— What the substance is — A-234?
Is a new generation of toxic substances, which appeared after the traditional — sarin, soman, etc., the Compound known under the designation A-234. The name "Rookie" appeared after Soviet scientist Vil Mirzayanov immigrated to the United States in 1994.
This substance belongs to the class of forpostov with different substituents. This direction is explored in many countries. In Russia, all academic programs A-234 was discontinued. No reserves were not created. We could not declare something that does not exist.
— Appears A-234 in the documents of the Organization for the prohibition of chemical weapons?
— There is none. In the Convention, the OPCW made organic substances which were known at the time of signing and had different countries.
There have been attempts to raise the question of the inclusion compounds mentioned by Maszynowym, in the lists of the Convention. However, this initiative has caused objections of a majority of the members of the scientific Advisory expert Council of the OPCW. The motivation was simple. Mirzayanov has assumed liability — published formula. But in the scientific literature, no publications about A-234, and the book Mirzayanov is not scientific.
It was agreed to take this information into consideration and to monitor the developments around these substances. Scientific publications began to appear in recent years, but they are very fragmentary.
— While the British were able to determine that you are dealing with A-234 from Russia?
To say that A-234 can only be from Russia, is absolutely incorrect. This compound, knowing the formula, can be synthesized in any good lab from commercial intermediates.
Mirzayanov when I left in 1994 in the United States, knew these formulas. Whom he gave them, we don't know. But the fact that the transfer is not in doubt. Otherwise, why he would need the Americans?
A-234 appeared in the American database of the National Institute of standards and technology (NIST) in 1998, i.e. long before the publication of the book Mirzayanau. This database provides the spectral characteristics of all the newly synthesized organic compounds regardless of their purpose. Specifies the data contributor, which is represented by Edgewood center for research and development of the U.S. army.
Our database NIST was given its mass spectrum. Provide it without the physical presence of matter is impossible. If in 1998 this connection was entered into the database, it means that it was synthesized in the United States.
It is noteworthy that subsequently, A-234 disappeared from the database NIST. Already in 2000, it wasn't there. But his description and specifications can be found in the electronic Handbook ChemSpider.
— What other countries are capable of such substances to produce?
— Give a simple example. The OPCW has a network of accredited laboratories — about 20. They are in developed countries, very strong in the UK. In this list there is and the American lab. Any of them are able to synthesize this substance. Intermediates available. Techniques clear.
Moreover, in the presence of structural formulae (and it was published Mirzayanov) any laboratory with the necessary level of protection and experience can engage in the synthesis and study of such substances. In the development of pharmaceutical products often turn out toxic compounds. So the fact research can not serve as a basis for charges.
— Is it possible by analyzing the components to determine the country of origin?
— The study of substances does not allow to establish to what lab it was synthesized. All connections of this type are synthesized from intermediates in the commercial access.
— What are the physical properties of A-234?
— Judging by information posted to ChemSpider, A-234 resembles a buttery dense ointment. The melting temperature of 109 degrees. And it's even boiling water will not melt. The boiling point of 258 degrees.
— How to store them?
Connection is quite stable under all conditions. Due to the physico-chemical properties, it does not evaporate and is safe to handle, until you get to the skin, in the digestive tract or the respiratory system. So for protection, it is sufficient to wear gloves. You can put it in a Cup and walk around the office and nobody poisoned.
For terrorist acts, you can apply it through the skin. Another option is to add in food. It is important that it is in the blood.
On the physical properties of A-234 is more suitable for terrorists than for the military. It is difficult to transform into gas or aerosol to cover a large area, but easily can be transported across the border, for example, in a tube of toothpaste.
The terrorist group capable of producing such a connection?
In the kitchen him not to do this, but the normal synthetic lab can do it. To buy equipment, recruit chemists are now easy. So this stuff is available to many. It may even be in the hands of terrorists or organized criminal groups.
— Is it possible for symptoms of toxicity is safe to conclude that used A-234?
— The exact symptoms of poisoning And 234 are unknown to us. In Soviet times did not reach their study. All we know is that organophosphates inhibit the enzyme cholinesterase. It is possible that the miosis (constriction of the pupils), convulsions, salivation. At lethal doses, paralysis of respiration, cessation of cardiac activity.
However, the British did not provide descriptions of symptoms in the victims. The slides that showed Theresa may, taken out of a textbook on civil defense.
To lose consciousness and can be of organophosphorus nerve agents, and from incorrectly matched antidote, and fentanyl.
— Is there an antidote? Could the victims to inject the atropine, which is commonly used in cases of poisoning with nerve gas?
For substances of type A-234 antidote therapy is in principle ineffective. Moreover, any antidote could be hurt if he entered without the need. Maybe an overdose of atropine. Police also could not understand the situation and to introduce naloxone, which is used for an overdose of drugs. In England acquired a mass character of the poisoning fentanyl. This is a drug. He's stronger than heroin, and it can be obtained through the pharmacy network. Therefore, naloxone is included in the standard police kit.
By the way, the first three days after the incident, it was just about fontanile.
— Did you notice any more oddities in this story?
Police officer, who miraculously recovered after poisoning. It is unclear where and how he was poisoned, and most importantly — how could so quickly recover, if he, according to Mrs. Mae, went into a coma. Fast recovery is possible only in mild defeat. I repeat that treatment in case of poisoning And 234 are most likely extremely difficult.
Alexey Ramm, Nikolai Surkov
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