinates with a father's love. For 2015 took place about 71 episodes personal visit Kim Caninum military units and political-ideologicheskih events, such as the hoisting of the battle flag of the air force of the kPa on the "sacred" mount baekdu.

The list of sources

  1. Ganiev T. A., Shur, V. G., Onishchuk S. M. Special studies. The factor analysis. The electronic textbook. M. WU, 2016.
  2. Burmistrov A. A. Special studies. The Korean Peninsula. Electronic textbook. M. WU, 2016.
  3. Balkan, A. the Lives of remarkable people. Kim Il Sung.-.M.: Molodaya Gvardiya ,2011.
  4. Lankov,A. N.: With a new leader! How policy will change North Korea after death of Kim Jong Il
  5. Panina I. Yu Policy priority of the military (Songun) Korea: the origins, essence and forms of manifestation. Theory and philosophy of politics, history and methodology of political science .
  6. Kim Il Sung. On Juche in our revolution. Vol. 1. Pyongyang, 1974; Vol. 2. Pyongyang, 1975; Vol. 3. Pyongyang, 1982.
  7. Kim Jong-Il. On the Juche idea. Pyongyang, 1982.
  8. Bazhanov N. E. foreign economic relations of the DPRK. In search of a way out of the impasse. M., 1993.
  9. Denisov V. I. the Korean problem: ways of settlement.
  10. Jebin A. 3. The evolution of the political system of the DPRK in the conditions of global change
  11. Thrust G. D. Formation of the ideology of the national liberation movement in Korea.
  12. The Democratic People's Republic. Responsible editor: M. E. Trigubenko. M., 1985.
  13. Y. Kim Il Sung. Report of the workers ' party of Korea to the sixth Congress of the party. Pyongyang. 1980.
  14. Gleysteen W. N. Jr. Маssive Еntanglement, Маrginal Influence. Саrter, and Korea in Crisis. Washington, 1999.
  15. Parry, Richard Lloyd (June 24, 1998). "Captured sub shames North Korea". The Independent. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
  16. Bermudez, Joseph S. (2001). Shield of the Great Leader. The Armed Forces of North Korea. The Armed Forces of Asia. Sydney: Allen &Unwin.
  17. Homer T. Hodge, North Korea's Military Strategy, Parameters, Spring 2003.

Gulyaev Pavel


RELATED MATERIALS: Defence and security
Возрастное ограничение